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Foreign relations of Hungary

foreign relations of hungary, foreign relations of austria-hungary
Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs12 The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade

Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and member of European Union, the NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024 In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 013% of its Gross National Income, in this regard Hungary stands before Spain, Israel or Russia

Hungary's capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor3 Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and even others4

Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997 Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe

Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989 During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first central European country to withdraw from those organizations, now defunct After 1989, Hungary oriented more towards the West, joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004 The policies of the Fidesz government since 2010 evoked criticism from the EU partners, the Council of Europe and Human Rights Watch because of a press and media law considered by some as anti-democratic and a new constitution that was feared to undermine the rule of law and human rights protection

Meeting of Visegrád Group leaders, plus Germany and France in 2013 United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament

Contents

  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Hungary and Central Asia
  • 3 Relations by region and country
    • 31 Europe
    • 32 Asia
    • 33 Rest of world
  • 4 Foreign criticism
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading

Overviewedit

As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War—and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors Since 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997 Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999, and a member of the EU in 2004

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997 Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955

The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project

This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and was agreed on September 16, 1977 "Budapest Treaty" The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary After intensive campaign the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime In 1989 Hungarian government decided to suspend it In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built The international dispute is still not solved as of 2008

On March 19, 2008 Hungary recognized Kosovo as an independent country5

Disputes – international: Ongoing Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams dispute with Slovakia

Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

Refugee protection: The hungarian border barrier was built in 2015, and Hungary was criticized by other European countries for using tear gas and water cannons on refugees of the Syrian Civil War as they were – illegally – trying to pass the country67

Hungary and Central Asiaedit

A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors8 The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea"9

Relations by region and countryedit

Europeedit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia

See Armenia–Hungary relations

  • Armenia was represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna Austria and an honorary consulate in Budapest
  • Hungary was represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tbilisi Georgia and an honorary consulate in Yerevan10
  • There are around 15,000 people of Armenian descent living in Hungary
 Albania See Albania–Hungary relations

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912

  • Albania has an embassy in Budapest
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tirana
 Austria See Austria–Hungary relations

Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918 The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation

 Belarus See Foreign relations of Belarus
 Belgium See Foreign relations of Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-04-10 See Bosnia and Herzegovina – Hungary relations
  • Hungary recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence on April 9, 1992
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Budapest
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sarajevo11
 Bulgaria 1920 See Bulgaria–Hungary relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Budapest12
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sofia and an honorary consulate in Varna13
 Croatia See Croatia–Hungary relations
 Cyprus See Foreign relations of Cyprus
 Czech Republic See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic
 Denmark See Denmark–Hungary relations
 Estonia See Foreign relations of Estonia
 Finland See Foreign relations of Finland
 France See France–Hungary relations
 Georgia See Foreign relations of Georgia
 Germany See Germany–Hungary relations
 Greece See Foreign relations of Greece
 Ireland 1976
  • Since 1991, Hungary has an embassy in Dublin and 2 honorary consulates in Athlone and Cork14
  • Since 1996, Ireland has an embassy in Budapest15
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and the Council of Europe
  • There are approximately 8,034 Hungarians living in Ireland16
 Italy
  • Hungary has an embassy in Rome, a general consulate in Milan, and 11 honorary consulates in Bari, Bologna, Florence, Genoa, Naples, Palermo, Perugia, Trieste, Turin, Venice and Verona1718
  • Italy has an embassy in Budapest and 3 honorary consulates in Nyíregyháza, Pécs and Szeged19
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
 Kosovo

Hungary recognized Kosovo on 19 March 200820 Hungary has an embassy in Pristina21

 Latvia 1921-07-21
  • Diplomatic relations between the two states were renewed on September 2, 1991
  • Hungary has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Riga22
  • Latvia has an embassy in Budapest
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
  • Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Lithuania
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vilnius and an honorary consulate in Kaunas23
  • Lithuania has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Budapest24
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Hungary in Lithuanian only
 Luxembourg
  • Hungary has an embassy in Luxembourg City
  • Luxembourg is represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna Austria
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, of the European Union and of NATO
 Malta 1964
  • Hungary is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome Italy and through an honorary consulate in Valletta
  • Malta is represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna Austria and through an honorary consulate in Budapest
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union
  • Direction of the Hungarian representations in Malta
  • Direction of the Maltese representations in Hungary
 Moldova
  • Hungarian Embassy, Chişinău
 Montenegro

Hungary recognized Montenegro shortly after their declaration of independence

Montenegro has an embassy in Budapest25

Hungary has an embassy in Podgorica

 Netherlands
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs26
  • Hungary has an embassy in The Hague and six honorary consulates in Amsterdam, Arnhem, Aerdenhout, Winsum, 's-Hertogenbosch, and Curaçao27
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Norway 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947–1948
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates in Stavanger and Sarpsborg28
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest29
  • Both countries are full members of NATO
 Poland

See Hungary-Poland relations

 Portugal 1974-07-01
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lisbon and 3 honorary consulates in Funchal, Porto and Tavira3031
  • Portugal has an embassy in Budapest
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
 Romania 1920

Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages Until the end of World War I, Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş were part of the Kingdom of Hungary, after the war they became part of the Romanian territory

 Russia
  • Hungary has an embassy in Moscow and two consulate-generals in Saint Petersburg and Yekaterinburg
  • Russia has an embassy in Budapest and a consulate-general in Debrecen
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
 Serbia 1882-11-21 See Hungary–Serbia relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica
  • Serbia has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Szeged
 Slovakia 1993 See Hungary–Slovakia relations
  • Before 1920, the territory which called Slovakia today was integral part of the Kingdom of Hungary
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bratislava
  • Slovakia has an embassy Budapest and a general consulate in Békéscsaba
 Slovenia
  • Both countries have an ethnic minority from the other state: in Hungary there are around 3,000 Ethnic Slovenes, and in Slovenia there are around 7,713 Ethnic Hungarians
  • Hungary has an embassy in Ljubljana32
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Budapest and a general consulate in Szentgotthárd33
  • The countries share 102 km of common border
  • Both are full members of NATO, European Union and the Schengen Agreement
  • See also Hungarian Slovenes
 Spain 1938-01-13
  • Hungary has an embassy in Madrid, a general consulate in Barcelona and 5 honorary consulates in Gijón, Málaga, Palma de Mallorca, Tenerife, and Valencia34353637
  • Spain has an embassy in Budapest38
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
  • Spanish Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Hungary in Spanish only
 Sweden 1945-12-28

See Hungary–Sweden relations

  • Sweden has an embassy in Budapest
  • In Stockholm there is a Hungarian embassy
 Turkey Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848–1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul
  • Hungary has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate–general in Istanbul39
  • Turkey has an embassy in Budapest40 and an honorary consulate in Keszthely
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the OECD, the NATO, the OSCE and the WTO Also Hungary is an EU member and Turkey is a candidate
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Ukraine
  • Hungary has an embassy in Kiev, a consulate general in Uzhhorod, a consulate in Berehove and an honorary consulate in Lviv414243
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Budapest and a general consulate in Nyíregyháza
  • There are around 155,000 Hungarians in Ukraine who live in Ukraine, mostly in the Zakarpattia Oblast at the border with Hungary
  • Both countries shares 103 km of common border
  • See also Hungarians in Ukraine
  • Hungarian consulate in Berehove in Hungarian and Ukrainian only
 United Kingdom 1920
  • Hungary and the UK enjoy friendly relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in London and 5 honorary consulates in Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Liverpool and Torquay44
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Budapest45
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union
  • See also Hungarian migration to the United Kingdom
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about the relation with Hungary

Asiaedit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 India
  • Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Hungary
  • Indian embassy in Budapest
 Indonesia 1955
  • Hungary has an embassy in Indonesia46 opened in Jakarta, the Indonesian capital, in 1957 Hungary has two honorary consuls in Indonesia, one in Bandung, West Java and another in Denpasar, Bali A third consul will be opened in Surabaya, East Java46
  • Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Hungary
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Budapest47 and there is a commercial developmental center too
 Iran 1939 See Hungary–Iran relations
  • Since 1951, Hungary has an embassy in Tehran48
  • Iran has an embassy in Budapest49
 Iraq See Hungary–Iraq relations, Hungary–Kurdistan Region relations
  • Hungary is represented in Iraq through its embassy in Amman Jordan50
  • Iraq has an embassy in Budapest
  • Between August 2003 and March 2005, Hungary had contributed to more than 300 soldiers to the Multinational force in Iraq
 Israel See Hungary–Israel relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tel Aviv and 4 honorary consulates in Eilat, Haifa, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv51
  • Israel has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Szeged52
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean
 Japan See Hungary–Japan relations
  • After World War II, both countries re-established diplomatic relations in August 1959
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tokyo and 2 honorary consulates in Hamamatsu and Osaka53
  • Japan has an embassy in Budapest54
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
 Kazakhstan 1991 Hungary has an embassy in Astana, and in Almaty

Kazakhstan has an embassy in Budapest

 Malaysia 1969 See Hungary–Malaysia relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Budapest
  • Malaysia Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Hungary
  • Hungary–Malaysia relations on wwwklngovmy
 Mongolia 1959-05-29
  • Hungary is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing People's Republic of China and though an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Budapest
  • Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Hungary in Mongolian only
 North Korea See Hungary – North Korea relations
  • Relations between the two countries existed since the Korean War, but however have evolved into conflicts
 Pakistan 1965-11-26
  • Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Karachi55
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Budapest56
 People's Republic of China 1949-10-04
  • Hungary has an embassy in Beijing and general consulates in Hong Kong and Shanghai
  • China has an embassy in Budapest
  • Officials from Hungary regularly visit China on trade missions, a factor that helped enabled the buyout of distressed Hungarian chemical maker Borsodchem by the Chinese company Wanhua Group57
 South Korea 1 February 198958 See Hungary – South Korea relations
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Magyarország Republic of Hungary and the Republic of Korea South Korea began on 1 February 1989
  • Permanent missions between the two countries were announced during the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul Republic of Korea The announcement made the Republic of Hungary the first Eastern Bloc country to exchange ambassadors with South Korea
  • The Republic of Hungary has a Working Holiday Program Agreement with the Republic of Korea It was at the first time with a country of the Asia
  • The Republic of Hungary Hungarian embassy in Seoul Republic of Korea59
  • The Republic of Korea has an embassy in Budapest Republic of Hungary60
  • Bilateral Trade in 2014
    • Exports 1480 million US dollars
    • Imports 520 million US dollars
  • The ROK's Investment in Hungary from 1989 to 2014 about 530 million USD
  • The number of South Koreans living in the Republic of Hungary in 2014 was about 1,300
  • South Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with Hungary
  • South Korean embassy in Budapest
  • Foreign relations of South Korea#Europe Foreign relations of South Korea Foreign relations of the Republic of Korea58
 Sri Lanka See Hungary – Sri Lanka relations

Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary61 and has a consul in Budapest62 Hungary maintains a consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka63 Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka64

 Thailand 1973-10-24 See Hungary–Thailand relations
  • Since 1978, Hungary has an embassy in Bangkok and an honorary consulatte in Pattaya65
  • Since 1989, Thailand has an embassy in Budapest Thailand has also a commercial office in Budapest666768
 Vietnam 1950-02-03
  • Hungary has an embassy in Hanoi and an honorary consulate in Ho Chi Minh City69
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Budapest
  • Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary

Rest of worldedit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972
  • Australia has an embassy in Budapest70
  • Hungary has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate general in Sydney and 4 honorary consulate in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth71
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Hungary
 Belize

Hungary is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City72

 Brazil

Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate general in São Paulo The Hungarian Embassy in Brasília has consular jurisdiction over most of the Brazilian territory, except for the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul, which fall under the jurisdiction of the Consulate General in São Paulo Brazil has an embassy in Budapest The Brazil-Hungary Cultural Agreement was signed in 1992, and ratified on January 12, 1996

 Canada See Foreign relations of Canada
 Colombia 1973
  • Colombia is represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna Austria
  • Hungary counts with an honorary consulate in Bogotá
 Guyana 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 10 June 197573

 Mexico 1901 See Hungary–Mexico relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1901, during the time of Austria–Hungary Diplomatic relations were suspended between 1941 and 1974 They were re-established on May 14, 1974

  • Hungary has an embassy in Mexico City74
  • Mexico has an embassy in Budapest75
 Morocco
  • Hungary has an embassy in Morocco Morocco has an embassy in Budapest
  • Latifa Akharbach, the Morocco's under-secretary of Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Hungary in 2007
 United States 1922 See Hungary–United States relations

Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the US were resumed in December 1945 when a US ambassador was appointed and the embassy was re-opened

  • Hungary has an embassy in Washington, DC and consulates-general in Los Angeles and New York76
  • United States has an embassy in Budapest77

Foreign criticismedit

In December 2010, the Fidesz government adopted a press and media law which threatens fines on media that engage in "unbalanced coverage"78 The law aroused criticism in the European Union as possibly "a direct threat to democracy"78

In 2013, the government adopted a new constitution that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary These changes have been criticized by the Council of Europe, the European Union and Human Rights Watch as possibly undermining the rule of law and human rights protection79

See alsoedit

  • Azerbaijan–Hungary relations
  • List of diplomatic missions in Hungary
  • List of diplomatic missions of Hungary
  • Visa requirements for Hungarian citizens

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Solomon S 1997 South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership Archived 26 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, ISS
  2. ^ Higgott, Richard A; Cooper, Andrew Fenton 1990 "Middle power leadership and coalition building: Australia, the Cairns Group, and the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations" International Organization 44 4: 589–632 JSTOR 2706854 doi:101017/S0020818300035414 
  3. ^ "Embassies in Budapest" 123embassycom 2014 Retrieved 20 November 2016 
  4. ^ "International organizations in Hungary" Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archived from the original on 13 March 2016 Retrieved 20 November 2016 
  5. ^ "Croatia and Hungary recognize Kosovo" The Associated Press International Herald Tribune 2008-03-19 Retrieved 2008-09-21 
  6. ^ Hungary border crackdown, The Guardian 16 September 2015
  7. ^ Hungarian police spary tear gas water cannons at migrants, CBS news 16 September 2015
  8. ^ Róna-Tas, András 1999 Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history Central European University Press pp 409–410 ISBN 963-9116-48-3 
  9. ^ ipos, János Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Ends of the Steppe
  10. ^ Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Hungarian honorary consulate in Yerevan
  11. ^ Hungarian embassy in Sarajevo in Hungarian only
  12. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Budapest
  13. ^ Hungarian embassy in Sofia
  14. ^ Hungarian embassy in Dublin
  15. ^ Irish embassy in Budapest
  16. ^ "CSO Emigration" PDF Census Office Ireland Retrieved 26 July 2013 
  17. ^ Hungarian embassy in Rome in Hungarian and Italian only
  18. ^ Hungarian general consulate in Milan in Hungarian and Italian only
  19. ^ Italian embassy in Budapest in Hungarian and Italian only
  20. ^ "Hungary recognizes Kosovo’s Independence" Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Hungary 2008-03-19 Retrieved 2008-03-19 
  21. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Hungary in Pristina" Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Retrieved 2008-06-27 
  22. ^ Hungarian embassy in Riga in Hungarian and Latvian only
  23. ^ Hungarian embassy in Vilnius in Hungarian only
  24. ^ Dizaino Kryptis "Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija – Lietuvos Respublikos užsienio reikalų ministerija" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  25. ^ Montenegro office and relation with Hungary
  26. ^ Dutch embassy in Budapest Archived September 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Hungarian embassy in The Hague
  28. ^ Hungarian embassy in Oslo
  29. ^ "Norvégia – hivatalos honlapja Magyarországon" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  30. ^ Hungarian embassy in Lisbon
  31. ^ "Jay E Peterson" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  32. ^ Hungarian embassy in Ljubljana in Hungarian and Slovenian only
  33. ^ "Embassy of the RS Budapest" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  34. ^ Hungarian embassy in Madrid in Hungarian and Spanish only
  35. ^ Hungarian general consulate in Barcelona in Hungarian, Catalan and Spanish only
  36. ^ "เล่นคาสิโนออนไลน์ 24 ชั่วโมงผ่านบาคาร่าไม่มีวันหยุด" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  37. ^ "Kan醨i-szigetek Tiszteletbeli Magyar Konzul醫usa – Consulado Honorario de la Rep鷅lica de Hugr韆 de las Islas Canarias" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  38. ^ Spanish embassy in Budapest in Spanish only
  39. ^ "Embassy of Hungary in Turkey" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  40. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Bükreş Büyükelçiliği" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  41. ^ Hungarian embassy in Kiev
  42. ^ Hungarian consulate general in Uzhhorod in Hungarian and Ukrainian only
  43. ^ "Посольство України в Угорщині" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  44. ^ Hungarian embassy in London
  45. ^ "UK and Hungary" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  46. ^ a b Bilateral relations between Hungary and Indonesia Archived index at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  48. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tehran
  49. ^ "New Web Site" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  50. ^ Hungarian embassy in Amman also accredited to Iraq
  51. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tel Aviv Archived index at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "Error-2010-f3" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  53. ^ Hungarian embassy in Tokyo
  54. ^ "在ハンガリー日本国大使館" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  55. ^ Hungarian embassy in Islamabad
  56. ^ Pakistani embassy in Budapest Archived November 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "CEE Needs to Play the Asia Card" Euromoney May 4, 2011 
  58. ^ a b http://wwwmofagokr/ENG/countries/europe/countries/20070818/1_24615jspmenu=m_30_40
  59. ^ http://wwwmfagovhu/kulkepviselet/KR/en/mainpagehtm
  60. ^ http://hunmofagokr/english/eu/hun/main/indexjsp
  61. ^ "Embassy and Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka" Sri Lankan Embassy in Vienna Archived from the original on May 4, 2009 Retrieved 2009-05-03 
  62. ^ "List of honorary consuls in Hungary" in Hungarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary Retrieved 2009-05-03 
  63. ^ "Consulate of the Republic of Hungary" Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary Retrieved 2009-05-03 
  64. ^ "Bilateral Relations Sri Lanka" Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Hungary Retrieved 2009-05-03 
  65. ^ Hungarian embassy in Bangkok
  66. ^ Thai embassy in Budapest
  67. ^ Thailand's embassy in Budapest
  68. ^ "สถานเอกอัครราชทูต ณ กรุงบูดาเปสต์" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  69. ^ Hungarian embassy in Hanoi
  70. ^ Commonwealth of Australia "About the Australian Embassy in Hungary" Retrieved 23 December 2008 
  71. ^ Hungarian consulate general in Sydney Archived January 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ 1
  73. ^ 2
  74. ^ Embassy of Hungary in Mexico City in English and Spanish
  75. ^ "Bienvenidos a la portada" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  76. ^ "Magyar Nagykövetség – Washington DC" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  77. ^ "Home – Embassy of the United States Budapest, Hungary" Retrieved 20 February 2015 
  78. ^ a b ‘The New Press and Media Act in Hungary’ concerning the December 2010 law, by Kai Ekholm and Tarja Svärd-Ylilehto iflaorg, 5 October 2012 Retrieved 14 May 2015
  79. ^ "Hungary: Constitutional Change Falls Short" hrworg 18 September 2013 Retrieved 17 May 2015 

Further readingedit

  • Borhi, László, “In the Power Arena: US-Hungarian Relations, 1942–1989,” The Hungarian Quarterly Budapest, 51 Summer 2010, pp 67–81
  • Glant, Tibor, “Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations,” Eger Journal of American Studies, 13 2012, pp 163–83
  • Hornyak, Arpad Hungarian-Yugoslav Diplomatic Relations, 1918–1927 East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 2013 426 pages

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