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Free software

free software, free software downloads
Free software, freedom-respecting software, or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute the software and any adapted versions The right to study and modify software entails access to its source code For computer programs that are covered by copyright law, this is achieved with a software license by which the author grants users the aforementioned freedom Software that is not covered by copyright law, such as software in the public domain, is free if the source code is in the public domain, or otherwise available without restrictions Other legal and technical aspects, such as software patents and digital rights management may restrict users in exercising their rights, and thus prevent software from being free Free software may be developed collaboratively by volunteer computer programmers or by corporations; as part of a commercial, for-profit activity or not

Free software is a matter of liberty, not price: users, individually or collectively, are free to do what they want with it, including the freedom to redistribute the software free of charge, or to sell it, or charge for related services such as support or warranty for profit Free software thus differs from proprietary software, such as Microsoft Office, Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides or iWork from Apple, which users cannot study, change, and share Free software is also different than freeware, which is a category of freedom-restricting proprietary software that does not require payment for use Proprietary software, including freeware, use restrictive software licences or EULAs and usually do not provide access to the source code Users are thus prevented from changing the software, and this results in the user relying on the publisher to provide updates, help, and support This situation is called vendor lock-in Users often may not reverse engineer, modify, or redistribute proprietary software

Richard Stallman used the already existing term free software when he launched the GNU Project—a collaborative effort to create a freedom-respecting operating system—and the Free Software Foundation FSF The FSF's Free Software Definition states that users of free software are free because they do not need to ask for permission to use the software


  • 1 History
    • 11 1980s: Foundation of the GNU project
    • 12 1990s: Release of the Linux kernel
  • 2 Naming
  • 3 Definition and the Four Freedoms
  • 4 Examples
  • 5 Licensing
  • 6 Security and reliability
    • 61 Binary blobs and other proprietary software
  • 7 Business model
  • 8 Economical aspects and adoption
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links


Further information: History of free and open-source software See also: Open-source software § History Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Movement 2009

From the 1950s up until the early 1970s, it was normal for computer users to have the software freedoms associated with free software, which was typically public domain software Software was commonly shared by individuals who used computers and by hardware manufacturers who welcomed the fact that people were making software that made their hardware useful Organizations of users and suppliers, for example, SHARE, were formed to facilitate exchange of software As software was often written in an interpreted language such as BASIC, the source code was distributed to use a software Software was also shared and distributed as printed source code Type-in program in computer magazines like Creative Computing, SoftSide, Compute!, Byte etc and books, like the bestseller BASIC Computer Games By the early 1970s, the picture changed: software costs were dramatically increasing, a growing software industry was competing with the hardware manufacturer's bundled software products free in that the cost was included in the hardware cost, leased machines required software support while providing no revenue for software, and some customers able to better meet their own needs did not want the costs of "free" software bundled with hardware product costs In United States vs IBM, filed January 17, 1969, the government charged that bundled software was anti-competitive While some software might always be free, there would henceforth be a growing amount of software produced primarily for sale In the 1970s and early 1980s, the software industry began using technical measures such as only distributing binary copies of computer programs to prevent computer users from being able to study or adapt the software as they saw fit In 1980, copyright law was extended to computer programs

In 1983, Richard Stallman, one of the original authors of the popular Emacs program and a longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, the purpose of which was to produce a completely non-proprietary Unix-compatible operating system, saying that he had become frustrated with the shift in climate surrounding the computer world and its users In his initial declaration of the project and its purpose, he specifically cited as a motivation his opposition to being asked to agree to non-disclosure agreements and restrictive licenses which prohibited the free sharing of potentially profitable in-development software, a prohibition directly contrary to the traditional hacker ethic Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation FSF was founded in October 1985 He developed a free software definition and the concept of "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all Some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development process; scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses see the OpenCores project, for instance Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement

1980s: Foundation of the GNU project

In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation FSF was founded in October 1985 An article outlining the project and its goals was published in March 1985 titled the GNU Manifesto The manifesto included significant explanation of the GNU philosophy, Free Software Definition and "copyleft" ideas

1990s: Release of the Linux kernel

The Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, was released as freely modifiable source code in 1991 The first licence was a proprietary software licence However, with version 012 in February 1992, he relicensed the project under the GNU General Public License Much like Unix, Torvalds' kernel attracted the attention of volunteer programmers FreeBSD and NetBSD both derived from 386BSD were released as free software when the USL v BSDi lawsuit was settled out of court in 1993 OpenBSD forked from NetBSD in 1995 Also in 1995, The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache, was released under the Apache License 10


Main article: Alternative terms for free software

The FSF recommends using the term "free software" rather than "open-source software" because, as they state in a paper on Free Software philosophy, the latter term and the associated marketing campaign focuses on the technical issues of software development, avoiding the issue of user freedoms The FSF also notes that "Open Source" has exactly one specific meaning in common English, namely that "you can look at the source code" Stallman states that while the term "Free Software" can lead to two different interpretations, one of them is consistent with FSF definition of Free Software so there is at least some chance that it could be understood properly, unlike the term "Open Source" Stallman has also stated that considering the practical advantages of free software is like considering the practical advantages of not being handcuffed in that it is not necessary for an individual to consider practical reasons in order to realize that being handcuffed restricts their freedom "Libre" is often used to avoid the ambiguity of the word "free" in English language and the ambiguity with the older usage of "free software" as public domain software; see Gratis versus libre

Definition and the Four Freedoms

Main article: The Free Software Definition See also: Debian Free Software Guidelines and Open Source Definition Diagram of free and nonfree software, as defined by the Free Software Foundation Left: free software, right: proprietary software, encircled: Gratis software

The first formal definition of free software was published by FSF in February 1986 That definition, written by Richard Stallman, is still maintained today and states that software is free software if people who receive a copy of the software have the following four freedoms The numbering begins with zero, not only as a spoof on the common usage of zero-based numbering in programming languages, but also because "Freedom 0" was not initially included in the list, but later added first in the list as it was considered very important

  • Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose
  • Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish
  • Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute and make copies so you can help your neighbor
  • Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements and modified versions in general to the public, so that the whole community benefits

Freedoms 1 and 3 require source code to be available because studying and modifying software without its source code can range from highly impractical to nearly impossible

Thus, free software means that computer users have the freedom to cooperate with whom they choose, and to control the software they use To summarize this into a remark distinguishing libre freedom software from gratis zero price software, the Free Software Foundation says: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech', not as in 'free beer'" See Gratis versus libre

In the late 1990s, other groups published their own definitions that describe an almost identical set of software The most notable are Debian Free Software Guidelines published in 1997, and the Open Source Definition, published in 1998

The BSD-based operating systems, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD, do not have their own formal definitions of free software Users of these systems generally find the same set of software to be acceptable, but sometimes see copyleft as restrictive They generally advocate permissive free software licenses, which allow others to use the software as they wish, without being legally forced to provide the source code Their view is that this permissive approach is more free The Kerberos, X11, and Apache software licenses are substantially similar in intent and implementation


Main article: List of free and open-source software packages Creating a 3D car racing game using the free/open-source Blender Game Engine Modern desktop: Here is a screenshot of Linux Mint running the Xfce desktop environment, Firefox, a calculator program, the built-in calendar, Vim, GIMP , and VLC media player Thousands of other free desktop applications are available on the Internet Users can easily download and install this free software via a simple package manager that comes with most Linux distributions

The Free Software Directory maintains a large database of free software packages Some of the best-known examples include the Linux kernel, the BSD and Linux operating systems, the GNU Compiler Collection and C library; the MySQL relational database; the Apache web server; and the Sendmail mail transport agent Other influential examples include the Emacs text editor; the GIMP raster drawing and image editor; the X Window System graphical-display system; the LibreOffice office suite; and the TeX and LaTeX typesetting systems


Main article: Free software license Further information: Open-source license See also: Free and open-source software § Licensing

All free software licenses must grant users all the freedoms discussed above However, unless the applications' licenses are compatible, combining programs by mixing source code or directly linking binaries is problematic, because of license technicalities Programs indirectly connected together may avoid this problem

The majority of free software falls under a small set of licenses The most popular of these licenses are:

  • The MIT License
  • The GNU General Public License v2
  • The Apache License
  • The GNU General Public License v3
  • The BSD License
  • The GNU Lesser General Public License
  • The Mozilla Public License MPL
  • The Eclipse Public License

The Free Software Foundation and the Open Source Initiative both publish lists of licenses that they find to comply with their own definitions of free software and open-source software respectively:

  • List of FSF approved software licenses
  • List of OSI approved software licenses

The FSF list is not prescriptive: free licenses can exist that the FSF has not heard about, or considered important enough to write about So it's possible for a license to be free and not in the FSF list The OSI list only lists licenses that have been submitted, considered and approved All open-source licenses must meet the Open Source Definition in order to be officially recognized as open source software Free software on the other hand is a more informal classification that does not rely on official recognition Nevertheless, software licensed under licenses that do not meet the Free Software Definition cannot rightly be considered free software

Editing an audio file using the free/open-source audio editor Audacity

Apart from these two organizations, the Debian project is seen by some to provide useful advice on whether particular licenses comply with their Debian Free Software Guidelines Debian doesn't publish a list of approved licenses, so its judgments have to be tracked by checking what software they have allowed into their software archives That is summarized at the Debian web site

It is rare that a license announced as being in-compliance with the FSF guidelines does not also meet the Open Source Definition, although the reverse is not necessarily true for example, the NASA Open Source Agreement is an OSI-approved license, but non-free according to FSF

There are different categories of free software

  • Public domain software: the copyright has expired, the work was not copyrighted released without copyright notice before 1988, or the author has released the software onto the public domain with a waiver statement in countries where this is possible Since public-domain software lacks copyright protection, it may be freely incorporated into any work, whether proprietary or free The FSF recommends the CC0 public domain dedication for this purpose
  • Permissive licenses, also called BSD-style because they are applied to much of the software distributed with the BSD operating systems: these licenses are also known as copyfree as they have no restrictions on distribution The author retains copyright solely to disclaim warranty and require proper attribution of modified works, and permits redistribution and any modification, even closed-source ones In this sense, a permissive license provides an incentive to create non-free software, by reducing the cost of developing restricted software Since this is incompatible with the spirit of software freedom, many people consider permissive licenses to be less free than copyleft licenses
  • Copyleft licenses, with the GNU General Public License being the most prominent: the author retains copyright and permits redistribution under the restriction that all such redistribution is licensed under the same license Additions and modifications by others must also be licensed under the same "copyleft" license whenever they are distributed with part of the original licensed product This is also known as a Viral license Due to the restriction on distribution not everyone considers this type of license to be free

Security and reliability

Almost all computer viruses can only affect the Microsoft Windows operating system, but antivirus software such as Comodo, ClamAV shown here is still provided for Linux and other Unix-based systems, so that users can scan files to detect malware that might infect Windows hosts

There is debate over the security of free software in comparison to proprietary software, with a major issue being security through obscurity A popular quantitative test in computer security is to use relative counting of known unpatched security flaws Generally, users of this method advise avoiding products that lack fixes for known security flaws, at least until a fix is available

Free software advocates strongly believe that this methodology is biased by counting more vulnerabilities for the free software, since its source code is accessible and its community is more forthcoming about what problems exist, This is called "Security Through Disclosure" and proprietary software can have undisclosed societal drawbacks, such as disenfranchising less fortunate would-be users of free programs As users can analyse and trace the source code, many more people with no commercial constraints can inspect the code and find bugs and loopholes than a corporation would find practicable According to Richard Stallman, user access to the source code makes deploying free software with undesirable hidden spyware functionality far more difficult than for proprietary software

Some quantitative studies have been done on the subject

Many free operating systems such as Debian GNU/Linux, OpenBSD, and FreeBSD have more secure default installation configurations than Microsoft Windows, resulting in far fewer compromised systems Furthermore, users of free operating systems have access to a wide array of free security software, such as the packet analyzer Wireshark shown here, which they can use to secure their operating systems and networks

Binary blobs and other proprietary software

In 2006, OpenBSD started the first campaign against the use of binary blobs in kernels Blobs are usually freely distributable device drivers for hardware from vendors that do not reveal driver source code to users or developers This restricts the users' freedom effectively to modify the software and distribute modified versions Also, since the blobs are undocumented and may have bugs, they pose a security risk to any operating system whose kernel includes them The proclaimed aim of the campaign against blobs is to collect hardware documentation that allows developers to write free software drivers for that hardware, ultimately enabling all free operating systems to become or remain blob-free

The issue of binary blobs in the Linux kernel and other device drivers motivated some developers in Ireland to launch gNewSense, a Linux based distribution with all the binary blobs removed The project received support from the Free Software Foundation and stimulated the creation, headed by the Free Software Foundation Latin America, of the Linux-libre kernel As of October 2012, Trisquel is the most popular FSF endorsed Linux distribution ranked by Distrowatch over 12 months

Business model

See also: Business models for open-source software

Since free software may be freely redistributed, it is generally available at little or no fee Free software business models are usually based on adding value such as applications, support, training, customization, integration, or certification At the same time, some business models that work with proprietary software are not compatible with free software, such as those that depend on the user to pay for a license in order to lawfully use the software product

Fees are usually charged for distribution on compact discs and bootable USB drives, or for services of installing or maintaining the operation of free software Development of large, commercially used free software is often funded by a combination of user donations, corporate contributions, and tax money Depending on the license type, free software can be embedded in commercial products, too The SELinux project at the United States National Security Agency is an example of a federally funded free software project

In practice, for software to be distributed as free software, the source code, a human-readable form of the program from which an executable form is produced, must be accessible to the recipient along with a document granting the same rights to free software under which it was published Such a document is either a free software license or the release of the source code into the public domain

Selling software under any free software licence is permissible, as is commercial use This is true for permissive licences, such as the BSD licence, or copyleft licences such as the GNU GPL

The Free Software Foundation encourages selling free software As the Foundation has written, "Distributing free software is an opportunity to raise funds for development Don't waste it!" For example the GNU GPL that is the Free Software Foundation's license states that " may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee"

Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer stated in 2001 that "Open source is not available to commercial companies The way the license is written, if you use any open-source software, you have to make the rest of your software open source" This misunderstanding is based on a requirement of copyleft licenses like the GPL that if one distributes modified versions of software, they must release the source and use the same license This requirement does not extend to other software from the same developer The claim of incompatibility between commercial companies and Free Software is also a misunderstanding There are several large companies, eg Red Hat and IBM, which do substantial commercial business in the development of Free Software

Under the free software business model, free software vendors may charge a fee for distribution and offer pay support and software customization services Proprietary software uses a different business model, where a customer of the proprietary software pays a fee for a license to use the software This license may grant the customer the ability to configure some or no parts of the software themselves Often some level of support is included in the purchase of proprietary software, but additional support services especially for enterprise applications are usually available for an additional fee Some proprietary software vendors will also customize software for a fee

Economical aspects and adoption

Main article: Free and open-source software § Adoption See also: Linux adoption and Open-source software § Adoption
Free Software runs the world
Of the world's five hundred fastest supercomputers, 494 988% use the Linux kernel The world's second fastest computer is the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Titan supercomputer illustrated, which uses the Cray Linux Environment

Free software played a significant part in the development of the Internet, the World Wide Web and the infrastructure of dot-com companies Free software allows users to cooperate in enhancing and refining the programs they use; free software is a pure public good rather than a private good Companies that contribute to free software can increase commercial innovation amidst the void of patent cross licensing lawsuits See mpeg2 patent holders

“We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed an operating system that was stable and reliable -- one that would give us in-house control So if we needed to patch, adjust, or adapt, we could”

Official statement of the United Space Alliance, which manages the computer systems for the International Space Station ISS, regarding their May 2013 decision to migrate ISS computer systems from Windows to Linux

The economic viability of free software has been recognized by large corporations such as IBM, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems Many companies whose core business is not in the IT sector choose free software for their Internet information and sales sites, due to the lower initial capital investment and ability to freely customize the application packages Most companies in the software business include free software in their commercial products if the licenses allow that

Free software is generally available at no cost and can result in permanently lower TCO costs compared to proprietary software With free software, businesses can fit software to their specific needs by changing the software themselves or by hiring programmers to modify it for them Free software often has no warranty, and more importantly, generally does not assign legal liability to anyone However, warranties are permitted between any two parties upon the condition of the software and its usage Such an agreement is made separately from the free software license

A report by Standish Group estimates that adoption of free software has caused a drop in revenue to the proprietary software industry by about $60 billion per year In spite of this, Eric S Raymond argues that the term free software is too ambiguous and intimidating for the business community Raymond promotes the term open-source software as a friendlier alternative for the business and corporate world

See also

  • Free software portal
  • Software portal
  • Definition of Free Cultural Works
  • Digital rights
  • Free content
  • Free and open-source software
  • Libre knowledge
  • Open format
  • Open standard
  • Open-source hardware
  • Outline of free software
  • Public domain
  • Category:Free software lists and comparisons
  • List of formerly proprietary software
  • List of free software project directories
  • List of free software for Web 20 Services


  1. ^ See GNU Project "What is Free Software" Free Software Foundation 
  2. ^ http://wwwinternethalloffameorg/inductees/richard-stallman
  3. ^ Free Software Movement gnuorg
  4. ^ Philosophy of the GNU Project gnuorg
  5. ^ a b What is free software fsforg
  6. ^ "GNU Press - Free Software Foundation Online Shop - Buy GNU t-shirts, books, stickers and stuffed gnu toys" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  7. ^ "Software Freedom Law Center" 
  8. ^ Sullivan, John 17 July 2008 "The Last Mile is Always the Hardest" fsforg Archived from the original on 28 October 2014 Retrieved 29 December 2014 
  9. ^ Selling Free Software gnuorg
  10. ^ Dixon, Rod 2004 Open Source Software Law Artech House p 4 ISBN 978-1-58053-719-3 Retrieved 2009-03-16 
  11. ^ Graham, Lawrence D 1999 Legal battles that shaped the computer industry Greenwood Publishing Group p 175 ISBN 978-1-56720-178-9 Retrieved 2009-03-16 
  12. ^ a b c Shea, Tom 1983-06-23 "Free software - Free software is a junkyard of software spare parts" InfoWorld Retrieved 2016-02-10 "In contrast to commercial software is a large and growing body of free software that exists in the public domain Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists also known as "hackers" many of whom are professional programmers in their work life Since everybody has access to source code, many routines have not only been used but dramatically improved by other programmers" 
  13. ^ "GNU project Initial Announcement" 
  14. ^ Ahl, David "David H Ahl biography from Who's Who in America" Retrieved 2009-11-23 
  15. ^ Fisher, Franklin M; McKie, James W; Mancke, Richard B 1983 IBM and the US Data Processing Industry: An Economic History Praeger ISBN 0-03-063059-2 
  16. ^ William 2002
  17. ^ "Release notes for Linux kernel 012" Kernelorg 
  18. ^ "Why "Open Source" misses the point of Free Software" 
  19. ^ Stallman, Richard 2013-05-14 "The advantages of free software" Free Software Foundation Retrieved 2013-08-12 
  20. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, Volume 1 Number 1, page 8" 
  21. ^ a b Free Software Foundation "What is free software" Retrieved 14 December 2011 
  22. ^ "Four Freedoms - FSFE" fsfeorg 
  23. ^ Perens, Bruce "Debian's "Social Contract" with the Free Software Community" debian-announce mailing list 
  24. ^ "Top 20 licenses" Black Duck Software 19 November 2015 Retrieved 19 November 2015 1 MIT license 24%, 2 GNU General Public License GPL 20 23%, 3 Apache License 16%, 4 GNU General Public License GPL 30 9%, 5 BSD License 20 3-clause, New or Revised License 6%, 6 GNU Lesser General Public License LGPL 21 5%, 7 Artistic License Perl 4%, 8 GNU Lesser General Public License LGPL 30 2%, 9 Microsoft Public License 2%, 10 Eclipse Public License EPL 2% 
  25. ^ Balter, Ben 2015-03-09 "Open source license usage on GitHubcom" githubcom Retrieved 2015-11-21 "1 MIT 4469%, 2 Other 1568%, 3 GPLv2 1296%, 4 Apache 1119%, 5 GPLv3 888%, 6 BSD 3-clause 453%, 7 Unlicense 187%, 8 BSD 2-clause 170%, 9 LGPLv3 130%, 10 AGPLv3 105% 
  26. ^ "Debian -- License information" Retrieved 2008-01-08 
  27. ^ "Various Licenses and Comments about Them" gnuorg Retrieved 20 March 2014 
  28. ^ "CI: Main" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  29. ^ "Why Not Use the GPL Thoughts on Free and Open-Source Software" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  30. ^ "Journey into the minds of strangers" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  31. ^ Mookhey, KK; Burghate, Nilesh 2005 Linux: Security, Audit and Control Features ISACA p 128 ISBN 9781893209787  CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  32. ^ Toxen, Bob 2003 Real World Linux Security: Intrusion Prevention, Detection, and Recovery Prentice Hall Professional p 365 ISBN 9780130464569 
  33. ^ Noyes, Katherine Aug 3, 2010 "Why Linux Is More Secure Than Windows" PCWorld 
  34. ^ "Firefox more secure than MSIE after all" Newscom 
  35. ^ "The Benefits of Open Source" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  36. ^ "Transcript where Stallman explains about spyware" 
  37. ^ David A Wheeler: Why Open Source Software / Free Software OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS Look at the Numbers! 2007
  38. ^ Michelle Delio: Linux: Fewer Bugs Than Rivals Wiredcom 2004
  39. ^ Barton P Miller; David Koski; Cjin Pheow Lee; Vivekananda Maganty; Ravi Murthy; Ajitkumar Natarajan; Jeff Steidl October 1995 "Fuzz Revisited: A Re-examination of the Reliability of UNIX Utilities and Services" PDF Madison, WI 53706-1685 USA: University of Wisconsin: Computer Sciences Department Archived from the original pdf on 21 June 2010 Retrieved 1 May 2013 The reliability of the basic utilities from GNU and Linux were noticeably better than those of the commercial systems  
  40. ^ Barton P Miller; Gregory Cooksey; Fredrick Moore 20 July 2006 "An Empirical Study of the Robustness of MacOS Applications Using Random Testing" PDF Madison, WI 53706-1685 USA: University of Wisconsin: Computer Sciences Department: 1, 2 Archived from the original pdf on 21 June 2010 Retrieved 1 May 2013 We are back again, this time testing Apple’s Mac OS X While the results were reasonable, we were disappointed to find that the reliability was no better than that of the Linux/GNU tools tested in 1995 We were less sure what to expect when testing the GUI- based applications; the results turned out worse than we expected 
  41. ^ "Links to Other Free Software Sites - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  42. ^ "DistroWatch Page Hit Ranking" DistroWatch 30 October 2012 Retrieved 30 October 2012 
  43. ^ a b c Popp, Dr Karl Michael 2015 Best Practices for commercial use of open source software Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand ISBN 978-3738619096 
  44. ^ "BSD license definition" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  45. ^ "Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  46. ^ Selling Free Software gnuorg
  47. ^ GNU General Public License, section 4 gnuorg
  48. ^ "Ballmer calling open source a 'cancer', saying it's "not available to commercial companies"" Archived from the original on 2001-06-15 Retrieved 2001-06-15  CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link Chicago Sun-Times, 2001
  49. ^ Andy Dornan "The Five Open Source Business Models"  Archived October 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "Top500 - List Statistics - November 2015" Top500org Retrieved 29 May 2016 
  51. ^ "Roadrunner - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 32 GHz / Opteron DC 18 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband" Top500org Retrieved 30 March 2013 
  52. ^ Netcraft "Web Server Usage Survey" 
  53. ^ The Apache Software Foundation "Apache Strategy in the New Economy" PDF 
  54. ^ Gunter, Joel May 10, 2013 "International Space Station to boldly go with Linux over Windows" The Telegraph 
  55. ^ Bridgewater, Adrian May 13, 2013 "International Space Station adopts Debian Linux, drops Windows & Red Hat into airlock" Computer Weekly 
  56. ^ "IBM launches biggest Linux lineup ever" IBM 1999-03-02 Archived from the original on 1999-11-10 
  57. ^ Hamid, Farrah 2006-05-24 "IBM invests in Brazil Linux Tech Center" LWNnet 
  58. ^ "Interview: The Eclipse code donation" IBM 2001-11-01 Archived from the original on 2009-12-18 
  59. ^ "Sun begins releasing Java under the GPL" Free Software Foundation November 15, 2006 Retrieved 2007-09-23 
  60. ^ Rishab Aiyer Ghosh November 20, 2006 "Study on the: Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies ICT sector in the EU" PDF European Union p 51 Retrieved 2007-01-25 
  61. ^ "Total cost of ownership of open source software: a report for the UK Cabinet Office supported by OpenForum Europe" Retrieved 19 March 2015 
  62. ^ "Open Source" Standish Newsroom Standishgroupcom 2008-04-16 Retrieved 2010-08-22 
  63. ^ Eric S Raymond "Eric S Raymond's initial call to start using the term open source software, instead of free software" 

Further reading

  • Puckette, Miller "Who Owns our Software: A first-person case study" eContact September 2009 Montréal: CEC
  • Hancock, Terry "The Jargon of Freedom: 60 Words and Phrases with Context" Free Software Magazine 2010-20-24
  • Stallman, Richard M 2010 Free Software Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M Stallman, 2nd Edition GNU Press ISBN 978-0-9831592-0-9 

External links

Definition and philosophy
  • Free Software Movement gnuorg
  • Philosophy of the GNU Project gnuorg
  • What is free software gnuorg
  • What is free software fsforg
  • Categories of free and nonfree software gnuorg
  • Freedom for Users, Not for Software Benjamin Mako Hill
  • What Does Free Mean or What do you mean by Free Software debianorg
  • Video and audio presentations on Free Software top link
  • Free as in Freedom originally the oggcast of the Software Freedom Law Center, it includes a focus on law issues, and other topics
  • Free Software from the GNU Project
  • Free Software Directory catalog of useful free software

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