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Fourth dimension in art

fourth dimension in art, 4th dimension in art works
New possibilities opened up by the concept of four-dimensional space and difficulties involved in trying to visualize it helped inspire many modern artists in the first half of the twentieth century Early Cubists, Surrealists, Futurists, and abstract artists took ideas from higher-dimensional mathematics and used them to radically advance their work1

Contents

  • 1 Early influence
  • 2 Dimensionist manifesto
  • 3 Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubus
  • 4 Abstract art
  • 5 Other forms of art
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Sources
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Early influenceedit

Further information: Proto-Cubism and Mathematics and art Picasso's Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, 1910, The Art Institute of Chicago Jean Metzinger, 1912-1913, L'Oiseau bleu, The Blue Bird, oil on canvas, 230 x 196 cm, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

French mathematician Maurice Princet was known as "le mathématicien du cubisme" "the mathematician of cubism"2 An associate of the School of Paris, a group of avant-gardists including Pablo Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, Jean Metzinger, and Marcel Duchamp, Princet is credited with introducing the work of Henri Poincaré and the concept of the "fourth dimension" to the cubists at the Bateau-Lavoir during the first decade of the 20th century3

Princet introduced Picasso to Esprit Jouffret's Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions Elementary Treatise on the Geometry of Four Dimensions, 1903,4 a popularization of Poincaré's Science and Hypothesis in which Jouffret described hypercubes and other complex polyhedra in four dimensions and projected them onto the two-dimensional page Picasso's Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler in 1910 was an important work for the artist, who spent many months shaping it5 The portrait bears similarities to Jouffret's work and shows a distinct movement away from the Proto-Cubist fauvism displayed in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, to a more considered analysis of space and form6

Early cubist Max Weber wrote an article entitled "In The Fourth Dimension from a Plastic Point of View", for Alfred Stieglitz's July 1910 issue of Camera Work In the piece, Weber states, "In plastic art, I believe, there is a fourth dimension which may be described as the consciousness of a great and overwhelming sense of space-magnitude in all directions at one time, and is brought into existence through the three known measurements"7

Another influence on the School of Paris was that of Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes, both painters and theoreticians The first major treatise written on the subject of Cubism was their 1912 collaboration Du "Cubisme", which says that:

"If we wished to relate the space of the Cubist painters to geometry, we should have to refer it to the non-Euclidian mathematicians; we should have to study, at some length, certain of Riemann's theorems"8

In a review of the 1913 Armory Show for the Philadelphia Enquirer, the influence of the fourth dimension on avante-garde painting was discussed; the paper's art-critic describing how the artists' employed "harmonic use of what may arbitrarily be called volume"9

Dimensionist manifestoedit

In 1936 in Paris, Charles Tamkó Sirató published his Manifeste Dimensioniste,10 which described how

the Dimensionist tendency has led to:

  1. Literature leaving the line and entering the plane
  2. Painting leaving the plane and entering space
  3. Sculpture stepping out of closed, immobile forms
  4. …The artistic conquest of four-dimensional space, which to date has been completely art-free

The manifesto was signed by many prominent modern artists worldwide Hans Arp, Francis Picabia, Kandinsky, Robert Delaunay and Marcel Duchamp amongst others added their names in Paris, then a short while later it was endorsed by artists abroad including László Moholy-Nagy, Joan Miró, David Kakabadze, Alexander Calder, and Ben Nicholson10

Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubusedit

Dalí's 1954 painting Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubus

In 1953, the surrealist Salvador Dalí proclaimed his intention to paint "an explosive, nuclear and hypercubic" crucifixion scene1112 He said that, "This picture will be the great metaphysical work of my summer"13 Completed the next year, Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubus depicts Jesus Christ upon the net of a hypercube, also known as a tesseract The unfolding of a tesseract into eight cubes is analogous to unfolding the sides of a cube into six squares The Metropolitan Museum of Art describes the painting as a "new interpretation of an oft-depicted subject showing Christ's spiritual triumph over corporeal harm"14

Abstract artedit

Some of Piet Mondrian's 1872–1944 abstractions and his practice of Neoplasticism are said to be rooted in his view of a utopian universe, with perpendiculars visually extending into another dimension15

Other forms of artedit

Main article: Fourth dimension in literature

The fourth dimension has been the subject of numerous fictional stories16

See alsoedit

  • De Stijl
  • Five-dimensional space
  • Four-dimensional space
  • Duration philosophy
  • Philosophy of space and time
  • Octacube

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Henderson, Linda Dalrymple "Overview of The Fourth Dimension And Non-Euclidean Geometry In Modern Art, Revised Edition" MIT Press Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  2. ^ Décimo, Marc 2007 Maurice Princet, Le Mathématicien du Cubisme in French Paris: Éditions L'Echoppe ISBN 2-84068-191-9 
  3. ^ Miller, Arthur I 2001 Einstein, Picasso: space, time, and beauty that causes havoc Print New York: Basic Books p 101 ISBN 0-465-01859-9 
  4. ^ Jouffret, Esprit 1903 Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions et introduction à la géométrie à n dimensions in French Paris: Gauthier-Villars OCLC 1445172 Retrieved 2008-02-06 
  5. ^ Robbin, Tony 2006 Shadows of Reality: The Fourth Dimension in Relativity, Cubism, and Modern Thought Print New Haven: Yale University Press p 28 ISBN 9780300110395 
  6. ^ Robbin, Tony 2006 Shadows of Reality: The Fourth Dimension in Relativity, Cubism, and Modern Thought Print New Haven: Yale University Press pp 28–30 ISBN 9780300110395 
  7. ^ Weber, Max 1910 "In The Fourth Dimension from a Plastic Point of View" Camera Work 31 July 1910 
  8. ^ Gleizes, Albert; Metzinger, Jean 1912 Du "Cubisme" Edition Figuière Paris 
  9. ^ Oja, Carol J 2000, February 2003 Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s Oxford University Press, USA p 84  Check date values in: |date= helpISBN 9780195162578
  10. ^ a b Sirató, Charles Tamkó 1936 "Dimensionist Manifesto" PDF Paris Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  11. ^ Dalí, Salvador; Gómez de la Serna, Ramón 2001 1988 Dali Secaucus, NJ: Wellfleet Press p 41 ISBN 1555213421 
  12. ^ "Salvador Dalí 1904–1989" SpanishArts 2013 Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  13. ^ "Crucifixion 'Corpus Hypercubus', 1954" Dalí gallery website Retrieved 25 March 2013 
  14. ^ "Crucifixion Corpus Hypercubus" The Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  15. ^ Kruger, Runette Summer 2007 "Art in the Fourth Dimension: Giving Form to Form – The Abstract Paintings of Piet Mondrian" PDF 5 Spaces of Utopia: An Electronic Journal: 23–35 ISSN 1646-4729 
  16. ^ Clair, Bryan 16 September 2002 "Spirits, Art, and the Fourth Dimension" Strange Horizons Retrieved 25 March 2012 

Sourcesedit

  • Clair, Bryan 16 September 2002 "Spirits, Art, and the Fourth Dimension" Strange Horizons Retrieved 25 March 2012 
  • Dalí, Salvador; Gómez de la Serna, Ramón 2001 1988 Dali Print Secaucus, NJ: Wellfleet Press ISBN 1555213421 
  • Décimo, Marc 2007 Maurice Princet, Le Mathématicien du Cubisme in French Paris: Éditions L'Echoppe ISBN 2-84068-191-9 
  • Gleizes, Albert; Metzinger, Jean 1912 Du "Cubisme" Edition Figuière Paris 
  • Henderson, Linda Dalrymple "Overview of The Fourth Dimension And Non-Euclidean Geometry In Modern Art, Revised Edition" MIT Press Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  • Jouffret, Esprit 1903 Traité élémentaire de géométrie à quatre dimensions et introduction à la géométrie à n dimensions in French Paris: Gauthier-Villars OCLC 1445172 Retrieved 2008-02-06 
  • Kruger, Runette Summer 2007 "Art in the Fourth Dimension: Giving Form to Form – The Abstract Paintings of Piet Mondrian" PDF 5 Spaces of Utopia: An Electronic Journal: 23–35 ISSN 1646-4729 Retrieved 25 March 2012 
  • Miller, Arthur I 2001 Einstein, Picasso: space, time, and beauty that causes havoc Print New York: Basic Books ISBN 0-465-01859-9 
  • Oja, Carol J 2000, February 2003 Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s Oxford University Press, USA p 84  Check date values in: |date= helpISBN 9780195162578
  • Robbin, Tony 2006 Shadows of Reality: The Fourth Dimension in Relativity, Cubism, and Modern Thought Print New Haven: Yale University Press pp 28–30 ISBN 9780300110395 
  • Sirató, Charles Tamkó 1936 "Dimensionist Manifesto" PDF Paris Retrieved 24 March 2013 
  • Weber, Max 1910 "In The Fourth Dimension from a Plastic Point of View" Camera Work 31 July 1910 

Further readingedit

  • Henderson, Linda Dalrymple 2013 The Fourth Dimension And Non-Euclidean Geometry In Modern Art Revised ed Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press ISBN 0262582449 
  • Henderson, Linda Dalrymple 1998 Duchamp in Context: Science and Technology in the Large Glass and Related Works Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691123868 

External linksedit

  • Talk at the Dali museum on his 4th dimension art

4th dimension in art works, fourth dimension in art


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Fourth dimension in art


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    29.10.2014


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