Fri . 18 Sep 2018

Four Cardinal Principles

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The Four Cardinal Principles Chinese: 四项基本原则; pinyin: sì xiàng jīběn yuánzé were stated by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 and are the four issues for which debate was not allowed within the People's Republic of China These are:

  1. the principle of upholding the socialist path
  2. the principle of upholding the people's democratic dictatorship
  3. the principle of upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China CPC, and
  4. the principle of upholding Mao Zedong Thought and Marxism-Leninism

The four cardinal principles marked a relaxation of control over ideology In stating the four cardinal principles, the implication was that these four topics could not be questioned, but political ideas other than those in the list could be debated Moreover, while the principles themselves are not subject to debate, the interpretations of those principles are There has for example, been extensive debate over the meaning of socialism

On the other hand, the Principles were proclaimed as a sign of adherence to the communist ideology, thus paving the secure way to reevaluation of the Cultural Revolution while preserving ideological stability and legitimacy of the CPC, as a response to the Democracy Wall movement


  1. ^ Shambaugh, David 2000 The Modern Chinese State The Press Syndicate of The University of Cambridge p 184 ISBN 9780521776035 

External links

  • Uphold the Four Cardinal Principles
  • Communism portal
  • China portal

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