Frederick Winslow Taylor


Frederick Winslow Taylor March 20, 1856 – March 21, 1915 was an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency2 He was one of the first management consultants3 Taylor was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era 1890s-1920s Taylor summed up his efficiency techniques in his 1911 book The Principles of Scientific Management, which in 2001 Fellows of the Academy of Management voted the most influential management book of the twentieth century4 His pioneering work in applying engineering principles to the work done on the factory floor was instrumental in the creation and development of the branch of engineering that is now known as industrial engineering Taylor was also an athlete who competed nationally in tennis and golf

Contents

  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Work
    • 21 Managers and workers
    • 22 Rhetorical techniques
    • 23 Scholarly debate about increased efficiency moving pig iron at Bethlehem's Iron and Steel
    • 24 Management theory
    • 25 Relations with ASME
    • 26 Patents
  • 3 Taylor's influence
    • 31 United States
    • 32 France
    • 33 Great Britain
    • 34 Switzerland
    • 35 USSR
    • 36 Canada
    • 37 The Taylor Society and its legacy
    • 38 Criticism of Taylor
  • 4 Tennis and golf accomplishments
  • 5 Publications
  • 6 References
  • 7 Sources
  • 8 Further reading
    • 81 Primary sources
  • 9 External links

Biographyedit

Taylor was born in 1856 to a Quaker family in Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Taylor's father, Franklin Taylor, a Princeton-educated lawyer, built his wealth on mortgages5 Taylor's mother, Emily Annette Taylor née Winslow, was an ardent abolitionist and a coworker with Lucretia Mott His father's ancestor, Samuel Taylor, settled in Burlington, New Jersey, in 1677 His mother's ancestor, Edward Winslow, was one of the fifteen original Mayflower Pilgrims who brought servants or children, and one of eight who had the honorable distinction of Mister Winslow served for many years as the Governor of the Plymouth colony

Educated early by his mother, Taylor studied for two years in France and Germany and traveled Europe for 18 months6 In 1872, he entered Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, with the plan of eventually going to Harvard and becoming a lawyer like his father In 1874, Taylor passed the Harvard entrance examinations with honors However, due allegedly to rapidly deteriorating eyesight, Taylor chose quite a different path

Instead of attending Harvard University, Taylor became an apprentice patternmaker and machinist, gaining shop-floor experience at Enterprise Hydraulic Works in Philadelphia a pump-manufacturing company whose proprietors were friends of the Taylor family He left his apprenticeship for six months and represented a group of New England machine-tool manufacturers at Philadelphia's centennial exposition Taylor finished his four-year apprenticeship and in 1878 became a machine-shop laborer at Midvale Steel Works At Midvale, he was quickly promoted to time clerk, journeyman machinist, gang boss over the lathe hands, machine shop foreman, research director, and finally chief engineer of the works while maintaining his position as machine shop foreman Taylor's fast promotions reflected both his talent and his family's relationship with Edward Clark, part owner of Midvale Steel Edward Clark's son Clarence Clark, who was also a manager at Midvale Steel, married Taylor's sister

Midvale Steel Works Aerial View, 1879

Early on at Midvale, working as a laborer and machinist, Taylor recognized that workmen were not working their machines, or themselves, nearly as hard as they could which at the time was called "soldiering" and that this resulted in high labor costs for the company When he became a foreman he expected more output from the workmen In order to determine how much work should properly be expected, he began to study and analyze the productivity of both the men and the machines although the word "productivity" was not used at the time, and the applied science of productivity had not yet been developed His focus on the human component of production Taylor labeled scientific management7

While Taylor worked at Midvale, he and Clarence Clark won the first tennis doubles tournament in the 1881 US National Championships, the precursor of the US Open2 Taylor became a student of Stevens Institute of Technology, studying via correspondence8 and obtaining a degree in mechanical engineering in 1883 On May 3, 1884, he married Louise M Spooner of Philadelphia

The Bethlehem Steel plant, 1896

From 1890 until 1893 Taylor worked as a general manager and a consulting engineer to management for the Manufacturing Investment Company of Philadelphia, a company that operated large paper mills in Maine and Wisconsin He spent time as a plant manager in Maine In 1893, Taylor opened an independent consulting practice in Philadelphia His business card read "Consulting Engineer - Systematizing Shop Management and Manufacturing Costs a Specialty" Through these consulting experiences, Taylor perfected his management system In 1898 he joined Bethlehem Steel in order to solve an expensive machine-shop capacity problem As a result, he and Maunsel White, with a team of assistants, developed high speed steel, paving the way for greatly increased mass production Taylor was forced to leave Bethlehem Steel in 1901 after discord with other managers

After leaving Bethlehem Steel, Taylor focused the rest of his career on publicly promoting his management and machining methods through lecturing, writing, and consulting In 1910, owing to the Eastern Rate Case, Frederick Winslow Taylor and his Scientific Management methodologies become famous worldwide In 1911, Taylor introduced his The Principles of Scientific Management paper to the American mechanical engineering society, eight years after his Shop Management paper

On October 19, 1906, Taylor was awarded an honorary degree of Doctor of Science by the University of Pennsylvania9 Taylor eventually became a professor at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College10 In early spring of 1915 Taylor caught pneumonia and died, one day after his fifty-ninth birthday, on March 21, 1915 He was buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery, in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania

Workedit

Taylor was a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency Taylor is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants and director of a famous firm In Peter Drucker's description,

Frederick W Taylor was the first man in recorded history who deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study On Taylor's 'scientific management' rests, above all, the tremendous surge of affluence in the last seventy-five years which has lifted the working masses in the developed countries well above any level recorded before, even for the well-to-do Taylor, though the Isaac Newton or perhaps the Archimedes of the science of work, laid only first foundations, however Not much has been added to them since – even though he has been dead all of sixty years11

Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles:

  1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks
  2. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves
  3. Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" Montgomery 1997: 250
  4. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks

Future US Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis coined the term scientific management in the course of his argument for the Eastern Rate Case before the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1910 Brandeis argued that railroads, when governed according to Taylor's principles, did not need to raise rates to increase wages Taylor used Brandeis's term in the title of his monograph The Principles of Scientific Management, published in 1911 The Eastern Rate Case propelled Taylor's ideas to the forefront of the management agenda Taylor wrote to Brandeis "I have rarely seen a new movement started with such great momentum as you have given this one" Taylor's approach is also often referred to as Taylor's Principles, or, frequently disparagingly, as Taylorism

Managers and workersedit

Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system:

It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone12

Workers were supposed to be incapable of understanding what they were doing According to Taylor this was true even for rather simple tasks

'I can say, without the slightest hesitation,' Taylor told a congressional committee, 'that the science of handling pig-iron is so great that the man who is physically able to handle pig-iron and is sufficiently phlegmatic and stupid to choose this for his occupation is rarely able to comprehend the science of handling pig-iron13

Taylor believed in transferring control from workers to management He set out to increase the distinction between mental planning work and manual labor executing work Detailed plans, specifying the job and how it was to be done, were to be formulated by management and communicated to the workers14

The introduction of his system was often resented by workers and provoked numerous strikes The strike at Watertown Arsenal led to the congressional investigation in 1912 Taylor believed the laborer was worthy of his hire, and pay was linked to productivity His workers were able to earn substantially more than those under conventional management,15 and this earned him enemies among the owners of factories where scientific management was not in use

Rhetorical techniquesedit

Taylor promised to reconcile labor and capital

With the triumph of scientific management, unions would have nothing left to do, and they would have been cleansed of their most evil feature: the restriction of output To underscore this idea, Taylor fashioned the myth that 'there has never been a strike of men working under scientific management', trying to give it credibility by constant repetition In similar fashion he incessantly linked his proposals to shorter hours of work, without bothering to produce evidence of "Taylorized" firms that reduced working hours, and he revised his famous tale of Schmidt carrying pig iron at Bethlehem Steel at least three times, obscuring some aspects of his study and stressing others, so that each successive version made Schmidt's exertions more impressive, more voluntary and more rewarding to him than the last Unlike Harrington Emerson, Taylor was not a charlatan, but his ideological message required the suppression of all evidence of worker's dissent, of coercion, or of any human motives or aspirations other than those his vision of progress could encompass16

Scholarly debate about increased efficiency moving pig iron at Bethlehem's Iron and Steeledit

Debate about Taylor's Bethlehem study of workers, particularly Schmidt continues to this day One 2009 study contributes evidence of the truth of the assertions Taylor made regarding the quite substantial increase in productivity, for even the most basic task of picking up, carrying and dropping pigs of iron1718

Management theoryedit

Taylor thought that by analyzing work, the "one best way" to do it would be found He is most remembered for developing the stopwatch time study, which combined with Frank Gilbreth's motion study methods, later became the field of time and motion study He broke a job into its component parts and measured each to the hundredth of a minute One of his most famous studies involved shovels He noticed that workers used the same shovel for all materials He determined that the most effective load was 21½ lb, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount He was generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied, and was dismissed from Bethlehem Iron Company/Bethlehem Steel Company Nevertheless, Taylor was able to convince workers who used shovels and whose compensation was tied to how much they produced to adopt his advice about the optimum way to shovel by breaking the movements down into their component elements and recommending better ways to perform these movements It was largely through the efforts of his disciples most notably HL Gantt that industry came to implement his ideas Moreover, the book he wrote after parting company with the Bethlehem company, Shop Management, sold well I

Relations with ASMEedit

Taylor's own written works were designed for presentation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME These include Notes on Belting 1894, A Piece-Rate System 1895, Shop Management 1903, Art of Cutting Metals 1906, and The Principles of Scientific Management 1911

Taylor was president of the ASME from 1906 to 1907 While president, he tried to implement his system into the management of the ASME but was met with much resistance He was only able to reorganize the publications department and then only partially He also forced out the ASME's long-time secretary, Morris L Cooke, and replaced him with Calvin W Rice His tenure as president was trouble-ridden and marked the beginning of a period of internal dissension within the ASME during the Progressive Age19

In 1911, Taylor collected a number of his articles into a book-length manuscript, which he submitted to the ASME for publication The ASME formed an ad hoc committee to review the text The committee included Taylor allies such as James Mapes Dodge and Henry R Towne The committee delegated the report to the editor of the American Machinist, Leon P Alford Alford was a critic of the Taylor system and his report was negative The committee modified the report slightly, but accepted Alford's recommendation not to publish Taylor's book Taylor angrily withdrew the book and published Principles without ASME approval20 Taylor published the trade book himself in 1912

Patentsedit

Taylor authored 42 patents21

Taylor's influenceedit

United Statesedit

One of Carl G Barth's speed-and-feed slide rules A Gantt chart
  • Carl G Barth helped Taylor to develop speed-and-feed-calculating slide rules to a previously unknown level of usefulness Similar aids are still used in machine shops today Barth became an early consultant on scientific management and later taught at Harvard
  • H L Gantt developed the Gantt chart, a visual aid for scheduling tasks and displaying the flow of work
  • Harrington Emerson introduced scientific management to the railroad industry, and proposed the dichotomy of staff versus line employees, with the former advising the latter
  • Morris Cooke adapted scientific management to educational and municipal organizations
  • Hugo Münsterberg created industrial psychology
  • Lillian Gilbreth introduced psychology to management studies
  • Frank Gilbreth husband of Lillian discovered scientific management while working in the construction industry, eventually developing motion studies independently of Taylor These logically complemented Taylor's time studies, as time and motion are two sides of the efficiency improvement coin The two fields eventually became time and motion study
  • Harvard University, one of the first American universities to offer a graduate degree in business management in 1908, based its first-year curriculum on Taylor's scientific management
  • Harlow S Person, as dean of Dartmouth's Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, promoted the teaching of scientific management
  • James O McKinsey, professor of accounting at the University of Chicago and founder of the consulting firm bearing his name, advocated budgets as a means of assuring accountability and of measuring performance

Franceedit

In France, Le Chatelier translated Taylor's work and introduced scientific management throughout government owned plants during World War I This influenced the French theorist Henri Fayol, whose 1916 Administration Industrielle et Générale emphasized organizational structure in management In the classic General and Industrial Management Fayol wrote that "Taylor's approach differs from the one we have outlined in that he examines the firm from the 'bottom up' He starts with the most elemental units of activity – the workers' actions – then studies the effects of their actions on productivity, devises new methods for making them more efficient, and applies what he learns at lower levels to the hierarchy"22 He suggests that Taylor has staff analysts and advisors working with individuals at lower levels of the organization to identify the ways to improve efficiency According to Fayol, the approach results in a "negation of the principle of unity of command"23 Fayol criticized Taylor's functional management in this way: In Shop Management, Taylor said24 «  the most marked outward characteristics of functional management lies in the fact that each workman, instead of coming in direct contact with the management at one point only, receives his daily orders and help from eight different bosses these eight were 1 route clerks, 2 instruction card men, 3 cost and time clerks, 4 gang bosses, 5 speed bosses, 6 inspectors, 7 repair bosses, and the 8 shop disciplinarian »24 Fayol said that this was an unworkable situation and that Taylor must have reconciled the differences in some way not described in Taylor's works

Around 1922 the journalist Paulette Bernège became interested in Taylor's theories, which were popular in France in the post-war period25 Bernège became the faithful disciple of the Domestic Sciences Movement that Christine Frederick had launched earlier in the United States, which Bernège adapted to French homes Frederick had transferred the concepts of Taylorism from the factory to domestic work These included suitable tools, rational study of movements and timing of tasks Scientific standards for housework were derived from scientific standards for workshops, intended to streamline the work of a housewife26 The Comité national de l'organisation française CNOF was founded in 1925 by a group of journalists and consulting engineers who saw Taylorism as a way to expand their client base Founders included prominent engineers such as Henry Louis Le Châtelier and Léon Guillet Bernège's Institute of Housekeeping Organization participated in various congresses on the scientific organization of work that led up to the founding of the CNOF, and in 1929 led to a section in CNOF on domestic economy27

Great Britainedit

Older historical accounts used to suggest that British industry had less interest in Taylor's teachings than in similarly-sized countries28 More recent research has revealed that British engineers and managers were as interested as in other countries29 This disparity was largely due to what historians have been analysing: recent research has revealed that Taylor's practices diffused to Britain more through consultancies, in particular the Bedaux consultancy, than through institutions, as in Germany and to a lesser extent France, where a mixture was most effective3031

Particularly enthusiastic were the Cadbury family, Seebohm Rowntree, Oliver Sheldon and Lyndall Urwick In addition to establishing a consultancy to implement Taylor's system, Urwick, Orr & Partners, Urwick was also a key historian of FW Taylor and scientific management, publishing The Making of Scientific Management trilogy in the 1940s and The Golden Book of Management in 1956

Switzerlandedit

In Switzerland, the American Edward Albert Filene established the International Management Institute to spread information about management techniques Lyndall Urwick was its Director until the IMI closed in 193332

USSRedit

In the Soviet Union, Vladimir Lenin was very impressed by Taylorism, which he and Joseph Stalin sought to incorporate into Soviet manufacturing Taylorism and the mass production methods of Henry Ford thus became highly influential during the early years of the Soviet Union Nevertheless, " Frederick Taylor's methods have never really taken root in the Soviet Union"33 The voluntaristic approach of the Stakhanovite movement in the 1930s of setting individual records was diametrically opposed to Taylor's systematic approach and proved to be counter-productive34 The stop-and-go of the production process – workers having nothing to do at the beginning of a month and 'storming' during illegal extra shifts at the end of the month – which prevailed even in the 1980s had nothing to do with the successfully taylorized plants eg, of Toyota which are characterized by continuous production processes heijunka which are continuously improved kaizen35

"The easy availability of replacement labor, which allowed Taylor to choose only 'first-class men,' was an important condition for his system's success"36 The situation in the Soviet Union was very different "Because work is so unrhythmic, the rational manager will hire more workers than he would need if supplies were even in order to have enough for storming Because of the continuing labor shortage, managers are happy to pay needed workers more than the norm, either by issuing false job orders, assigning them to higher skill grades than they deserve on merit criteria, giving them 'loose' piece rates, or making what is supposed to be 'incentive' pay, premia for good work, effectively part of the normal wage As Mary Mc Auley has suggested under these circumstances piece rates are not an incentive wage, but a way of justifying giving workers whatever they 'should' be getting, no matter what their pay is supposed to be according to the official norms"37

Taylor and his theories are also referenced and put to practice in the 1921 dystopian novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin

Canadaedit

In the early 1920s, the Canadian textile industry was re-organized according to scientific management principles In 1928, workers at Canada Cotton Ltd in Hamilton, Ontario went on strike against newly introduced Taylorist work methods Also, Henry Gantt, who was a close associate of Taylor, re-organized the Canadian Pacific Railway38

With the prevalence of US branch plants in Canada and close economic and cultural ties between the two countries, the sharing of business practices, including Taylorism, has been common

The Taylor Society and its legacyedit

The Taylor Society was founded in 1912 by Taylor's allies to promote his values and influence39 A decade after Taylor's death in 1915 the Taylor Society had 800 members including many leading US industrialists and managers40 In 1936 the Society merged with the Society of Industrial Engineers, forming the Society for Advancement of Management, which still exists today41

Criticism of Tayloredit

One of the most famous critiques of Taylor came from Antonio Gramsci in his Prison Notebooks 1937, where Gramsci argued that Taylorism attempts to subordinate workers to management He also argued that the repetitive work produced by Taylorism might actually give rise to revolutionary thoughts in workers' minds42

Harry Braverman's work, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, published in 1974, was critical of scientific management and of Taylor in particular This work pioneered the field of Labor Process Theory as well as contributing to the historiography of the workplace

Management theorist Henry Mintzberg is highly critical of Taylor's methods Mintzberg states that an obsession with efficiency allows measureable benefits to overshadow less quantifiable social benefits completely, and social values get left behind43

Taylor's methods have also been challenged by socialist intellectuals The arguments put forward relate to progressive defanging of workers in the workplace and the subsequent degradation of work as management, powered by capital, uses Taylor's methods to render work repeatable, precise yet monotonous and skill-reducing44 James W Rinehart argued that Taylor's methods of transferring control over production from workers to management, and the division of labor into simple tasks, intensified the alienation of workers that had begun with the factory system of production around the period 1870 to 189045

Tennis and golf accomplishmentsedit

Taylor was an accomplished tennis and golf player He and Clarence Clark won the inaugural United States National tennis doubles championship at Newport Casino in 1881, defeating Alexander Van Rensselaer and Arthur Newbold in straight sets2 In the 1900 Summer Olympics, Taylor finished fourth in golf

Publicationsedit

Books:

  • 1903,46 1911 Shop management, by Frederick Winslow Taylor with an introduction by Henry R Towne New York, London, Harper & Brothers
  • 1911 The Principles of Scientific Management New York and London, Harper & brothers47
  • 1911 A treatise on concrete, plain and reinforced: materials, construction, and design of concrete and reinforced concrete 2d ed New York, J Wiley & sons
  • 1912 Concrete costs New York, J Wiley & sons

Articles, a selection:

  • 1894 "Notes on Belting," Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol XV, 1893, pp 204–259
  • 1895 "A Piece-rate System" in: The adjustment of wages to efficiency; three papers
  • 1903 "Shop management," Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 24: 1337-480
  • 1906 "On the Art of Cutting Metals," Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol XXVIII, 1906, pp 31–350

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Frederick Winslow Taylor, ME, ScD" Frederick Taylor University Retrieved 30 March 2015 
  2. ^ a b c "F W Taylor, Expert in Efficiency, Dies" New York Times March 22, 1915 Retrieved March 14, 2008 Frederick Winslow Taylor, originator of the modern scientific management movement 
  3. ^ "Frederick Taylor, Early Century Management Consultant" The Wall Street Journal June 13, 1997 Retrieved May 4, 2008 
  4. ^ Bedeian, Arthur G; Wren, Daniel A Winter 2001 "Most Influential Management Books of the 20th Century" PDF Organizational Dynamics 29 3: 221–225 doi:101016/S0090-26160100022-5 
  5. ^ Mary Ellen Papesh February 14, 1998 "Frederick Winslow Taylor" University of St Francis Retrieved May 4, 2008 
  6. ^ "Frederick Winslow Taylor" Miami University 2003 Retrieved May 4, 2008 
  7. ^ Hughes, TP 1989 American genesis: A century of invention and technological enthusiasm, 1870-1970 New York: Viking
  8. ^ Kanigel 1997:182-183,199
  9. ^ Charles Custis Harrison October 8, 1906 "Letter to Taylor" Stevens Institute of Technology Archives Retrieved May 5, 2008 
  10. ^ "Richard A D'Aveni On Changing the Conversation: Tuck and the Field of Strategy" Tuck School of Business Archived from the original on August 4, 2007 Retrieved November 22, 2007 
  11. ^ Drucker 1974: 181
  12. ^ Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management, cited by Montgomery 1989:229, italics with Taylor
  13. ^ Montgomery 1989:251
  14. ^ Rinehart, JW The Tyranny of Work, Canadian Social Problems Series, Academic Press Canada 1975, p 44 ISBN 0-7747-3029-3
  15. ^ Taylor 1911, p 95
  16. ^ Montgomery 1989:254 For the stories about Schmidt Montgomery refers to Charles D Wrege and Amadeo G Perroni, "Taylor's Pig Tale: A Historical Analysis of Frederick W Taylor's Pig-Iron experiments" in: Academy of Management Journal, 17 March 1974, 6-27
  17. ^ Jill R Hough and Margaret A White, 'Using stories to create change: The object lesson of Frederick Taylor's "pig-tale"' Journal of Management 2009
  18. ^ Once Upon a Time There Was an Organization: Organizational Stories as Antitheses to Fairy Tales Journal of Management Inquiry March 1, 2009 18: 15-25
  19. ^ Jaffe 1957:34
  20. ^ Jaffe 1957:36-40; Nelson 1980:181-184
  21. ^ "FW Taylor Collection: Patents" SC Williams Library Archived from the original on November 12, 2007 Retrieved May 4, 2008 
  22. ^ Fayol, 1987, p 43
  23. ^ Fayol, 1987,p 44
  24. ^ a b Fayol, 1949, p 68
  25. ^ Dumont, Marie-Jeanne 2012-12-14 "Si les femmes faisaient les maisons… », la croisade de Paulette Bernège" D-Fiction in French Retrieved 2015-06-05 
  26. ^ Bernège, Paulette; Ribeill, Georges 1989 "Le tuyau : élément essentiel de civilisation" Flux, numéro spécial: 59 Retrieved 2015-06-05 
  27. ^ Henry, Odile 2003 "Femmes & taylorisme : la rationalisation du travail domestique" Agone in French 28: 5 Retrieved 2015-06-05 
  28. ^ Maier, Charles S "Between Taylorism and Technocracy: European ideologies and the vision of industrial productivity in the 1920s" Journal of contemporary history 52 1970: 27-61 Online at JSTOR
  29. ^ Kevin Whitston, 'The Reception of Scientific Management by British Engineers, 1890-1914 The Business History Review 712 1997 Online here
  30. ^ Matthias Kipping, 'Consultancies, Institutions and the Diffusion of Taylorism in Britain, Germany and France, 1920s to 1950s', Business History 1997 PDF from Taylor & Francis online
  31. ^ Wren, Daniel A "Implementing the Gantt chart in Europe and Britain: the contributions of Wallace Clark" Journal of Management History 213 2015: 309-327 Online here
  32. ^ Atta 1986: 335
  33. ^ Atta 1986: 331
  34. ^ Head 2005: 38-59
  35. ^ Atta 1986: 329
  36. ^ Atta 1986: 333
  37. ^ Rinehart, ibid, p 43
  38. ^ http://samnationalorg/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/SAMHistory1912-1987bpdf
  39. ^ Percy S Brown, 'The Works and Aims of the Taylor Society' Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science May, 1925 online at JSTOR
  40. ^ Link to Society for Advancement of Management
  41. ^ Link to the Prison Notebooks here
  42. ^ Mintzberg 1989:333
  43. ^ Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, 1974
  44. ^ Rinehart, ibid, pp 43-52
  45. ^ Shop management, by Frederick Winslow Taylor first edition in Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, v24 1903 1337-1480
  46. ^ Taylor, Frederick Winslow 1911 "The Principles of Scientific Management" New York, NY, US and London, UK: Harper & Brothers LCCN 11010339 OCLC 233134 Also available from Project Gutenberg 

Sourcesedit

  • Atta, Don Van 1986, "Why Is There No Taylorism in the Soviet Union" in: Comparative Politics, Vol 18, No 3 Apr 1986, pp 327–337
  • Copley, Frank Barkley, Frederick W Taylor, Father of Scientific Management Harper and Brothers, 1923 2 vols online at Archiveorg
  • Head, Simon 2005, The new ruthless economy Work and power in the digital age, Oxford University Press, Paperback Edition
  • Drucker, Peter 1974 Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices New York: Harper & Row ISBN 1-4128-0627-5 
  • Epstein, Marc J "Taylor, Frederick Winslow 1856-1915" In History of Accounting: An International Encyclopedia, edited by Michael Chatfield and Richard Vangermeersch New York: Garland Publishing, 1996 pp 579–580
  • Fayol, H 1987 General and industrial management: Henri Fayol's classic revised by Irwin Gray Belmont, CA: David S Lake Publishers
  • Jaffe, William J 1957 LP Alford and the Evolution of Modern Industrial Management With an introduction by David B Porter New York: New York University Press 
  • Kanigel, Robert 1997 The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency New York: Viking ISBN 0-670-86402-1 
  • Mintzberg, Henry ed 1989 Mintzberg on Management New York, New York: The Free Press ISBN 978-1-4165-7319-7 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list link
  • Montgomery, David 1989, The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865-1925, Cambridge University Press, Paperback edition

Further readingedit

  • Aitken, Hugh 1960, Taylorism at Watertown Arsenal Scientific management in action, 1908-1915, Harvard UPCompara
  • Braverman, Harry 1974 Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century Monthly Review Press, New York, 1974
  • Boddy, David 2002 Management: An Introduction 2nd ed New York: Pearson Education ISBN 0-273-65518-3 
  • Copley, Frank Barkley 1923 Frederick W Taylor, Father of Scientific Management Harper and Brothers, 1923 2 vols online at Archiveorg
  • Kakar, Sudhir 1970 Frederick Taylor: a study in personality and innovation Cambridge: University of Wisconsin Press 
  • Kanigel, Robert 1997 The one best way : Frederick Winslow Taylor and the enigma of efficiency London : Little, Brown
  • Nelson, Daniel 1970 Frederick W Taylor and the Rise of Scientific Management Madison: MIT Press ISBN 0-299-08160-5 
  • Nelson, Daniel ed 1992 A Mental Revolution: Scientific Management Since Taylor Columbus: Ohio State University Press ISBN 0-8142-0567-4 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list link
  • Weisbord, Marvin R 2004 Productive Workplaces Revisited Chapter 2: Scientific Management Revisited: A Tale of Two Taylors; Chapter 3: The Consulting Engineer: Taylor Invents a New Profession ISBN 0-7879-7117-0 

Primary sourcesedit

  • Taylor, Frederick Winslow 1903 "Shop Management" New York, NY, US: American Society of Mechanical Engineers OCLC 2365572 "Shop Management" began as an address by Taylor to a meeting of the ASME, which published it in pamphlet form The link here takes the reader to a 1912 republication by Harper & Brothers Also available from Project Gutenberg 
  • Taylor, Frederick, Scientific Management includes "Shop Management" 1903, "The Principles of Scientific Management" 1911 and "Testimony Before the Special House Committee" 1912, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-27983-6

External linksedit

  • Works by Frederick Winslow Taylor at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Frederick Winslow Taylor at Internet Archive
  • Special Collections – FW Taylor Collection , Stevens Institute of Technology has an extensive collection at its library


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