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Genetic studies on Turkish people

genetic studies on turkish people pictures, genetic studies on turkish people characteristics
In population genetics, research has been made to study the genetic origins of the modern Turkish peopleNot to be confused with Turkic peoples in Turkey These studies sought to determine whether the modern Turks have a stronger genetical affinity with the Turkic peoples of Central Asia from where the Seljuk Turks began migrating to Anatolia following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, which led to the establishment of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate in the late 11th century; or if they instead largely descended from the indigenous peoples of Anatolia who were culturally assimilated during the Seljuk and Ottoman periods, with assimilation policies such as the devshirme system and the jizya tax

The largest autosomal study on Turkish genetics on 16 individuals concluded the weight of East Asian presumably Central Asian migration legacy of the Turkish people is estimated at 217%[1] The authors conclude on the basis of previous studies that "South Asian contribution to Turkey's population was significantly higher than East/Central Asian contributions, suggesting that the genetic variation of medieval Central Asian populations may be more closely related to South Asian populations, or that there was continued low level migration from South Asia into Anatolia" They note that these weights are not direct estimates of the migration rates as the original donor populations are not known, and the exact kinship between current East Asians and the medieval Oghuz Turks is uncertain For instance, genetic pools of Central Asian Turkic peoples is particularly diverse and modern Oghuz Turkmens living in Central Asia are with higher West Eurasian genetic component than East Eurasian[2][3][4] Several studies have concluded that the genetic haplogroups indigenous to Western Asia have the largest share in the gene pool of the present-day Turkish population[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] An admixture analysis determined that the Anatolian Turks share most of their genetic ancestry with non-Turkic populations in the region and the 12th century is set as an admixture date[12] However, isolates with dominant Central Asian genetic makeup were found at an Afshar village near Ankara


  • 1 Central Asian and Uralic connection
  • 2 Haplogroup distributions in Turkish people
    • 21 Further research on Turkish Y-DNA groups
  • 3 Whole genome sequencing
  • 4 Whole genome dense genotyping
  • 5 Other studies
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References and notes

Central Asian and Uralic connection

Neighbour-joining tree of European, Turkic central Asian and Turkish Anatolian populations constructed from HVS I sequences[13]

The question to what extent a gene flow from Central Asia to Anatolia has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people, and what the role is in this of the 11th century settlement by Oghuz Turks, has been the subject of several studies A factor that makes it difficult to give reliable estimates, is the problem of distinguishing between the effects of different migratory episodes Thus, although the Turks settled in Anatolia peacefully or after war events with cultural significance, including the introduction of the Turkish language and Islam, the genetic significance from Central Asia might have been slight[6][14]

Some of the Turkic peoples originated from Central Asia and therefore are possibly related with Xiongnu[15] A majority 89% of the Xiongnu sequences can be classified as belonging to Asian haplogroups and nearly 11% belong to European haplogroups[15] This findings indicate that the contacts between European and Asian populations were anterior to the Xiongnu culture,[15] and it confirms results reported for two samples from an early 3rd century BC Scytho-Siberian population[16]

According to another archeological and genetic study in 2010, the DNA found in three skeletons in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Asia belonged to C3, D4 and including R1a The evidence of paternal R1a support the Kurgan expansion hypothesis for the Indo-European expansion from the Volga steppe region[17] As the R1a was found in Xiongnu people[17] and the present-day people of Central Asia[18] Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu provides an identification of dolichocephalic Mongoloid, ethnically distinct from neighboring populations in present-day Mongolia[19]

According to a different genetic research on 75 individuals from various parts of Turkey, Mergen et al revealed that the "genetic structure of the mtDNAs in the Turkish population bears similarities to Turkic Central Asian populations"[13]

Overall, modern Turks are most related to neighbouring West Asian populations A study looking into allele frequencies suggested that there was a lack of genetic relationship between modern Mongols and Turks, despite their linguistic and cultural relationship[20] In addition, another study looking into HLA genes allele distributions indicated that Anatolians did not significantly differ from other Mediterranean populations[14] Multiple studies suggested an elite dominance-driven linguistic replacement model to explain the adoption of Turkish language by Anatolian indigenous inhabitants[9][10]

Research has found that the ancestors of Turks such as Dingling and Tiele are from Haplogroup N-M231[21]

Haplogroup distributions in Turkish people

Y chromosome Haplogroup distribution of Turkish people[5]

According to Cinnioğlu et al 2004,[5] there are many Y-DNA haplogroups present in Turkey The majority of the haplogroups found in the people of Turkey are shared with their West Asian and Caucasian neighbours The most commonly found haplogroup in Turkey is J2 24%, which is widespread among the Mediterranean, Caucasian, and West Asian populations By contrast, Central Asian haplogroups are rarer N and Q – 57% but this figure may rise to 36% if K, R1a, R1b and L which infrequently occur in Central Asia, but are notable in many other Western Turkic groups are also included J2 is also frequently found in Central Asia, a notable high frequency of J2 304% is observed particularly in Uzbeks[22] Haplogroups that are common in Europe R1b and I – 20%, South Asia L, R2, H – 57% and Africa A, E3, E3a – 1% are also present

Some of the percentages identified were:[5]

  • J2=24% - J2 M172[5] Typical of Near Eastern, Southern European, Caucasian, South Asian and Central Asian populations[23]
  • R1b=159%[5] Widespread in western Eurasia, with distinct "West Asian", "North West European" and "Balkan" lineages
  • G=109%[5] – Typical of people from the Caucasus and to a lesser extent Europe, the Near East and Central Asia
  • E3b-M35=107%[5] E3b1-M78 and E3b3-M123 accounting for all E representatives in the sample, besides a single E3b2-M81 chromosome E-M78 occurs commonly along a line from the Horn of Africa, via Egypt to the Balkans[24] Haplogroup E-M123 is found in both Africa and Eurasia
  • J1=9%[5] – Typical among people from the Middle East, Caucasus eg Dagestan and North Africa; rates in Turkey range from 3% around Konya to 12% in Kurds
  • R1a=69%[5] – Common in Central Asian, South Asian, and Eastern European populations
  • I=53%[5] – Common in the Balkans; possibly representing a back-migration to Anatolia
  • K=45%[5] – Possibly untested subclades of South West Asian subclades like haplogroup L aka K1a or T aka K1b – see below for positive identifications Or possibly members of rare haplogroups K2a1, found only in South Asia, or P1 aka K2b2, found mostly in Central Asia Basal clades like K, K2 and K2b are now virtually restricted to Oceania and South-East Asia
  • L=42%[5] – Now typical of South Asian populations; also found at high levels in parts of Central Asia, the Middle East and the Caucasus
  • N=38%[5] – Predominant among Uralic language-speaking populations and in Siberia
  • T=25%[5] – Common in coastal areas from South Asia to Arabia and North East Africa
  • Q=19%[5] – Considered typical of Central Asian populations and Turkic-speaking peoples outside Turkey
  • C=13%[5] – Typical of East Asian and Central Asian populations
  • R2=096% [5] – Common in South Asian populations along with moderate frequencies among Central Asian and Caucasus pouplations

Others markers than occurs in less than 1% are H, A, E3a , O , R1

Further research on Turkish Y-DNA groups

Y-DNA differences between Turks and Greeks and Cypriotspng 2017 Heraclides

A recent Y-DNA study carried out by Heraclides and other scientists 2017 stated that Turks are a hybrid population comprising the Anatolian populations, Turkics and the other ethnicities from regions of the former Ottoman Empire[25] And the presence of Eastern Eurasian haplogroups in Turkey ranges from 3% Southern Anatolian Turks to 15% Central Anatolian Turks

A study in Turkey by Gökçümen 2008[26] took into account oral histories and historical records They went to four settlements in Central Anatolia and didn't do a random selection from a group of university students like in many other studies Accordingly, here are the results:

1 In an Afshar village near Ankara where, according to oral tradition, the ancestors of the inhabitants came from Central Asia, the researchers found that 57% of the villagers had haplogroup L, 13% had haplogroup Q, and 3% had haplogroup N It was considered that examples of haplogroup L most common in South Asia might be a result of Central Asian migration, even though the presence of haplogroup L in Central Asia itself was most likely a result of migration from South Asia Therefore Central Asian haplogroups were potentially possessed by 73% of males in this village Furthermore, 10% of these Afshars had haplogroups E3a and E3b, while only 13% had haplogroup J2a, the most common in Turkey

2 The inhabitants of an older Turkish village which didn't receive much migration had about 25% of haplogroup N and 25% of J2a, with 3% of G and close to 30% of R1 variants mostly R1b

Whole genome sequencing

Whole genome sequencing of Turkish individuals[1]

A study regarding Turkish genetics in 2014 has utilized the whole genome sequencing of Turkish individuals[1] Led by Can Alkan at the University of Washington in Seattle, the study has been published in the journal BMC Genomics The authors of the study show that the genetic variation of the contemporary Turkish population clusters with South European populations, as expected, but also shows signatures of relatively recent contribution from ancestral East Asian populations They estimate the weights for the migration events predicted to originate from the East Asian branch into current-day Turkey was at 217% see Figure 2 by Alkan et al[1]

"B A population tree based on “Treemix” analysis The populations included are as follows: Turkey TUR; Tuscans in Italy TSI; Iberian populations in Spain IBS; British from England and Scotland GBR; Finnish from Finland FIN; Utah residents with Northern and Western European ancestry CEU; Han Chinese in Beijing, China CHB; Japanese in Tokyo, Japan JPT; Han Chinese South CHS; Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria YRI; Luhya in Webuye, Kenya LWK Populations with high degree of admixture Native American and African American populations were not included to simplify the analysis The Yoruban population was used to root the tree In total four migration events were estimated The weights for the migration events predicted to originate from the East Asian branch into current-day Turkey was 0217, from the ancestral Eurasian branch into the Turkey-Tuscan clade was 0048, from the African branch into Iberia was 0026, from the Japanese branch into Finland was 0079"[1]

Whole genome dense genotyping

Another study published in PLOS Genetics journal in 2015 [27] addressed the genetic origin 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data This study showed that Turkic-speaking peoples sampled across the Middle East, Caucasus, East Europe, and Central Asia share varying proportions of Asian ancestry that originate in a single area, southern Siberia and Mongolia Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations from this area bear an unusually high number of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent with Turkic peoples from across west Eurasia This study also showed that genetic admixture signal in these populations indicates that admixture occurred during the 9th–17th centuries, in agreement with the historically recorded Turkic nomadic migrations and later Mongol expansion

Other studies

Genetic affinities among Southeastern European and Central Asian populations[28]

In 2001, Benedetto et al revealed that Central Asian genetic contribution to the current Anatolian mtDNA gene pool was estimated as roughly 30%, by comparing the populations of Mediterranean Europe, and Turkic-speaking people of Central Asia[29] However some similar early studies have a high probability of errors and biased estimates, which concluded even up to over 60% Central Asian origin of Y-DNA microsatellites[30] In 2003, Cinnioğlu et al made a research of Y-DNA including the samples from eight regions of Turkey, without classifying the ethnicity of the people, which indicated that high resolution SNP analysis totally provides evidence of a detectable weak signal <9% of gene flow from Central Asia, but this was an underestimate summarizing only haplogroups C, Q, O and N[5] It was later observed that the male contribution from Central Asia to Turkish population with reference to the Balkans was 13%, for all non-Turkic speaking populations the Central Asian contribution was higher than in Turkey[30] According to the study "the contributions ranging between 13%–58% must be considered with a caution because they harbor uncertainties about the state of pre-nomadic invasion and further local movements" A 2001 study concluded that the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia for Y-DNA is 12%, mtDNA 22%, alu insertion autosomal 15%, autosomal 22%, with respect to Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uyghur, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan[31] By that method, for Y-DNA, Alu, mtDNA except Iraq 13% and Armenia 6% for females, the Central Asian contribution to the hybrids Armenia, Georgia, Northern Caucasus, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon were similar or even higher than to those of Turkey and Azerbaijan

In 2011 Aram Yardumian and Theodore G Schurr published their study "Who Are the Anatolian Turks A Reappraisal of the Anthropological Genetic Evidence" They revealed the impossibility of long-term, and continuing genetic contacts between Anatolia and Siberia, and confirmed the presence of significant mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome divergence between these regions, with minimal admixture The research confirms also the lack of mass migration and suggested that it was irregular punctuated migration events that engendered large-scale shifts in language and culture among Anatolia's diverse autochthonous inhabitants[10]

According to a 2012 study on ethnic Turkish people, "Turkish population has a close genetic similarity to Middle Eastern and European populations and some degree of similarity to South Asian and Central Asian populations"[32] At K = 3 level, using individuals from the Middle East Druze and Palestinian, Europe French, Italian, Tuscan and Sardinian to obtatin a more representative database for Central Asia Uygur, Hazara and Kyrgyz, clustering results indicated that the contributions were 45%, 40% and 15% for the Middle Eastern, European and Central Asian populations, respectively For K = 4 level, results for paternal ancestry were 38% European, 35% Middle Eastern, 18% South Asian and 9% Central Asian K= 7 results of paternal ancestry were 77% European, 12% South Asian, 4% Middle Eastern, 6% Central Asian However, Hodoglugil et al caution that results may indicate previous population movements eg migration, admixture or genetic drift, given Europe and South Asia have some genetic relatedness[32] The study indicated that the Turkish genetic structure is unique, and admixture of Turkish people reflects the population migration patterns[32] Among all sampled groups, the Adygei population Circassians from the Caucasus was closest to the Turkish samples among sampled European French, Italian, Middle Eastern Druze, Palestinian, and Central Kyrgyz, Hazara, Uygur, South Pakistani, and East Asian Mongolian, Han populations[32] A study involving mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine-era population, whose samples were gathered from excavations in the archaeological site of Sagalassos, found that the Byzantine population of Sagalassos might have left a genetic signature in the modern Turkish populations[33] Modern-day samples from the nearby town of Ağlasun showed that lineages of East Eurasian descent assigned to macro-haplogroup M were found in the modern samples from Ağlasun This haplogroup is significantly more frequent in Ağlasun 15% than in Byzantine Sagalassos[34]

See also

  • Demographics of Turkey
  • History of the Turkish people
  • Archaeogenetics of the Near East
  • Genetic history of Europe
  • Turkification

References and notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Alkan et al 2014, BMC Genomics 2014, 15:963, Whole genome sequencing of Turkish genomes reveals functional private alleles and impact of genetic interactions with Europe, Asia and Africa
  2. ^ The mtDNA composition of Uzbekistan: a microcosm of Central Asian patterns doi:101007/s00414-009-0406-z
  3. ^ http://journalsplosorg/plosone/article/figure/imagesize=large&id=101371/journalpone0076748g003
  4. ^ http://journalsplosorg/plosone/articleid=101371/journalpone0076748
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Cinnioglu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Lillie, Anita S; Roseman, Charles C; Lin, Alice A; Prince, Kristina; Oefner, Peter J; Shen, Peidong; Semino, Ornella; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A 2004 "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" Human Genetics 114 2: 127–48 doi:101007/s00439-003-1031-4 PMID 14586639 
  6. ^ a b Rosser, Z; Zerjal, T; Hurles, M; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M; Arroyo, E; Barbujani, G 2000 "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language" The American Journal of Human Genetics 67 6: 1526–43 doi:101086/316890 PMC 1287948  PMID 11078479 
  7. ^ Nasidze, I; Sarkisian, T; Kerimov, A; Stoneking, M 2003 "Testing hypotheses of language replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome" Human Genetics 112 3: 255–61 doi:101007/s00439-002-0874-4 inactive 2017-01-16 PMID 12596050 
  8. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Karin, M; Bendikuze, N; Gomez-Casado, E; Moscoso, J; Silvera, C; Oguz, FS; Sarper Diler, A; De Pacho, A; Allende, L; Guillen, J; Martinez Laso, J 2001 "HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: Relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans" Tissue Antigens 57 4: 308–17 doi:101034/j1399-00392001057004308x PMID 11380939 
  9. ^ a b Wells, R S; Yuldasheva, N; Ruzibakiev, R; Underhill, P A; Evseeva, I; Blue-Smith, J; Jin, L; Su, B; Pitchappan, R; Shanmugalakshmi, S; Balakrishnan, K; Read, M; Pearson, N M; Zerjal, T; Webster, M T; Zholoshvili, I; Jamarjashvili, E; Gambarov, S; Nikbin, B; Dostiev, A; Aknazarov, O; Zalloua, P; Tsoy, I; Kitaev, M; Mirrakhimov, M; Chariev, A; Bodmer, W F 2001 "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 18: 10244–9 Bibcode:2001PNAS9810244W doi:101073/pnas171305098 JSTOR 3056514 PMC 56946  PMID 11526236 
  10. ^ a b c Schurr, Theodore G; Yardumian, Aram 2011 "Who Are the Anatolian Turks" Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia 50 1: 6–42 doi:102753/AAE1061-1959500101 
  11. ^ Comas, D; Schmid, H; Braeuer, S; Flaiz, C; Busquets, A; Calafell, F; Bertranpetit, J; Scheil, H-G; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Schmidt, H 2004 "Alu insertion polymorphisms in the Balkans and the origins of the Aromuns" Annals of Human Genetics 68 2: 120–7 doi:101046/j1529-8817200300080x PMID 15008791 
  12. ^ Bayazit Yunusbayev, Mait Metspalu, Ene Metspalu, Albert Valeev, Sergei Litvinov, Ruslan Valiev, Vita Akhmetova, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, and Shahlo Turdikulova "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia" PLoS Genetics 11:4 April 21, 2015: e1005068
  13. ^ a b Mergen, Hatice; Öner, Reyhan; Öner, Cihan 2004 "Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula Turkey" PDF Journal of Genetics 83 1: 39–47 doi:101007/bf02715828 PMID 15240908 
  14. ^ a b Arnaiz-Villena, A; Gomez-Casado, E; Martinez-Laso, J 2002 "Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective" Tissue Antigens 60 2: 111–21 doi:101034/j1399-00392002600201x PMID 12392505 
  15. ^ a b c Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand 2003 "Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of a 2,000-Year-Old Necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia" The American Journal of Human Genetics 73 2: 247–60 doi:101086/377005 PMC 1180365  PMID 12858290 
  16. ^ Clisson, I; Keyser, C; Francfort, H P; Crubezy, E; Samashev, Z; Ludes, B 2002 "Genetic analysis of human remains from a double inhumation in a frozen kurgan in Kazakhstan Berel site, Early 3rd Century BC" International journal of legal medicine 116 5: 304–8 doi:101007/s00414-002-0295-x inactive 2017-01-16 PMID 12376844 
  17. ^ a b Kim, Kijeong; Brenner, Charles H; Mair, Victor H; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Gelegdorj, Eregzen; Batbold, Natsag; Song, Yi-Chung; Yun, Hyeung-Won; Chang, Eun-Jeong; Lkhagvasuren, Gavaachimed; Bazarragchaa, Munkhtsetseg; Park, Ae-Ja; Lim, Inja; Hong, Yun-Pyo; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Dae-Jin; Chung, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Won-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Yong 2010 "A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142 3: 429–40 doi:101002/ajpa21242 PMID 20091844 
  18. ^ Xue, Y; Zerjal, T; Bao, W; Zhu, S; Shu, Q; Xu, J; Du, R; Fu, S; Li, P; Hurles, M E; Yang, H; Tyler-Smith, C 2005 "Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times" Genetics 172 4: 2431–9 doi:101534/genetics105054270 PMC 1456369  PMID 16489223 
  19. ^ Psarras, Sophia-Karin 2003 "Han and Xiongnu: A Reexamination of Cultural and Political Relations I" Monumenta Serica 51: 55–236 JSTOR 40727370 
  20. ^ Machulla, HKG; Batnasan, D; Steinborn, F; Uyar, FA; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Oguz, FS; Carin, MN; Dorak, MT 2003 "Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks" Tissue Antigens 61 4: 292–9 doi:101034/j1399-0039200300043x PMID 12753667 
  21. ^ https://wwwresearchgatenet/publication/237832272_Y_chromosome_Clues_to_the_East_Asian_Origins_of_Turki_and_Uralic_populations
  22. ^ https://wwwnaturecom/articles/jhg201030
  23. ^ Shou, Wei-Hua; Qiao, En-Fa; Wei, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Yong-Li; Tan, Si-Jie; Shi, Hong; Tang, Wen-Ru; Xiao, Chun-Jie 2010 "Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians" Journal of Human Genetics 55 5: 314–22 doi:101038/jhg201030 PMID 20414255 
  24. ^ Cruciani, Fulvio; La Fratta, Roberta; Torroni, Antonio; Underhill, Peter A; Scozzari, Rosaria 2006 "Molecular dissection of the Y chromosome haplogroup E-M78 E3b1a: A posteriori evaluation of a microsatellite-network-based approach through six new biallelic markers" Human Mutation 27 8: 831–2 doi:101002/humu9445 PMID 16835895 
  25. ^ http://journalsplosorg/plosone/articleid=101371/journalpone0179474
  26. ^ Gokcumen, Omer 2008 Ethnohistorical and genetic survey of four Central Anatolian settlements Thesis University of Pennsylvania OCLC 857236647 [page needed]
  27. ^ Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Valeev, Albert; Litvinov, Sergei; Valiev, Ruslan; Akhmetova, Vita; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Turdikulova, Shahlo 2015 "The Genetic Legacy of the Expansion of Turkic-Speaking Nomads across Eurasia" PLoS Genetics 11 4: e1005068 doi:101371/journalpgen1005068 
  28. ^ Varzari, Alexander; Stephan, Wolfgang; Stepanov, Vadim; Raicu, Florina; Cojocaru, Radu; Roschin, Yuri; Glavce, Cristiana; Dergachev, Valentin; Spiridonova, Maria; Schmidt, Horst D; Weiss, Elisabeth 2007 "Population history of the Dniester–Carpathians: Evidence from Alu markers" Journal of Human Genetics 52 4: 308–16 doi:101007/s10038-007-0113-x PMID 17387576 
  29. ^ Di Benedetto, G; Ergüven, A; Stenico, M; Castrì, L; Bertorelle, G; Togan, I; Barbujani, G 2001 "DNA diversity and population admixture in Anatolia" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115 2: 144–56 doi:101002/ajpa1064 PMID 11385601 
  30. ^ a b Caner Berkman, Ceren; Togan, İnci 2009 "The Asian contribution to the Turkish population with respect to the Balkans: Y-chromosome perspective" Discrete Applied Mathematics 157 10: 2341–8 doi:101016/jdam200806037 
  31. ^ Berkman, Ceren September 2006 Comparative Analyses for the Central Asian Contribution to Anatolian Gene Pool with Reference to Balkans PDF PhD Thesis Middle East Technical University p 98 
  32. ^ a b c d Hodoğlugil, Uğur; Mahley, Robert W 2012 "Turkish Population Structure and Genetic Ancestry Reveal Relatedness among Eurasian Populations" Annals of Human Genetics 76 2: 128–141 doi:101111/j1469-1809201100701x PMC 4904778  PMID 22332727 
  33. ^ Ottoni, C; Ricaut, F O X; Vanderheyden, N; Brucato, N; Waelkens, M; Decorte, R 2011 "Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia" European Journal of Human Genetics 19 5: 571–576 doi:101038/ejhg2010230 PMC 3083616  PMID 21224890 
  34. ^ http://rsosroyalsocietypublishingorg/content/3/2/150250

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