Sat . 20 Jul 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Genetic studies on Croats

genetic studies on croats neighbors, genetic studies on croats and serbs
Population genetics is a scientific discipline which contributes to the examination of the human evolutionary and historical migrations Particularly useful information is provided by research of two uniparental markers within our genome, the Y-chromosome Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA mtDNA[1] The studied data suggests that around 3/4 of the contemporary Croatian male individuals are the descendants of Old Europeans who came here before and after the Last Glacial Maximum LGM, while the rest of the population from those who arrived in the last 10,000 years, mostly during the Neolithic period[1] The contemporary Croatian female individuals have genetic diversity which fits within a broader European maternal genetic landscape[2]

There many Paleolithic period sites located in the territory of Croatia, mostly ascribed to the Mousterian phase in the Middle Paleolithic period In the Neolithic period in Southeast Europe were founded major cultures like Vinča, Varna, Starčevo In the Bronze Age happened symbiosis between Proto-Indo-Europeans of Kurgan culture and autochthonous populations, leading to the formation among others also of Proto-Illyrians They gradually mixed and were assimilated by the Romans, Celts, Avars, and finally Slavs in the 6th century An additional significant migration happened from Bosnia and Herzegovina, an expansion which was influenced by the Ottoman Empire's conquest since the 15th century, as well by Croatian immigration prior and post world wars I&II and Croatian War of Independence[3][2]

Contents

  • 1 Y chromosome DNA
    • 11 Prehistoric Y-DNA
    • 12 Abstract and data
  • 2 Mitochondrial DNA
    • 21 Prehistoric mtDNA
    • 22 Medieval mtDNA
    • 23 Abstract and data
  • 3 Autosomal DNA
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Y chromosome DNA

Genetically, on the paternal Y chromosome line, a majority >85% of male Croats from Croatia belong to one of the three major European Y-DNA haplogroups - I 38%[4][5][6]-44%[7], R1a 27%[7]-34%[4][5][6] and R1b 124%[7]-15%[4][5][6], while a minority >15% mostly belongs to haplogroup E 9%[7], and others to haplgroups J 44%[7], N 2%[7], and G 1%[7]

The distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup I in Europe

Haplogroup I among Croats from Croatia is divided in two major subdivisions - subclade I2 35%, typical for the populations of eastern Adriatic and the Balkans, and I1 9%, typical for the populations of Scandinavia[7] From the I2 subclade, the most prevailing is I2a1 I-P372 ie its subclade I2a1b-M423 which is typical of the South Slavic populations of south-eastern Europe, being highest in Bosnia-Herzegovina >50%[6] In Croatia the highest frequency is observed in Dalmatia, peaking in cities of Dubrovnik 53% and Zadar 60%,[8] as well southern islands of Vis 446%,[8] Brač and Korčula ~55%, and Hvar 65%[7] The frequency is lower in the town of Osijek 276% on the banks of the river Drava, in the western mountainous Žumberak region 182%,[8] and in the northern islands of Cres 3% and Krk 27%[7][4] The highest frequency of the haplogroup is found in Bosnian-Croats from Herzegovina 73%[7] The subclade I1 was not found in Osijek and Bosnian Croats,[7] but peaked at 89% in Dubrovnik[8] The population with haplogroup I migrated to the Balkan area from the Middle East, approximately 25,000-13,000 years ago It represents the Paleolithic and Mesolithic population of hunter gatherers The subclade's I-P372 very high frequency in the Western Balkans diminishes in all directions[1][8]

The distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup R1a in Europe

R1a1a1-M17 and Haplogroup R1b are the second 34% and the third 156% most prevailing haplogroups according to the investigation done in 2003[4] According to the 2008 research these values are slightly smaller[7] The haplogroup R-M17 in Croatia is mostly divided into two subclades, R-M558 predominant and R-M458, while R-Z282 is rare[8] The highest frequency of R1a1a1-M17 was found in the Croats from Osijek 39%,[7] Žumberak 341,[8] and in the northern islands of Krk 37% and Cres 565%,[4][8] being similar to the values of the other Slavs, like Slovenes, Czechs and Slovaks The frequency is lower in Zadar 4% and Dubrovnik 134%, as well on the southern islands of Hvar 8%, Vis 17%, Korčula 20%, and Brač 25%[4][8] In Bosnian Croats, the frequency is similar to those of other South Slavs 12%[7] The highest frequency of the haplogroup R1b, which in Croatia is divided into several subclades, was in the Croats from the island of Krk 162% and Dugi Otok 25%,[4][8] in Žumberak was 113%,[8] while in the southern islands, city of Dubrovnik 39% and in Bosnian Croats it is almost absent 1-6%,[4][7][8] or like in Osijek it was not found[7] These two haplogroups R1a and R1b are connected to Proto-Indo-Europeans migration from the Eurasian area some 5,000 years ago,[1] R1a particularly to Slavic population's migration[6][8] Their frequency show north-south gradiation and an opposite frequency distribution to the haplogroup I-P372,[1] and the highest frequency is observed in the northern, western and eastern Croatia[4][7]

The distribution of haplogroup E-V13 in Europe

From the haplogroup E among Croats the most frequent is subclade E1b1b1a1b-V13 67%, while E1b1b1a3-M149 and E1b1b1c-M123 were also found in small numbers 11%[7] E-V13 it's typical of the populations of south-eastern Europe, peaking among Kosovo Albanians 44%, and is also high among the Macedonians, Greeks, Romanians, Bulgarians and Serbs[6] The highest frequency in Croatian mainland has been found in Žumberak 182%[8] and Osijek 103%,[7] in central islands Dugi Otok 159% and Ugljan 132%, as well southern islands Vis 234% and Mljet 154%[8] In the northern islands of Cres 3%[8] and Krk 68% was similar to other southern islands 37-43%[4] In Bosnian Croats the frequency was the same as among the Croats from Croatia 89%[7] Subclades of J1 are rare in Croatia, while J2 are higher in Croats from Croatia, peaking in Croats from Osijek 102% and central islands Ugljan 102% and Pašman 166% as well the northern island of Krk 108% and Cres 141%,[4][7][8] than in Bosnian Croats both 11%[7] Subclade G2a-P15 both in Croatian and Bosnian Croats is found in low numbers 11%,[7] but peaks locally in the north-eastern town of Osijek 138%,[7] and the southern islands of Mljet 154%, Korčula 104%, Brač 6% as well northern island Cres 7%[4][8] The haplogroup E and J are related to post-LGM, Neolithic migration of a population from Anatolia who brought with them domestication of wild animals and plants Specifically, the haplogroup E's subclade probably arose locally in the Balkan not earlier than 8,000-10,000 years ago These haplogroups show south-north gradiation[1] The haplogroup G could have been present in Europe during the LGM or population with some of its subclades arrived with early farmers[1]

Haplogroup's N subclades are rare in Croatia 22%[7] It is very frequent in the Far East, like Siberia and China, while in Europe in Finns 60% and in the Baltic countries 45% Unusually for European populations, another central Asian-Siberian haplogroup P ie Q was found in unusually high frequencies in the islands of Hvar 14% and Korčula 6%[4]

Prehistoric Y-DNA

In the 2014 study, of the three successfully generated SNP profiles of Neolithic Starčevo culture samples from Vinkovci, two belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup G2a-P15 and one to I2a1-P372, which chould indicate G2a as potential representatives of the spread of farming from the Near East to Europe, while I2a as Mesolithic substratum in Europe[9]

Abstract and data

The region of modern-day Croatia was part of a wider Balkan region which may have served as one of several refugia during the LGM, a source region for the recolonization of Europe during the post-glacial period and Holocene 10,000 years ago[7][1] The eastern Adriatic coast was much further south[5] The northern and the western parts of that sea were steppes and plains, while the modern Croatian islands rich in Paleolithic archeological sites were hills and mountains[5][7] The region had a specific role in the structuring of European, and particularly among Slavic, paternal genetic heritage, characterized by the predominance of R1a and I, and scarcity of E lineages[6]

The insular populations genetic diversity is characterized by strong isolation and endogamy[10]

In the table below is cited most extensive study 2012 until now on the population in Croatia It is a national reference DNA database of 17 loci system which acquired Y-STR haplotypes were predicted in estimated over 90% probability Y-SNP haplogroups[3] The sub-populations were divided in five regions which sub-populations showed strong similarity and homogeneity of paternal genetic contribution, with exception of sub-population from southern Croatia who showed mild difference The sub-population from northern Croatia is closer to central European cluster Germanic, Slavic, Hungarian, the sub-populations of eastern, western and southern Croatia are closer to southern European cluster, while the sub-population of central Croatia is positioned on the boundary between these two clusters[3]

See also

  • Origin hypotheses of the Croats
  • Genetic studies on Serbs
  • Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic group
  • Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Primorac et al 2011
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Šarac et al 2014
  3. ^ a b c Mršić et al 2012
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Barać et al 2003
  5. ^ a b c d e Rootsi et al 2004
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Peričić et al 2005
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Battaglia et al 2008
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Šarac et al 2016
  9. ^ a b c Szécsényi-Nagy et al 2015
  10. ^ Vitart et al 2006
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cvjetan et al 2004
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Šarac et al 2012
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeran et al 2009
  14. ^ a b Havaš Auguštin et al 2012
  15. ^ Fernandes et al 2016
  16. ^ Bašić et al 2015
  17. ^ Kovačević et al 2014
  18. ^ Jeroncic et al 2016

References

Y-DNA
  • L Barać; et al 2003 "Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates" PDF European Journal of Human Genetics 11 7: 535–42 doi:101038/sjejhg5200992 PMID 12825075 
  • S Rootsi; et al 2004 "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe" PDF American Journal of Human Genetics 75 1: 128–137 doi:101086/422196 PMC 1181996  PMID 15162323 
  • M Peričić; et al 2005 "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations" Molecular Biology and Evolution 22 10: 1964–75 doi:101093/molbev/msi185 PMID 15944443 
  • V Vitart; et al 2006 "3000 years of solitude: extreme differentiation in the island isolates of Dalmatia, Croatia" European Journal of Human Genetics 14: 478–487 doi:101038/sjejhg5201589 
  • V Battaglia; et al 2008 "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe" European Journal of Human Genetics 17 6: 820–830 doi:101038/ejhg2008249 PMC 2947100  PMID 19107149 
  • D Primorac; et al 2011 "Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story" Croatian Medical Journal 52 3: 225–234 doi:103325/cmj201152225 PMC 3118711  PMID 21674820 
  • G Mršić; et al 2012 "Croatian national reference Y-STR haplotype database" Molecular Biology Reports 39 7: 7727–41 doi:101007/s11033-012-1610-3 PMID 22391654 
  • A Szécsényi-Nagy; et al 2015 "Tracing the genetic origin of Europe's first farmers reveals insights into their social organization" Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282 1805: 20150339 doi:101098/rspb20150339 
  • J Šarac; et al 2016 "Genetic heritage of Croatians in the Southeastern European gene pool—Y chromosome analysis of the Croatian continental and Island population" Molecular Biology Reports 39 7: 7727–41 doi:101007/s11033-012-1610-3 PMID 22391654 
mtDNA
  • S Cvjetan; et al 2004 "Frequencies of mtDNA Haplogroups in Southeastern Europe-Croatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinians, Serbians, Macedonians and Macedonian Romani" Collegium Antropologicum 28
  • N Jeran; et al 2009 "Mitochondrial DNA heritage of Cres Islanders - example of Croatian genetic outliers" Collegium Antropologicum 33
  • J Šarac; et al 2012 "Influence of evolutionary forces and demographic processes on the genetic structure of three Croatian populations: A maternal perspective" Annals of Human Biology 39 2: 143–155 doi:103109/030144602012660194 
  • D Havaš Auguštin; et al 2012 "Maternal Genetic Legacy of the Eastern Adriatic Island of Krk - An Interplay of Evolutionary Forces and Island's Historical Events in Shaping the Genetic Structure of Contemporary Island Population" Collegium Antropologicum 36
  • J Šarac; et al 2014 "Maternal Genetic Heritage of Southeastern Europe Reveals a New Croatian Isolate and a Novel, Local Sub-Branching in the X2 Haplogroup" Annals of Human Genetics 78 3: 178–194 doi:101111/ahg12056 
  • Ž Bašić; et al 2015 "Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast" Croatian Medical Journal 56 3: 230–238 doi:103325/cmj201556230 PMC 4500963  PMID 26088847 
  • D Fernandes; et al 2016 "Preliminary results of a prehistoric human ancient DNA time series from coastal and hinterland Croatia" IUAES doi:1013140/RG2125559920 
atDNA
  • L Kovačević; et al 2014 "Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers" PLOS 9 8: e105090 doi:101371/journalpone0105090 PMC 4141785  PMID 25148043 
  • A Jeroncic; et al 2016 "Whole-exome sequencing in an isolated population from the Dalmatian island of Vis" European Journal of Human Genetics 24: 1479–1487 doi:101038/ejhg201623 

External links

  • The Croatian DNA Project at Family Tree DNA
  • The 10001 Dalmatians - Croatian biobank at University of Split School of Medicine

genetic studies on croats and serbs, genetic studies on croats history, genetic studies on croats neighbors, genetic studies on croats religion


Genetic studies on Croats Information about

Genetic studies on Croats


  • user icon

    Genetic studies on Croats beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Genetic studies on Croats
Genetic studies on Croats
Genetic studies on Croats viewing the topic.
Genetic studies on Croats what, Genetic studies on Croats who, Genetic studies on Croats explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Book

Book

A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...
Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...
Bodybuilding.com

Bodybuilding.com

Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...