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Four-minute mile

four minute mile movie, four minute mile
In the sport of athletics, the four-minute mile means completing the mile run 1,760 yards, or 1,609344 metres in less than four minutes It was first achieved in 1954 by Roger Bannister in 3:5941 The "four-minute barrier" has since been broken by many male athletes, and is now the standard of all male professional middle distance runners In the last 50 years the mile record has been lowered by almost 17 seconds2 Running a mile in four minutes translates to a speed of 15 miles per hour 2414 km/h, or 2:2913 per kilometre, or 1491 seconds per 100 metres

Contents

  • 1 Record holders
    • 11 Possible other claims
      • 111 James Parrott
      • 112 The Weller Run
      • 113 Glenn Cunningham
  • 2 Popular culture
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading
  • 6 External links

Record holdersedit

Breaking the four-minute barrier was first achieved on 6 May 1954 at Oxford University's Iffley Road Track, by Englishman Roger Bannister,3 with the help of fellow-runners as pacemakers4 Two months later, during the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games hosted in Vancouver, BC, two competing runners, Australia's John Landy and Bannister, ran the distance of one mile in under four minutes The race's end is memorialised in a statue of the two with Landy glancing over his shoulder, thus losing the race placed in front of the Pacific National Exhibition entrance plaza

Roger Bannister and John Landy statues outside the Pacific National Exhibition Current mile world record holder Hicham El Guerrouj left at the start of a race

New Zealand's John Walker, the first man to run the mile under 3:50, managed to run 135 sub-four-minute miles during his career during which he was the first person to run over 100 sub-four-minute miles, and American Steve Scott has run the most sub-four-minute miles, with 136 Algeria's Noureddine Morceli was the first under 3:45 Currently, the mile record is held by Morocco's Hicham El Guerrouj, who ran a time of 3:4313 in Rome in 1999

In 1964, America's Jim Ryun became the first high-school runner to break four minutes for the mile, running 3:590 as a junior and a then American record 3:553 as a senior in 19655 Tim Danielson 1966 and Marty Liquori 1967 also came in under four minutes, but Ryun's high-school record stood until Alan Webb ran 3:5343 in 20016 Ten years later, in 2011, Lukas Verzbicas became the fifth high-schooler under four minutes7 In 2015, Matthew Maton and Grant Fisher became the sixth and seventh high-schoolers to break four minutes, both running 3:5938 about a month apart8 Webb was the first high schooler to run sub-4 indoors, running 3:5986 in early 2001 On 6 February 2016, Andrew Hunter significantly improved upon Webb's mark, running 3:5825 on the same New York Armory track9 and 3:5781 two weeks later10 Hunter achieved the 4 minute mile mark outdoors later in the season at the Prefontaine Classic At that same meet Michael Slagowski joined the list of high school athletes under 4 minutes11

Another illustration of the progression of performance in the men's mile is that, in 1994, forty years after Bannister's breaking of the barrier, the Irish runner Eamonn Coghlan became the first man over the age of 40 to run a sub-four-minute mile12 Because Coghlan surpassed the mark indoors and before the IAAF validated indoor performances as being eligible for outdoor records, World Masters Athletics still had not recognised a sub-4-minute-mile performance as a record in the M40 division Many elite athletes made the attempts to extend their careers beyond age 40 to challenge that mark Over 18 years after Coghlan, that was finally achieved by UK's Anthony Whiteman, running 3:5879 on 2 June 201213

No woman has yet run a four-minute mile As of 2015update, the women's world record is held by retired Russian Svetlana Masterkova, with a time of 4:1256 in 199614

In 1997, Daniel Komen of Kenya ran two miles in less than eight minutes, doubling up on Bannister's accomplishment15 He did it again in February 1998, falling just 3 behind his previous performance, still the only individual to accomplish the feat16

Possible other claimsedit

James Parrottedit

Some sources including Olympic medalist Peter Radford17 contend the first successful four-minute mile was run in London by James Parrott on 9 May 17701819 Parrott's route began on Goswell Road, before turning down Old Street, finishing at St Leonard's, Shoreditch Although timing methods at this time were – following the invention of the chronometer by John Harrison – accurate enough to measure the four minutes correctly the record is not recognised by modern sporting bodies20 Neal Bascomb notes in The Perfect Mile that "even nineteenth-century historians cast a skeptical eye on the account"21

The Weller Runedit

Then in 1796, the Sporting Magazine reported that on 10 October of that year a young man called Weller, "undertook for a wager of three guineas about 5 months pay at that time to run one mile on the Banbury road, in four minutes, which he performed two seconds within the time"22

In other words, the magazine reports that he ran a mile in three minutes, fifty eight seconds By that time, a mile could be routinely measured to within a few inches; 23 watches, thanks to John Harrison, could measure 4 minutes to within 00009 sec ie gain or lose 10 seconds a month, 24 and after about 1750 the mass production of highly accurate watches was well underway 25

Glenn Cunninghamedit

It is also reputed that Glenn Cunningham achieved a four-minute mile in a workout in the 1920s In addition to being unsubstantiated, a workout run would not count as a record26

Popular cultureedit

In 1988, the ABC and the BBC co-produced The Four Minute Mile, a miniseries dramatisation of the race to the four-minute mile, featuring Richard Huw as Bannister and Nique Needles as John Landy who was simultaneously pursuing the milestone It was written by David Williamson and directed by Jim Goddard

In 2004, Neal Bascomb wrote a book entitled The Perfect Mile about Roger Bannister, John Landy, and Wes Santee portraying their individual attempts to break the four-minute mile and the context of the sport of mile racing A second film version entitled Four Minutes was made in 2005, starring Jamie Maclachlan as Bannister

In June 2011 the watch used to time the original event was donated by Jeffrey Archer to a charity auction for Oxford University Athletics Club and sold for £97,25027

In July 2016 the BBC broadcast the documentary Bannister: Everest on the Track, The Roger Bannister Story with firsthand interviews from Bannister and various other figures on the first sub-4 minute mile2829

See alsoedit

  • Mile run world record progression
  • Track and field
  • Dream Mile
  • Middle distance track event
  • 10-second barrier

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Sports: Bannister stuns world with 4-minute mile" Sptimescom 17 December 1999 Retrieved 4 March 2012 
  2. ^ "Most Popular" CNN 8 May 2000 
  3. ^ "1954: Bannister breaks four-minute mile" BBC Online Retrieved 5 May 2014 
  4. ^ Beard, Mary 25 April 2014 "How running has changed since the four-minute mile" A Point of View BBC Retrieved 5 May 2014 
  5. ^ "Ryun's mile record is history; high schooler Alan Webb hits 3:5343" Activecom 15 March 2007 Retrieved 4 March 2012 
  6. ^ "High School Records – Boys" Track & Field News 
  7. ^ Bill Carey 11 June 2011 "Verzbicas breaks four-minute mile" Sports Illustrated Retrieved 11 June 2011 
  8. ^ http://wwwkvalcom/sports/Future-Duck-Matthew-Maton-enters-record-books-with-under-4-minute-mile-303179181html
  9. ^ Dutch, Taylor 6 February 2016 "Drew Hunter Smashes Alan Webb's High School Mile Record in 3:58" FloTrack Retrieved 23 May 2016 
  10. ^ "Drew Hunter Does It Again - Runs 3:5781 For A New High School Indoor Mile Record" LetsRuncom 20 February 2016 Retrieved 23 May 2016 
  11. ^ http://wwwflotrackorg/article/42224-kendra-harrison-breaks-100mh-american-record-full-prefontaine-recap
  12. ^ Dan Giesen 20 April 1996 "Scott Sets New Goals As He Turns 40" San Francisco Chronicle 
  13. ^ "Music City Distance Carnival – Complete Results – Tennessee Runner" Tnmilesplitcom Retrieved 13 August 2012 
  14. ^ "All-time women's best mile race" Peter Larsson: Track and Field All-Time Performances 
  15. ^ "World Records and Best Performances: Men's Track & Field" Athletics Weekly Retrieved 11 June 2011 
  16. ^ http://wwwalltime-athleticscom/m_2miokhtm
  17. ^ Radford, Peter 2 May 2004 "The Time a Land Forgot" The Guardian London 
  18. ^ "The first four-minute mile" East London History 2004 Archived from the original on 13 October 2004 Retrieved 11 May 2007 
  19. ^ James Fletcher 9 May 2014 "The 18th Century four-minute mile" BBC News Retrieved 9 May 2014 
  20. ^ Radford, Pete 6 May 2004 "Runners of Old are Hard to Beat" Edinburgh Evening News 
  21. ^ Bascomb, Neal 2004 The Perfect Mile: Three Athletes, One Goal, and Less Than Four Minutes to Achieve It 1st Mariner Books ed Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co p 60 ISBN 9780547525068 
  22. ^ Fletcher, The 18th Century 4 Minute Mile, BBC News Magazine, 9 May 2014 http://wwwbbccom/news/magazine-27298505
  23. ^ See Peter Radford, The Time a Land Forgot, 2004 https://wwwtheguardiancom/sport/2004/may/02/athleticscomment1
  24. ^ John Harrison and the invention of the chronometer, http://blogonlineclocknet/chronometer/
  25. ^ "Widespread population gained access to pocket watches only in the second half of the 18th century when popular lever escapement enabled clockmakers to produce cheap and very precise watches", History of Watches, http://wwwhistoryofwatchcom/watch-history/history-of-watches/
  26. ^ Kiell, Paul 2006 American Miler: The Life and Times of Glenn Cunningham Breakaway Books pp 93–94 ISBN 1-891369-59-8 
  27. ^ White, Belinda 28 June 2011 "Margaret Thatcher's handbag sells for £25,000" Fashiontelegraphcouk Retrieved 4 March 2012 
  28. ^ "Bannister: Everest on the Track: a reminder of what clean running looks like: review" Retrieved 29 July 2016 
  29. ^ Chavez, Chris 11 April 2016 "Q&A with Tom Ratcliffe, director of Bannister: Everest on the Track" Sports Illustrated Retrieved 14 December 2016 

Further readingedit

  • Bannister, Roger 1955 The First Four Minutes Putnam 
  • Bascomb, Neil 2004 The Perfect Mile Willow ISBN 978-0-0071737-3-0 
  • Bryant, John 2004 3:594 The Quest To Break The Four Minute Mile Hutchinson ISBN 978-0-0918003-3-8 
  • Nelson, Cordner; Quercetani, Roberto 1985 The Milers Tafnews Press ISBN 0-911521-15-1 
  • Phillips, Bob 2004 3:594 The Quest For The Four-Minute Mile Parrs Wood Press ISBN 978-1-9031584-9-4 

External linksedit

Listen to this article info/dl


This audio file was created from a revision of the "Four-minute mile" article dated 2006-01-02, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article Audio help More spoken articles
  • Roger Bannister and the Four-Minute Mile Original reports from The Times
  • Forbes magazine declared four-minute mile as "greatest athletic achievement"
  • The Four Minute Mile at the Internet Movie Database
  • Four Minutes at the Internet Movie Database
  • Official website for documentary – Franz Stampfl: The Man Behind the Miracle Mile – a film about the coach behind Bannister's successful mile record attempt

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