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Gabriel Dumont (Métis leader)


Gabriel Dumont December 1837 – May 19, 1906 was a leader of the Métis people of what is now Western Canada In 1873 Dumont was elected to the presidency of the short-lived republic of St Laurent; afterward he continued to play a leading role among the Métis of the South Saskatchewan River He played a critical role in bringing Louis Riel back to Canada, in order to pressure the Canadian authorities to pay attention to the troubles of the Métis people He was adjutant general in the provisional Métis government declared in the District of Saskatchewan in 1885, and commanded the Métis forces in the North-West Rebellion or North West Resistance of 1885

Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Resistance
  • 3 Later life
  • 4 Legacy
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Footnotes
  • 7 Further reading
    • 71 Primary sources
  • 8 External links

Early life

Gabriel Dumont was a grandson of the French Canadian Jean-Baptiste Dumont and his Tsuu T'ina-Crow wife, Josette He was the second son of Isidore Dumont and Louise Laframboise The family were at various times involved in farming, trading, hunting, and trapping in what is now the province of Saskatchewan Gabriel was raised a Métis, learning both French Catholic and Cree customs By the time he was 12, he was considered an accomplished shot with both gun and bow, and was well known as a master horseman In 1848, the Dumont family moved south to the area where Regina, Saskatchewan, would later be founded Dumont, and his older brother Isidore, became buffalo hunters Over time, Dumont learned six languages, and established a reputation as a guide, hunter and interpreter He was also famed for his drinking and gambling Dumont participated in skirmishes with First Nations, including the Blackfoot and Sioux

Dumont married Madeleine Wilkie, the daughter of the Anglo-Métis chief, Jean Baptiste Wilkie, in 1858, and in 1862 was elected chief of his Métis band He led the band to the North Saskatchewan River, where they briefly settled near Fort Carlton By 1868, the band established a permanent settlement near Batoche on the South Saskatchewan River In 1872 Gabriel established a ferry service near Batoche, at "Gabriel's Crossing" east of present-day Rosthern, Saskatchewan, where the Gabriel Bridge is today and also farmed near there

Resistance

Dumont's enemies in 1885, including General Frederick Middleton of the Northwest Field Force, praised his generalship and martial abilities Despite huge logistic and morale problems, he can be credited with a victory at the Battle of Fish Creek and managed to hold off a much larger force at the Battle of Batoche for several days Louis Riel refused to let him make vital strategic actions such as damaging railway lines to hinder the enemy's movement, providing the Canadian government with an advantage

Following the defeat at Batoche, Dumont made his way via the Cypress Hills to the Montana Territory, where he surrendered to the US Cavalry However, the US government determined that he was a political refugee and he was shortly released

Later life

In 1886, Dumont joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West, where he received top billing as a rebel leader and crack marksman He traveled with the show from July until September, but returned for brief appearances as an extra in 1887 and 1888

While living in New York, Dumont made contacts with the French Canadian community there, including French Canadian nationalists who saw parallels between the suppression of the Metis rebellions and their own political situation Laurent-Olivier David, serving as president of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society of Montreal invited Dumont to Quebec for a lecture tour Dumont's criticism of Roman Catholic clergy for its lack of support for the rebellion proved unpopular with audiences, however, and the tour was cancelled after a single lecture

In 1889, he provided a complete account of his experiences in the rebellion, but after that his life is poorly documented He later claimed to have traveled to France during this time, but he was certainly in Winnipeg in 1893 to acquire land-scrip for his homestead near Batoche At some point, he built a small cabin on the farm of his nephew, Alexis Dumont, and lived there until his death in 1906 At the time, his death went unnoticed among the broader Canadian community, having largely slipped from the public consciousness

Legacy

BATOCHE In 1872, Xavier Letendre dit Batoche founded a village at this site where Métis freighters crossed the South Saskatchewan River About 50 families had claimed the river lots in the area by 1884 Widespread anxiety regarding land claims and a changing economy provoked a resistance against the Canadian Government Here, 300 Métis and Indians led by Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont fought a force of 800 men commanded by Major-General Middleton between May 9 and 12, 1885 The resistance failed but the battle did not mean the end of the community of Batoche Historic Sites and Monuments board of Canada Government of Canada

In the spring of 2008, Tourism, Parks, Culture and Sport Minister Christine Tell proclaimed in Duck Lake, that "the 125th commemoration, in 2010, of the 1885 Northwest Resistance is an excellent opportunity to tell the story of the Prairie Métis and First Nations peoples' struggle with government forces and how it has shaped Canada today"

Batoche, where a Métis Provisional Government had been formed, has been declared a National Historic Site Batoche marks the site of Gabriel Dumont's grave marker, Albert Caron’s House, Batoche school, Batoche cemetery, Letendre store, Gabriels river crossing, Gardepy's crossing, Batoche crossing, St Antoine de Padoue Church, Métis rifle pits, and NWMP battle camp

The Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research in Saskatchewan was named in his honour The Gabriel Bridge over the South Saskatchewan River east of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, is also named for him It is located at the site of Gabriel's Crossing, where he ran a small store, billiards hall and ferry service in the late 1870s and early 1880s There is also a park along the South Saskatchewan in Saskatoon named for him, as well as an equestrian statue depicting him along the river between the Broadway and Victoria Bridges on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River

In 1998, the public French-first-language high school in London, Ontario, was renamed École secondaire Gabriel-Dumont in his honour

See also

  • Indigenous Canadian personalities
  • List of Métis people
  • Métis buffalo hunt
  • Métis in Canada
  • Southbranch Settlement
  • Lawrence Clarke
  • James Isbister
  • Louis Riel

Footnotes

  1. ^ Canadian Encyclopedia Retrieved 31 January 2011
  2. ^ George R D Goulet; Goulet, Terry 2006 "The Métis: Memorable Events and Memorable Personalities" FabJob, Calgary Archived from the original on 2008-04-21 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Macleod, Roderick C "Dumont, Gabriel" Dictionary of Canadian Biography Retrieved 22 January 2016 
  4. ^ Historic Sites and Monuments board of Canada Government of Canada 21 Nov 2004 "Welcome To Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Region Gen Web Batoche / Fish Creek Photo Gallery" Saskatoon Gen Web online by Julia Adamson Retrieved 2009-09-20 
  5. ^ "Tourism agencies to celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Northwest Resistance/Rebellion" Home/About Government/News Releases/June 2008 Government of Saskatchewan June 7, 2008 Archived from the original on 2009-10-21 Retrieved 2009-09-20 
  6. ^ "Batoche The Virtual Museum of Métis History and Culture" Gabriel Dumont Institute of Native Studies and Applied Research Retrieved 2009-09-20 
  7. ^ "Parks Canada Batoche National Historic Site of Canada" Government of Canada 2009-06-22 Retrieved 2009-09-20 

Further reading

  • Barrett, Matthew "'Hero of the Half-Breed Rebellion': Gabriel Dumont and Late Victorian Military Masculinity" Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'études canadiennes 48#3 2014: 79-107
  • McLean, Donald George 1885: Metis Rebellion or Government Conspiracy Pemmican Publications, 1985
  • Woodcock, George Woodcock; James Rodger Miller 2003 Gabriel Dumont: the Métis chief and his lost world Broadview Press ISBN 1-55111-575-1 

Primary sources

  • Gabriel Dumont 2009 Gabriel Dumont Speaks 2nd ed Talonbooks ISBN 9780889226258 

External links

Media related to Gabriel Dumont Métis leader at Wikimedia Commons

  • Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • libraryusaskca
  • esaskureginaca
  • Gabriel Dumont Institute


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