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Genetic studies on Russians

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Genetic studies show that modern Russians are closest to Belarusians, Balts and Ukrainians Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians overall are more similar to Belarusians and to Ukrainians than southern Russians are to northern Russians Russians in northern European Russia share moderate genetic similarities with Uralic peoples, who lived in modern north-central European Russia and were partly assimilated by the Slavs as the Slavs migrated northeastwards Southern Russians however tend to be genetically closer related to Caucasian peoples and Tatars as a result of Russian expansion


  • 1 Y-DNA
  • 2 mtDNA
  • 3 Autosomal DNA
  • 4 References


Russians show the y-DNA R1a with frequencies ranging from 334% in North Russia to 49% in rest of Russia R-M17 and sometimes alternatively defined as R-M198, is particularly common in a large region extending from South Asia and Southern Siberia to Central Europe and ScandinaviaUnderhill 2009 The percentages of Y-chromosome markers vary in ethnic Russian populations by latitude and region

The top four Y-DNA haplogroups among the sample of 1228 Russians are:

  • Haplogroup R1a Y-DNA – 198% to 627%, with an average of 467%
  • Haplogroup I Y-DNA – 0% to 268%, with an average of 176% All regions, and 235% Central and South Russia
  • Haplogroup N Y-DNA – 54% to 537%, with averages of 216% All regions, and 10% Central and South Russia
  • Haplogroup R1b Y-DNA – 0% to 14%, with an average of 58%

Eight Y chromosome haplogroup subclades, of West Eurasian origin, presented an average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, N3, I1b, R1b, I1a, J2, N2, and E3b All together, they account for >95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool Of the 1228 samples, 11/1228 09% were classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K Only 9/1228 samples 07% fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 which are specific to East and South Asian populations


The mitochondrial gene pool of Russians are represented by mtDNA types belonging to typical West Eurasian groups East Eurasian admixture was shown to be minimal and existed in low frequencies in the form of Haplogroup M The same studies indicate West Eurasian haplogroups present at a frequency of 978% and 985% among a sample of 325 and 201 Russians respectively

A recent study, while precising that "the genetic distances from the Russians to the European language groups indicate that the gene pool of present-day Russians bears the influence of Slavic, Baltic, Finno-Ugric and, to a lesser extent, Germanic groups, as well as Iranian and Turkic groups", uphold the traditionally held genetic differentiation between Northern and Southern Russians, with the decisive ethnic element being the Finno-Ugric one, more important in the north, the southern population having substantial - generally unacknowledged in historical debates about Russian ethnogenesis - Germanic influence

Autosomal DNA

Autosomally, Russians are similar to populations in Eastern Europe


  1. ^ a b c d e "Two sources of the Russian patrilineal heritage in their Eurasian context" American Journal of Human Genetics 82 1: 236–50 January 2008 doi:101016/jajhg200709019 PMC 2253976  PMID 18179905 
  2. ^ "Новости NEWSrucom :: Ученые завершили масштабное исследование генофонда русского народа Фотороботы" Newsrucom Retrieved 2012-07-22 
  3. ^ Rosser et al 2000
  4. ^ Tambets et al 2004
  5. ^ Semino et al 2000, "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective"
  6. ^ Luca, F; Giacomo, F Di; Benincasa, T; et al 2007 "Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132 1: 132–139 doi:101002/ajpa20500 PMID 17078035 
  7. ^ a b "Mitochondrial DNA variability in Poles and Russians" PDF Annals of Human Genetics 66 4: 261–283 April 2002 doi:101017/S0003480002001161 PMID 12418968 
  8. ^ a b "Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes in Russian Populations" PDF Human Biology 76 6: 877–900 December 2004 doi:101353/hub20050021 PMID 15974299 
  9. ^ "Russian ethnic history inferred from mitochondrial DNA diversity" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147 3: 341–351 March 2012 doi:101002/ajpa21649 PMID 22183855 
  10. ^ Khrunin, Andrey V March 7, 2013 "A Genome-Wide Analysis of Populations from European Russia Reveals a New Pole of Genetic Diversity in Northern Europe" PLOS One 

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Genetic studies on Russians

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