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FREMM multipurpose frigate

fremm multipurpose frigate, fremm multipurpose aquitaine class frigate
The FREMM "European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy The lead ship of the class, Aquitaine, was commissioned in November 2012 by the French Navy In France the class is known as the Aquitaine class, while in Italy they are known as the Bergamini class Italy has ordered six general purpose variants and four anti-submarine variants; the last two Italian general purpose FREMMs will have anti-aircraft warfare, anti-ballistic missile and surface attack capabilities France has ordered six anti-submarine variants, and two air-defence variants

Contents

  • 1 Background
    • 11 France
    • 12 Italy
    • 13 Export
      • 131 Morocco
      • 132 Greece
      • 133 Canada
      • 134 Egypt
      • 135 Australia
  • 2 Country-specific equipment
    • 21 Common equipment
    • 22 French-specific equipment
    • 23 Italian-specific equipment
  • 3 Ships of the class
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Backgroundedit

Three original variants of the FREMM were proposed; an anti-submarine variant ASW and a general-purpose variant GP and a land-attack variant AVT to replace the existing classes of frigates within the French and Italian navies A total of 27 FREMM were to be constructed - 17 for France and 10 for Italy - with additional aims to seek exports, however budget cuts and changing requirements has seen this number drop significantly for France, while the order for Italy remained invaried The land-attack variant AVT was subsequently cancelled

A third anti-air warfare variant of FREMM was proposed by DCNS in repose to French requirements for a new air-defence frigate, the new variant became known as FREDA "FREgates de Défense Aériennes", "Air defence frigate" This new French requirement was due to the third and fourth Horizon-class frigates being cancelled after the first two cost €1,350m each, but this decision left French Navy still in-need of replacements for its ageing Cassard-class air-defence frigates8

As of 2009, the FREDA design features a more powerful version of the Thales Herakles passive electronically scanned array radar and 32 cells of SYLVER A50 in place of the 16 cells of A43 and 16 cells of A70 The SYLVER A50 would allow it to fire the 120 kilometres 75 mi-range Aster 30 missile; the towed array sonar would not be fitted9

At Euronaval 2012 DCNS showed a new concept called FREMM-ER for the FREDA requirement, again based on the FREMM, but specifically mentioning the ballistic missile defence mission as well as anti-air FREMM-ER has a modified superstructure replacing Héraklès with the new Thales Sea Fire 500 radar, whose four fixed plates resemble those of the US Navy's AN/SPY-110 However unlike the Héraklès and the SPY-1 both using passive electronically scanned array technology, the Sea Fire 500 has active electronically scanned array antennas11

Franceedit

Original plans were for 17 FREMM to replace the nine D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and nine anti-submarine frigates of the Tourville and Georges Leygues classes In November 2005 France announced a contract of €35 billion for development and the first eight hulls, with options for nine more costing €295 billion split over two tranches totaling 17

Following the cancellation of the third and fourth of the Horizon-class frigates in 2005 on budget grounds, requirements for an air-defence derivative of the FREMM called FREDA were placed – with DCNS coming up with several proposals12 Expectations were that the last two ships of the 17 FREMM planned would be built to FREDA specifications; however, by 2008 the plan was revised down to just 11 FREMM 9 ASW variants and 2 FREDA variants8 at a cost of €875 billion FY13, ~US$12 billion1 The 11 ships would cost €670 million ~US$760m each in FY2014, or €860m ~US$980m including development costs1

The 2013 White Paper on Defence and National Security committed France to 15 front-line frigates,13 which was initially wrongly interpreted as 2 Horizons, 5 La Fayettes and a reduction in the FREMM fleet down to 8 ships The 2014/2019 defence plan restated a target of 11 FREMMs;14 the currentwhen plan is to deliver six ASW variants to replace the Georges Leygues-class frigates by 2019, followed by two anti-air variants to replace the ageing Cassard-class frigates and a decision will be taken in 2016 on what version the remaining three will be1 In 2014, the French Navy's Chief of Staff, Adm Bernard Rogel, confirmed that 11 FREMM frigates had been ordered15 but in 2015 the order was cut to 8 in order to allow the purchase of five FTI Mid-Size frigates from 202316 The FTI will replace the La Fayette-class class, which will be fitted with a sonar as an interim measure16

Italyedit

Planning assumptions for the Italian Navy are 10 FREMM-IT 4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants at a cost of €58 billion FREMM-IT will replace the Maestrale and Lupo-class frigates in service with the Italian Navy

As of 16 April 2015, the Italian government has approved funding for all ten FREMM-IT to be delivered to the Italian Navy 4 ASW variants and 6 GP variants17
In the 2013 Italian budget, the Italian government laid-out the necessary financing for two more GP variants FREMM-IT 7 & 8 and the contract was awarded in September 2013 On 15 April 2015, Italian Parliamentary confirmed the deal between OCCAR and Orizzonte Sistemi Navali Spa Fincantieri and Finmeccanica, since 2017 Leonardo to beginning built units 9 and 10, for Euro 764 millions

FREMM-IT 9 & 10 would will have AAW & ATBM capabilities and will have A70 VLS for cruise & Aster Block 2 missiles, with new Leonardo Kronos Quad, C band, AESA, 3D radar a DBR radar version
The Leonardo Kronos Quad EMPAR-MFRA's evolved version, destined for the 9th and 10th FREMM will have four flat radar sensors, with three times the original range and full ATBM capabilities
All 10 Italian FREMM-ITs have extended AAW capabilities, with SAAM-ESD CMS and Aster 30 & Aster 15 missiles for extended area defence
SAAM-ESD CMS use Leonardo MFRA, a 3D active radar AESA, an evolved version of the Leonardo EMPAR PESA radar previously embarked on Horizon-class destroyers and the aircraft carrier Cavour
Since the 7th FREMM-IT, there will be updates, such as new conformal IFF antenna
Since the 8th or 9th FREMM-IT, there will be updates to other systems:

  • the COC and bridge will be integrated
  • the cruise speed will be enhanced to 19/20 knots with more powerful diesel engines
  • would be fitted with ATAS VDS sonar and SLAT anti-torpedo system

Exportedit

Operators of the FREMM frigates

Moroccoedit

On 24 October 2007 it was announced that the Royal Moroccan Navy had ordered one FREMM to replace its Descubierta-class corvette18 The contract was signed on 18 April 2008 and construction of the Moroccan FREMM began in the summer 2008 with delivery expected in 2012 or 2013;19 Mohammed VI was launched in September 2011 and handed over on 30 January 20142 The Moroccan ship is similar to the French anti-submarine version, without SYLVER A70 tubes for SCALP Naval, and cost €470m2

Greeceedit

On 22 January 2009 the Hellenic Navy announced an order for six FREMM to replace an equal number of Elli-class frigates20 After the Greek government-debt crisis this was cut down to between two and four ships equipped with SCALP Naval, with France alleged to have offered them to Greece at no cost for the first five years Germany objected to this deal in October 201121 and no deal has been signed In February 2013 though and during the formal visit of the President of France, François Hollande, in Athens, according to press reports an agreement which includes the long-term leasing of two FREMM frigates Normandie and Provence according to initial reports to the Hellenic Navy has been reached22

Canadaedit

In April 2013, the French government showcased the FREMM class in Halifax with the hope of selling to the Royal Canadian Navy for the Single Class Surface Combatant Project23 Canada's Defence Minister at the time, Peter MacKay, commented "I have never seen… such an impressive vessel" DCNS is widely considered one of the leading bidders towards the Single Class Surface Combatants24

Egyptedit

On 16 February 2015, The Egyptian Navy ordered one FREMM vessel to enter service before the opening of the New Suez Canal, as part of a larger deal including 24 Rafales and a supply of missiles worth US$59 billion €52 billion2526 In order to keep to Egypt's deadlines, France offered to send Normandie, originally intended for the French Navy27 The SYLVER A70 VLS and NETTUNO-4100 jamming equipment were removed due to export limitations for such sensitive equipment The crew will be around 126 sailors compared to 108 in the French Navy28 The SATCOM antenna for the French Syracuse satellites was also taken down; however, Egypt will use its own military telecommunications satellite, supplied by Airbus Defence and Space and Thales Alenia Space, in conjunction with its naval vessels29 From March 2015, DCNS trained the Egyptian crew in the technology of the ship and DCNS and its partners accompanied the crew for a period of 15 months On 23 June 2015, French naval shipbuilder DCNS transferred the FREMM frigate Tahya Misr ex-Normandie to the Egyptian navy A ceremony took place to transfer Normandie,renamed Tahya Misr "Long Live Egypt" to Egypt, in the presence of General Sedki Sobhy, the Egyptian Minister of Defense, Jean-Yves Le Drian, the French Minister of Defense, Admiral Osama Rabie, Egyptian Navy Commander in Chief, Admiral Bernard Rogel, the French Chief of Navy and Hervé Guillou, Chairman & CEO of DCNS283031

Australiaedit

On 18 April 2016, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull confirmed that the Italian FREMM class was one of three frigates shortlisted for the replacement of its MEKO 200 based Anzac-class frigate32

On 1 September 2016, Fincantieri has signed a contract with the Australian Government to participate in the Competitive Evaluation Process, conducted by the Department of Defence, to deliver 9 Future Frigates - to be built in Adelaide, South Australia - for the Royal Australian Navy RAN under the SEA 5000 programme33

Country-specific equipmentedit

Common equipmentedit

  • Leonardo OTO Melara 76/62 mm Super Rapid gun on Italian Navy versions with Davide/Strales guided-ammunition
  • 2 x torpedo launchers Eurotorp/WASS B515/3 for MU 90 torpedoes with Calzoni AHS Automatic Handling System
  • 1 x Leonardo NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the 76mm cannon
  • 2 x SLAT Systeme de Lutte Anti-Torpille anti-torpedo system into Italian Navy only for ASW version ASW DLS Anti Submarine Weapon Decoy Launcher System based on Thales ALERT sonar system, DCNS RATO command system and WASS CMAT weapon system with 12 tube launcher for 127 mm's WASS C-310 decoy and jammers
  • NH90 helicopter, with capability for AW101, Cougar and Caracal
  • Thales UMS 4110 CL hull sonar
  • Thales UMS 4249 CAPTAS4 towed sonar anti-submarine versions only
  • Thales TUUM-6 Underwater Telephone
  • 2 x Sigen MM/SMQ-765 EW system: with JASS Jamming Antenna Sub System ECM, Nettuno 4100, by ELT Elettronica and Thales ESM Communications and Radar ESM
  • 2 x SOFRESUD Quick Pointing Devices "QPD"

French-specific equipmentedit

French version of the FREMM
  • 16 cells MBDA SYLVER A43 VLS for MBDA Aster 15 missiles
  • 16 cells MBDA SYLVER A70 VLS for MBDA SCALP Naval cruise missile with a range up to 1000 km
  • MBDA MM-40 Exocet block 3, for naval and land attack
  • 3 x Nexter 20mm Narwhal remote weapon systems
  • NGDS decoy launcher
  • Héraklès radar
  • Terma Scanter 2001 radar34
  • Thales Artemis IRST
  • SETIS combat system
  • Sagem Najir fire control system for the 76mm gun
  • Samahé helicopter handling system

Italian-specific equipmentedit

Italian ASW FREMM Carabiniere Italian ASW FREMM Virginio Fasan
  • 16 cells MBDA SYLVER A50 VLS for MBDA Aster 15 missiles and MBDA Aster 30 missiles
  • Space reserved for MBDA SYLVER A70 launchers for 16 MBDA SCALP Naval or similar cruise missile, but not fitted
  • Leonardo IRST SASS
  • another one Leonardo NA-25 DARDO-F fire control system for the second cannon 76/62 mm or 127/54 mm
  • Leonardo Kronos Grand Naval MFRA AESA, 3D, C band radar
  • Leonardo RASS RAN-30X-I surface radar OTH
  • Leonardo SPS-732, 2D LPI Surveillance X band Radar surface and air surveillance at low level; since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced by more powerful Leonardo SPS-732V2
  • Leonardo SPN-730 LPI navigation radar and two navigation radar GEM-Elettronica MM/SPN-753
  • Leonardo SPN-720 radar for helicopter precision approach
  • Leonardo IFF SIR M-E; since the 7th FREMM-IT replaced with Leonardo IFF SIR M5-PA with phased array antenna
  • Leonardo Athena combat system CMS, with 21, three displays, MFC Multi Functional Consolle: 17 into COC, 2 in backup COC, 1 on bridge and 1 into Command Planning Room
  • Leonardo SAAM-ESD extended area AAW combat system for Aster 15 & Aster 30 missiles
  • 2 x Leonardo OTO Melara SCLAR-H DLS Multipurpose Rocket Launcher
  • 8 x MBDA Teseo\Otomat Mk-2/A block 4, for naval and land attack
  • 2 x Leonardo Oto Melara/Oerlikon KBA 25/80 mm, remote weapon system, controlled by close CMS
  • Curtiss-Wright TC-ASIST helicopter handling system for both helicopters
  • Leonardo WASS SNA-2000-I, Mine Avoidance Sonar
  • L-3 ELAC Nautik SeaBeam 3050, Multi-beam echo sounder only on ASW version
  • 1 x 7 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems Stemar 6,8 m, FNM HPEP 225 HP engine, 38 knots, 6 crew 35
  • 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat release and recovery lateral systems
  • 1 x 11 m rigid-hulled inflatable boat fast, stern release and recovery system36 only on GP version, for CABI Cattaneo CABAT boat
  • ASW version: 2 x Leonardo OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS guns, one on the hangar both with Strales guided-ammunitions and 4 MBDA MILAS ASW missile
  • GP version: 1 x Leonardo OTO Melara 127/64 mm gun with Vulcano guided ammunition, with a range up to 120 km, and AAHS Automated Ammunition Handling System with 350 rounds + 56 in turret and a second Leonardo OTO Melara 76/62 mm Davide/Strales CIWS gun on the hangar with Strales guided-ammunitions

Ships of the classedit

Pennant no Builder Variant Role Name Laid down Launched Commissioned Homeport
Aquitaine class
 French Navy
D650 DCNS, Lorient FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Aquitaine 2007 29 April 2010 23 November 201237 Brest
D652 FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Provence 2010 18 September 2013 12 June 2015 Brest
D653 FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Languedoc 2011 12 July 2014 16 March 2016 Toulon
D654 FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Auvergne 2012 2 September 2015 11 April 201738 Toulon
D655 FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Bretagne 2013 16 September 2016 2018 Brest
FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Normandie 2014 2019 Brest
FR‑AAW Anti‑air warfare Alsace 2016 2021 Toulon
FR‑AAW Anti‑air warfare Lorraine 2022 Toulon
 Royal Moroccan Navy
701 DCNS, Lorient FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Mohammed VI 2008 14 September 2011 30 January 20142 Ksar es Seghir
 Egyptian Navy
FFG-1001 DCNS, Lorient FR‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Tahya Misr
ex-Normandie 39
2009 18 October 2012 17 March 2016 40 Alexandria 41
Bergamini-class 42
 Marina Militare
F590 Fincantieri, Muggiano IT‑GP General purpose Carlo Bergamini 4 February 2008 16 July 201143 29 May 201344 La Spezia
F591 IT‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Virginio Fasan 12 May 2009 31 March 201245 19 December 201346 La Spezia
F592 IT‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Carlo Margottini 21 April 2010 29 June 201347 27 February 201448 La Spezia
F593 IT‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Carabiniere 6 April 2011 29 March 201449 28 April 2015 50 Taranto
F594 IT‑ASW Anti‑submarine warfare Alpino 23 February 2012 13 December 201451 30 September 201652 Taranto
F595 IT‑GP General purpose Luigi Rizzo 5 March 2013 19 December 201553 20 April 201754 La Spezia
F596 IT‑GP General purpose Federico Martinengo 5 June 2014 55 4 March 201756 April 2018 Taranto
F597 IT‑GP General purpose Antonio Marceglia 12 July 20155758 December 2017 April 2019 Taranto
F598 IT‑GP General purpose Spartaco Schergat February 2017 59 March 2019 April 2020 La Spezia
F599 IT‑GP General purpose Emilio Bianchi January 2018 March 2020 April 2021 60 Taranto

See alsoedit

  • Type 26, an equivalent British design
  • F125-class frigate, a German class of frigates
  • European multilateral defence procurement

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c d "Projet de loi de finances pour 2015 : Défense : équipement des forces" in French Senate of France 20 November 2014 Retrieved 2015-02-22 
  2. ^ a b c d e Djama, Nasser 30 January 2014 "A Brest, le Maroc prend possession de sa frégate Fremm Mohammed VI" L'Usine Nouvelle in French Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  3. ^ "Caractéristiques" FREMM Aquitaine D 650 in French Minstère de la Défense 12 August 2013 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  4. ^ "Fregate Europee Multi Missione - FREMM" in Italian Ministero Della Difesa Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  5. ^ https://wwwfincantiericom/it/prodotti-servizi/navi-militari/bergamini-class/
  6. ^ http://difesaforumfreeit/act=Post&CODE=02&f=11154050&t=69803297&st=2160&p=607614522
  7. ^ http://wwwleonardocompanycom/documents/63265270/65469778/Copia+di+KRONOS_Grand_Naval_LQ_mm07943_pdfdownload_file
  8. ^ a b "FREMM : 11 frégates multi-missions pour la flotte française" Mer et Marine in French 26 October 2008 
  9. ^ "Frégates : Le point sur les futures FREDA" Mer et Marine in French 12 October 2009 
  10. ^ "DCNS to unveil new FREMM Frigate variant, updated BRAVE supply ship design at Euronaval 2012" Belgium: Navy Recognition 4 October 2012 
  11. ^ Nodwell, Bethan 2013 "Extending Navy Capabilities FREMM-ER" FrontLine Defence Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  12. ^ "FREMM : Supprimer des frégates, un non sens économique et stratégique" Mer et Marine in French 19 September 2007 
  13. ^ "White Paper on Defense and National Security 2013" PDF Minstère de la Défense 29 April 2013 p 91 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  14. ^ "Projet De Loi De programmation Militarie 2014/2019" PDF in French Minstère de la Défense August 2013 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  15. ^ "Amiral Rogel : " Conserver un outil efficace et adapté aux menaces de demain "" Mer et Marine in French 29 October 2014 Retrieved 30 April 2015  subscription required
  16. ^ a b "Update to French Military Planning Law Means New Capabilities for Lafayette Class Frigates" Navy Reocgnition 2015-05-21 
  17. ^ https://wwwfincantiericom/en/products-and-services/naval-vessels/bergamini-class/
  18. ^ Accord conclu pour la vente d'une frégate française au Maroc | Mer et Marine Archived November 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ La construction de la FREMM marocaine débute à Lorient | Mer et Marine Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "ΑΠΟΚΛΕΙΣΤΙΚΟ: O Ε Μεϊμαράκης ανακοίνωσε πρόγραμμα εξοπλισμών" in Greek DefenceNetgr 23 January 2009 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  21. ^ "Germans Question Contract : France to Sell Frigates to Greece in Controversial Deal" Der Spiegel 17 October 2011 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  22. ^ "La Grèce va louer 2 frégates françaises" Le Figaro in French 19 February 2013 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  23. ^ "French pitch new warships for next Canadian navy vessels" CBC News 20 April 2013 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  24. ^ Brewster, Murray 2016-10-26 "Frigate replacement program kicks off with design competition" CBC News 
  25. ^ Lert, Frédéric 16 February 2015 "Egypt officially signs for 24 Rafales, FREMM frigate, and missiles" IHS Jane's Defence Weekly Retrieved 21 February 2015 
  26. ^ "Official French Navy Statement on the Sale of a FREMM Multi-Mission Frigate to Egypt" 13 February 2015 
  27. ^ "FREMM pour l’Egypte : Ça se précise…" 17 December 2014 Retrieved 18 January 2015 
  28. ^ a b "DCNS Transferred the FREMM Frigate Tahya Misr to the Egyptian Navy" 24 June 2015 
  29. ^ "Un satellite Airbus-Thalès vendu à l'Egypte" 19 April 2016 
  30. ^ "DCNS Transfers the FREMM Tahya Misr to the Egyptian Navy" 24 June 2015 
  31. ^ "Egypt receives its first FREMM frigate" Janescom 25 June 2015 Retrieved 12 May 2016 
  32. ^ Anderson, Stephanie 18 April 2016 "Malcolm Turnbull says 12 offshore patrol vessels to be built in Adelaide" ABC News ABC News Australia Retrieved 18 April 2016 
  33. ^ https://wwwfincantieriit/cms/data/browse/news/000779aspx
  34. ^ 1 Archived December 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Stemar RIB 68 MM" in Italian FNN Marine Diesel Engine Retrieved 30 April 2015 
  36. ^ RID Rivista italiana difesa, gennaio 2013
  37. ^ "La Marine réceptionne la FREMM Aquitaine" in French Minstère de la Défense 27 November 2012 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  38. ^ "DCNS delivers multi-mission frigate Auvergne, the fourth FREMM for the French Navy" in eng dcnsgroupcom 11 April 2017 Retrieved 11 April 2017 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language link
  39. ^ "Egypt receives its first FREMM frigate" 23 June 2015 
  40. ^ "Egypt's Sisi attends navy manoeuvre, raises flag over new frigate" englishahramorgeg 17 March 2016 
  41. ^ "La FREMM Tahia Misr en route pour Alexandrie" in French 23 July 2015 
  42. ^ Gaiani, Gianandrea 26 November 2012 "Modifiche E Qualche Ritocco Per Le Fremm" in Italian Analisi Difesa Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  43. ^ "The first multipurpose frigate launched: the "Carlo Bergamini"" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 16 July 2011 
  44. ^ "Italian FREMM FOC GP Carlo BERGAMINI Delivered To The Italian Navy" Press release OCCAR 29 May 2013 
  45. ^ "Second multipurpose frigate launched: Virginio Fasan" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 31 March 2012 
  46. ^ "Second Italian FREMM frigate 'Virginio Fasan' Delivered" Orizzonte Sistemi Navali 19 December 2013 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  47. ^ "The first multipurpose frigate launched: the "Carlo Margottini"" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 29 June 2013 
  48. ^ "FREMM again" Press release OCCAR 27 February 2014 
  49. ^ "CARABINIERE: 4th Italian FREMM launched" Press release OCCAR 29 March 2014 
  50. ^ "FREMM "Carabiniere" delivered to the Italian Navy" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 28 April 2015 
  51. ^ "The fifth multipurpose frigate launched - the "Alpino"" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 13 December 2014 
  52. ^ "FREMM "Alpino" delivered to the Italian Navy" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 30 September 2016 
  53. ^ "The sixth multipurpose frigate "Luigi Rizzo" launched" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 19 December 2015 
  54. ^ "FREMM "Rizzo" delivered to the Italian Navy" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 20 April 2017 
  55. ^ "Fincantieri, Riva Trigoso: iniziati i lavori per la settima Fremm" in Italian The Medi Telegraph 5 June 2014 Retrieved 24 October 2014 
  56. ^ "The seventh multipurpose frigate “Federico Martinengo” launched" Press release Trieste: Fincantieri 4 March 2017 
  57. ^ "Laying down Ceremony for the 8th Italian FREMM" Press release OCCAR 12 July 2015 
  58. ^ "Riva Trigoso: Fincantieri, Iniziano Lavori 8ª Unità Programma FREMM" in Italian Agenzia Giornalistica Globalpress 25 February 2015 Retrieved 30 April 2015 
  59. ^ http://wwwportaledifesait/forum/showthreadphptid=377&pid=76815#pid76815
  60. ^ http://wwwoccarint/442

External linksedit

  • FREMM Aquitaine class Frigate - DCNSNavy recognition
  • French Navy Official Page in French
  • Italian Navy Official Page in Italian
  • Detail, story and image on Italian FREMM
  • FREMM Greece in Greek
  • Esercitata l'opzione per la nona e la decima FREMM

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