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fomalhaut star, fomalhaut
Fomalhaut, also designated Alpha Piscis Austrini α Piscis Austrini, abbreviated Alpha PsA, α PsA is the brightest star in the constellation of Piscis Austrinus and one of the brightest stars in the sky It is a class A star on the main sequence approximately 25 light-years 77 pc from the Sun as measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite11 Since 1943, the spectrum of this star has served as one of the stable anchor points by which other stars are classified12 It is classified as a Vega-like star that emits excess infrared radiation, indicating it is surrounded by a circumstellar disk13 Fomalhaut, K-type main-sequence star TW Piscis Austrini, and M-type, red dwarf star LP 876-10 constitute a triple system, even though the companions are separated by several degrees14

Fomalhaut holds a special significance in extrasolar planet research, as it is the center of the first stellar system with an extrasolar planet candidate designated Fomalhaut b, later named Dagon imaged at visible wavelengths The image was published in Science in November 200815 Fomalhaut is the third brightest star as viewed from Earth known to have a planetary system, after the Sun and Pollux


  • 1 Nomenclature
  • 2 Fomalhaut A
    • 21 Properties
    • 22 Debris disks and planet
  • 3 Fomalhaut B TW Piscis Austrini
  • 4 Fomalhaut C LP 876-10
  • 5 Etymology and cultural significance
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links


α Piscis Austrini Latinised to Alpha Piscis Austrini is the system's Bayer designation It also bears the Flamsteed designation of 24 Piscis Austrini The classical astronomer Ptolemy put it in Aquarius, as well as Piscis Austrinus In the 1600s Johann Bayer firmly planted it in the primary position of Piscis Austrinus Following Ptolemy, John Flamsteed in 1725 additionally denoted it 79 Aquarii The current designation reflects modern consensus on Bayer's decision, that the star belongs in Piscis Austrinus16 Under the rules for naming objects in multiple star systems, the three components - Fomalhaut, TW Piscis Austrini and LP 876-10 - are designated A, B and C, respectively17 On its discovery, the planet was designated Fomalhaut b

The star's traditional name derives from Fom al-Haut from scientific Arabic فم الحوت fam al-ḥūt al-janūbī "the mouth of the Southern Fish" literally, "mouth of the whale", a translation of how Ptolemy labeled it1819 In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names WGSN20 to catalog and standardize proper names for stars The WGSN's first bulletin of July 201621 included a table of the first two batches of names approved by the WGSN, which included the name Fomalhaut for this star

In July 2014, the International Astronomical Union IAU launched a process for giving proper names to certain exoplanets22 The process involved public nomination and voting for the new names23 In December 2015, the IAU announced the winning name was Dagon for this planet24

The winning name was proposed by Dr Todd Vaccaro and forwarded by the St Cloud State University Planetarium of St Cloud, Minnesota, United States of America, to the IAU for consideration25 Dagon was a Semitic deity, often represented as half-man, half-fish26

Fomalhaut Aedit

Dust ring around Fomalhaut from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array ALMA27

At a declination of −296°, Fomalhaut is located south of the celestial equator, and hence is best viewed from the Southern Hemisphere However, its southerly declination is not as great as that of stars such as Acrux, Alpha Centauri and Canopus, meaning that, unlike them, Fomalhaut is visible from a large part of the Northern Hemisphere as well Its declination is greater than that of Sirius and similar to that of Antares At 40°N, Fomalhaut rises above the horizon for eight hours and reaches only 20° above the horizon, while Capella, which rises at approximately the same time, will stay above the horizon for twenty hours From England, the star never appears much brighter than magnitude 22, due to it being so close to the horizon, and from southern Alaska or Scandinavia, it never rises above the horizon at all28 Fomalhaut can be located in these northern latitudes by the fact that the western right-hand side of the Square of Pegasus points to it Continuing the line from Beta to Alpha Pegasi towards the southern horizon, Fomalhaut is about 45˚ south of Alpha Pegasi, with no bright stars in between29


Fomalhaut is a young star, for many years thought to be only 100 to 300 million years old, with a potential lifespan of a billion years3031 A 2012 study gave a slightly higher age of 7002440000000000000♠440±40 million years7 The surface temperature of the star is around 8,590 K 8,320 °C Fomalhaut's mass is about 192 times that of the Sun, its luminosity is about 166 times greater, and its diameter is roughly 184 times as large7

Fomalhaut is slightly metal-deficient compared to the Sun, which means it is composed of a smaller percentage of elements other than hydrogen and helium8 The metallicity is typically determined by measuring the abundance of iron in the photosphere relative to the abundance of hydrogen A 1997 spectroscopic study measured a value equal to 93% of the Sun's abundance of iron9nb 1 A second 1997 study deduced a value of 78%, by assuming Fomalhaut has the same metallicity as the neighboring star TW Piscis Austrini, which has since been argued to be a physical companion732 In 2004, a stellar evolutionary model of Fomalhaut yielded a metallicity of 79%8 Finally, in 2008, a spectroscopic measurement gave a significantly lower value of 46%10

Fomalhaut has been claimed to be one of approximately 16 stars belonging to the Castor Moving Group This is an association of stars which share a common motion through space, and have been claimed to be physically associated Other members of this group include Castor and Vega The moving group has an estimated age of 7002200000000000000♠200±100 million years and originated from the same location30 More recent work has found that purported members of the Castor Moving Group appear to not only have a wide range of ages, but their velocities are too different to have been possibly associated with one another in the distant past14 Hence, "membership" to this dynamical group has no bearing on the age of the Fomalhaut system14

Debris disks and planetedit

The debris disk around the star Debris ring around Fomalhaut showing location of planet Fomalhaut b—imaged by
Hubble Space Telescope's coronagraph
January 8, 2013 NASA

Fomalhaut is surrounded by several debris disks

The inner disk is a high-carbon small-grain 10-300 nm ash disk, clustering at 01 AU from the star Next is a disk of larger particles, with inner edge 04-1 AU of the star The innermost disk is unexplained as yet13

The outermost disk is at a radial distance of 133 AU 199×1010 km; 124×1010 mi, in a toroidal shape with a very sharp inner edge, all inclined 24 degrees from edge-on3334 The dust is distributed in a belt about 25 AU wide The geometric center of the disk is offset by about 15 AU 22×109 km; 14×109 mi from Fomalhaut35 The disk is sometimes referred to as "Fomalhaut's Kuiper belt" Fomalhaut's dusty disk is believed to be protoplanetary,36 and emits considerable infrared radiation Measurements of Fomalhaut's rotation indicate that the disk is located in the star's equatorial plane, as expected from theories of star and planet formation37

On November 13, 2008, astronomers announced an object, which they assumed to be an extrasolar planet, orbiting just inside the outer debris ring This was the first extrasolar orbiting object to be seen with visible light, captured by the Hubble Space Telescope38 A planet's existence had been previously suspected from the sharp, elliptical inner edge of that disk39 The mass of the planet, Fomalhaut b, was estimated to be no more than three times the mass of Jupiter, but at least the mass of Neptune40 There are indications that the orbit is not apsidally aligned with the dust disk, which may indicate that additional planets may be responsible for the dust disk's structure41

However, M-band images taken from the MMT Observatory put strong limits on the existence of gas giants within 40 AU of the star,42 and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging suggested that the object Fomalhaut b was more likely to be a dust cloud43 In 2012, two independent studies confirmed that Fomalhaut b does exist, but it is shrouded by debris, so it may be a gravitationally-bound accumulation of rubble rather than a whole planet4445

Herschel Space Observatory images of Fomalhaut reveal that a large amount of fluffy micrometer-sized dust is present in the outer dust belt Because such dust is expected to be blown out of the system by stellar radiation pressure on short timescales, its presence indicates a constant replenishment by collisions of planetesimals The fluffy morphology of the grains suggests a cometary origin The collision rate is estimated to be approximately 2000 kilometre-sized comets per day46

Observations of the star's outer dust ring by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array point to the existence of two planets in the system, neither one at the orbital radius proposed for the HST-discovered Fomalhaut b47

If there are additional planets from 4 to 10 AU, they must be under 20 MJ; if from 25 outward, then 30 MJ48

The Fomalhaut planetary system1349
in order from star
Mass Semimajor axis
Orbital period
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
Inner hot disk 008–011 AU
Outer hot disk 021–062 AU or 088–108 AU
10 AU belt 8–12 AU
Interbelt dust disk 35–133 AU
b Dagon   MJ 177±68 ~1700 08±01 −55°
Main belt 133–158 AU −661°
Main belt outer halo 158–209 AU

Fomalhaut B TW Piscis Austriniedit

Fomalhaut forms a binary star with the K4-type star TW Piscis Austrini TW PsA, which lies 028 parsecs 091 light years away from Fomalhaut, and its space velocity agrees with that of Fomalhaut within 7002100000000000000♠01±05 km/s, consistent with being a bound companion A recent age estimate for TW PsA 7002400000000000000♠400±70 million years agrees very well with the isochronal age for Fomalhaut 7002450000000000000♠450±40 million years, further arguing for the two stars forming a physical binary7

The designation TW Piscis Austrini is astronomical nomenclature for a variable star Fomalhaut B is a flare star of the type known as a BY Draconis variable It varies slightly in apparent magnitude, ranging from 644 to 649 over a 103 day period While smaller than the Sun, it is relatively large for a flare star Most flare stars are red M-type dwarfs

Fomalhaut C LP 876-10edit

Main article: Fomalhaut C

LP 876-10 is also associated with the Fomalhaut system, making it a trinary star In October 2013, Eric Mamajek and collaborators from the RECONS consortium announced that the previously known high-proper-motion star LP 876-10 had a distance, velocity, and color-magnitude position consistent with being another member of the Fomalhaut system14 LP 876-10 was originally catalogued as a high-proper-motion star by Willem Luyten in his 1979 NLTT catalogue, however, a precise trigonometric parallax and radial velocity was only measured quite recently LP 876-10 is a red dwarf of spectral type M4V, and located even further from Fomalhaut A than TW PsA—about 57° away from Fomalhaut A in the sky, in the neighbouring constellation Aquarius, whereas both Fomalhaut A and TW PsA are located in constellation Piscis Austrinus Its current separation from Fomalhaut A is about 077 parsecs 25 light years, and it is currently located 0987 parsecs 32 light years away from TW PsA Fomalhaut B LP 876-10 is located well within the tidal radius of the Fomalhaut system, which is 19 parsecs 62 light years14 Although LP 876-10 is itself catalogued as a binary star in the Washington Double Star Catalog called "WSI 138", there was no sign of a close-in stellar companion in the imaging, spectral, or astrometric data in the Mamajek et al study14 In December 2013, Kennedy et al reported the discovery of a cold dusty debris disk associated with Fomalhaut C, using infrared images from the Herschel Space Observatory Multiple-star systems hosting multiple debris disks are exceedingly rare50

The Fomalhaut C planetary system50
in order from star
Mass Semimajor axis
Orbital period
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
Debris disk ~10–<40 AU

Etymology and cultural significanceedit

Fomalhaut has had various names ascribed to it through time, and has been recognized by many cultures of the northern hemisphere, including the Arabs, Persians, and Chinese It marked the solstice in 2500 BC51 It was also a marker for the worship of Demeter in Eleusis52

  • It was called Hastorang by the Persians, one of the four "royal stars"19
  • The Latin names are ōs piscis merīdiāni, ōs piscis merīdionālis, ōs piscis notii "the mouth of the Southern Fish"19
  • The name Difda al Auwel comes from the colloquial Arabic الضفدع الأول aḍ-ḍifdiˤ al-’awwal "the first frog" the second frog is Beta Ceti19
  • The Chinese name 北落師門/北落师门 Mandarin: Běiluòshīmén, meaning North Gate of the Military Camp, because this star is marking itself and stands alone in North Gate of the Military Camp asterism, Encampment mansion see: Chinese constellation53 北落师门 Běiluòshīmén, westernized into Pi Lo Sze Mun in RH Allen's work19
  • To the Moporr Aboriginal people of South Australia, it is a masculine being called Buunjill54 The Wardaman people of the Northern Territory called Fomalhaut Menggen —white cockatoo55

Fomalhaut/Earthwork B, in Mounds State Park near Anderson, Indiana, lines up with the rising of the star Fomalhaut in the fall months, according to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources In 1980, astronomer Jack Robinson proposed that the rising azimuth of Fomalhaut was marked by cairn placements at both the Bighorn and Moose Mountain Medicine Wheels in Wyoming, USA and Saskatchewan, Canada, respectively56

The New Scientist magazine termed it the "Great Eye of Sauron", due to its shape and debris ring, when viewed from a distance, bearing similarity to the aforementioned "Eye" in the Peter Jackson Lord of the Rings films57

In Walter Tevis' novel Steps of the Sun, Fomalhaut is visited by the protagonist, and two potentially inhabitable planets are found and described Parts of Philip K Dick's novel Lies, Inc originally titled The Unteleported Man are set on the fictional planet Fomalhaut IX Ursula K Le Guin's first novel Rocannon's World is also set on a fictional planet in the Fomalhaut system

USS Fomalhaut AK-22 was a United States navy amphibious cargo ship

See alsoedit

  • Exoplanet
  • GJ 758
  • HR 8799
  • List of extrasolar planets
  • Direct imaging of extrasolar planets
  • Fomalhaut in fiction
  • 2M1207
  • Vega
  • List of star systems within 25–30 light-years


  1. ^ Calculation of metallicity: if m = Fe/H, then the ratio of iron to hydrogen for Fomalhaut divided by the ratio of iron to hydrogen for the Sun is given by 10m


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j van Leeuwen, F November 2007 "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction" Astronomy and Astrophysics 474 2: 653–664 arXiv:07081752  Bibcode:2007A&A474653V doi:101051/0004-6361:20078357 
  2. ^ Ducati, J R 2002 "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Stellar Photometry in Johnson's 11-color system" CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues 2237: 0 Bibcode:2002yCat22370D 
  3. ^ a b "V TW PsA -- Variable of BY Dra type" SIMBAD Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg Retrieved 2010-01-20 
  4. ^ a b c d e "LP 876-10 -- Double or multiple star" SIMBAD Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg Retrieved 2014-07-30 
  5. ^ a b c d e Demory, B-O; et al October 2009, "Mass-radius relation of low and very low-mass stars revisited with the VLTI", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 505 1: 205–215, arXiv:09060602 , Bibcode:2009A&A505205D, doi:101051/0004-6361/200911976 
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  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mamajek, EE August 2012 "On the Age and Binarity of Fomalhaut" Astrophysical Journal Letters 754 2: L20 arXiv:12066353  Bibcode:2012ApJL75420M doi:101088/2041-8205/754/2/L20 
  8. ^ a b c d Di Folco, E; Thévenin, F; Kervella, P; Domiciano de Souza, A; Coudé du Foresto, V; Ségransan, D; Morel, P November 2004 "VLTI near-IR interferometric observations of Vega-like stars Radius and age of α PsA, β Leo, β Pic, ɛ Eri and τ Cet" Astronomy and Astrophysics 426 2: 601–617 Bibcode:2004A&A426601D doi:101051/0004-6361:20047189  This paper lists Fe/H = −010 dex
  9. ^ a b Dunkin, S K; Barlow, M J; Ryan, Sean G; Barlow; Ryan April 1997 "High-resolution spectroscopy of Vega-like stars - I Effective temperatures, gravities and photospheric abundances" Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 286 3: 604–616 Bibcode:1997MNRAS286604D doi:101093/mnras/2863604 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link This paper lists Fe/H = −003 dex
  10. ^ a b Saffe, C; Gómez, M; Pintado, O; González, E October 2008 "Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars" Astronomy and Astrophysics 490 1: 297–305 arXiv:08053936  Bibcode:2008A&A490297S doi:101051/0004-6361:200810260  This paper lists Fe/H = −034 dex
  11. ^ Perryman, Michael 2010, The Making of History's Greatest Star Map, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, doi:101007/978-3-642-11602-5 
  12. ^ Garrison, R F December 1993, "Anchor Points for the MK System of Spectral Classification", Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 25: 1319, Bibcode:1993AAS1831710G, retrieved 2012-02-04 
  13. ^ a b c B Mennesson, O Absil, J Lebreton, J-C Augereau, E Serabyn, M M Colavita, R Millan-Gabet, W Liu, PHinz, P Thebault 2012, "An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk II Keck Nuller mid-infrared observations", Astrophysical Journal, 763 2: 119, arXiv:12117143 , Bibcode:2013ApJ763119M, doi:101088/0004-637X/763/2/119 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  14. ^ a b c d e f Mamajek, Eric E; Bartlett, Jennifer L; Seifahrt, Andreas; Henry, Todd J; Dieterich, Sergio B; Lurie, John C; Kenworthy, Matthew A; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R; Subasavage, John P; Winters, Jennifer G; Finch, Charlie T; Ianna, Philip A; Bean, Jacob 2013 "The Solar Neighborhood XXX Fomalhaut C" The Astronomical Journal 146 6: 154 arXiv:13100764  Bibcode:2013AJ146154M doi:101088/0004-6256/146/6/154 
  15. ^ Kalas, Paul; et al 2008 "Optical Images of an Exosolar Planet 25 Light-Years from Earth" Science 322 5906: 1345–1348 arXiv:08111994  Bibcode:2008Sci3221345K doi:101126/science1166609 PMID 19008414 
  16. ^ Wagman, M August 1987 "Flamsteed's Missing Stars" Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol18, NO 3/AUG, P209, 1987 18: 212 Bibcode:1987JHA18209W doi:101177/002182868701800305 
  17. ^ Hartkopf, William I; Mason, Brian D "Addressing confusion in double star nomenclature: The Washington Multiplicity Catalog" US Naval Observatory Retrieved 2016-01-19 
  18. ^ "Fomalhaut" 
  19. ^ a b c d e Richard Hinckley Allen:Star Names — Their Lore and Meaning Piscis Australis, the Southern Fish
  20. ^ "IAU Working Group on Star Names WGSN" Retrieved 22 May 2016 
  21. ^ "Bulletin of the IAU Working Group on Star Names, No 1" PDF Retrieved 28 July 2016 
  22. ^ NameExoWorlds: An IAU Worldwide Contest to Name Exoplanets and their Host Stars IAUorg 9 July 2014
  23. ^ NameExoWorlds The Process
  24. ^ Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released, International Astronomical Union, 15 December 2015
  25. ^ http://wwwsctimescom/story/news/local/2015/12/25/scsu-planetarium-names-exoplanet/77875858/
  26. ^ NameExoWorlds The Approved Names
  27. ^ "ALMA Reveals Workings of Nearby Planetary System" ESO Press Release Retrieved 13 April 2012 
  28. ^ Fred Schaaf 2008 The Brightest Stars: Discovering the Universe through the Sky's Most Brilliant Stars John Wiley & Sons p 231 ISBN 047024917X 
  29. ^ "Shallow Sky Object of the Month: Fomalhaut" Houston Astronomical Society August 2013 Retrieved 2014-07-30 
  30. ^ a b Barrado y Navascues, D 1998 "The Castor moving group The age of Fomalhaut and VEGA" Astronomy and Astrophysics 339: 831–839 arXiv:astro-ph/9905243  Bibcode:1998A&A339831B 
  31. ^ "Elusive Planet Reshapes a Ring Around Neighboring Star" HubbleSite - newscenter Space Telescope Science Institute STScI June 22, 2005 
  32. ^ Barrado y Navascues, David; Stauffer, John R; Hartmann, Lee; Balachandran, Suchitra C January 1997 "The Age of Gliese 879 and Fomalhaut" Astrophysical Journal 475: 313 arXiv:astro-ph/9704021  Bibcode:1997ApJ475313B doi:101086/303518  This paper lists Fe/H = −011 dex
  33. ^ Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R; Clampin, Mark 2005 "A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut's dust belt" Nature 435 7045: 1067–1070 arXiv:astro-ph/0506574  Bibcode:2005Natur4351067K doi:101038/nature03601 PMID 15973402 
  34. ^ The disc was reported by Holland, Wayne S; et al 1998 "Submillimetre images of dusty debris around nearby stars" Nature 392 6678: 788–791 Bibcode:1998Natur392788H doi:101038/33874  They noted that the disc was centered on a cavity, which they suggested might have been swept out by planets
  35. ^ "Fomalhaut's Kuiper Belt" Sky & Telescope Retrieved October 16, 2007 
  36. ^ "Hubble Directly Observes a Planet Orbiting Another Star" Retrieved November 13, 2008 
  37. ^ Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; et al 2009 "The spin-orbit alignment of the Fomalhaut planetary system probed by optical long baseline interferometry" Astronomy and Astrophysics 498 3: L41 arXiv:09041688  Bibcode:2009A&A498L41L doi:101051/0004-6361/200911854 
  38. ^ "From afar, the first optical photos of an exoplanet" AFP 2008-11-13 Archived from the original on 2008-12-20 
  39. ^ Quillen, Alice C 2006 "Predictions for a planet just inside Fomalhaut's eccentric ring" Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 372 1: L14–L18 arXiv:astro-ph/0605372  Bibcode:2006MNRAS372L14Q doi:101111/j1745-3933200600216x 
  40. ^ Paul Kalas 2008-11-13 "Direct Image Of Extrasolar Planet" Retrieved 2008-11-14  at 3 minutes 45 seconds: " has to be less than three Jupiter masses In fact our lower limit to Fomalhaut b is Neptune"
  41. ^ Chiang, E; et al 2008 "Fomalhaut's Debris Disk and Planet: Constraining the Mass of Fomalhaut b From Disk Morphology" arXiv:08111985v1  astro-ph 
  42. ^ Kenworthy, Matthew A; et al 2008 "MMT/AO 5 micron Imaging Constraints on the Existence of Giant Planets Orbiting Fomalhaut at ~13-40 AU" The Astrophysical Journal 697 2: 1928–1933 arXiv:08112443v1  Bibcode:2009ApJ6971928K doi:101088/0004-637X/697/2/1928 
  43. ^ Markus, J; et al 2012 "Infrared Non-detection of Fomalhaut b—Implications for the Planet Interpretation" The Astrophysical Journal 747 2: 116 arXiv:12014388v2  Bibcode:2012ApJ747116J doi:101088/0004-637X/747/2/116 
  44. ^ Raphael Galicher; Christian Marois; B Zuckerman; Bruce Macintosh 2013 "Fomalhaut b: Independent Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope Public Archive Data" The Astrophysical Journal 769: 42 arXiv:12106745  Bibcode:2013ApJ76942G doi:101088/0004-637X/769/1/42 
  45. ^ Thayne Currie; et al 2012 "Direct Imaging Confirmation and Characterization of a Dust-Enshrouded Candidate Exoplanet Orbiting Fomalhaut" The Astrophysical Journal Letters 760 2: L32 arXiv:12106620  Bibcode:2012ApJ760L32C doi:101088/2041-8205/760/2/L32 
  46. ^ B Acke; et al 2012 "Herschel images of Fomalhaut An extrasolar Kuiper belt at the height of its dynamical activity" Astronomy & Astrophysics class: astro-ph 540: A125 arXiv:12045037  Bibcode:2012A&A540A125A doi:101051/0004-6361/201118581 
  47. ^ Boley, A; et al 2012 "Constraining the Planetary System of Fomalhaut Using High-Resolution ALMA Observations" The Astrophysical Journal class: astro-ph 750: L21 arXiv:12040007v1  Bibcode:2012ApJ750L21B doi:101088/2041-8205/750/1/L21 
  48. ^ Matthew A Kenworthy and Tiffany Meshkat 2012 "Coronagraphic Observations of Fomalhaut at Solar System Scales" Astrophysical Journal class: astro-ph 764: 7 arXiv:12121459  Bibcode:2013ApJ7647K doi:101088/0004-637X/764/1/7 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  49. ^ Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Clampin, Mark 2013 "STIS Coronagraphic Imaging of Fomalhaut: Main Belt Structure and the Orbit of Fomalhaut b" The Astrophysical Journal 775 1: article id 56 arXiv:13052222  Bibcode:2013ApJ77556K doi:101088/0004-637X/775/1/56 
  50. ^ a b Kennedy, Grant M; et al 2013-12-17 "Discovery of the Fomalhaut C debris disc" Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 438: L96–L100 arXiv:13125315  Bibcode:2014MNRAS438L96K doi:101093/mnrasl/slt168 
  51. ^ "Fomalhaut had first visible exoplanet" 
  52. ^ "Fomalhaut had first visible exoplanet" , citing Richard Hinckley Allen
  53. ^ Chinese AEEA Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 7 日
  54. ^ Dawson, James 1881 Australian Aborigines Sydney: George Robertson p 100 ISBN 0-85575-118-5 
  55. ^ Harney, Bill Yidumduma; Cairns, Hugh C 2004 2003 Dark Sparklers Revised ed Merimbula, New South Wales: Hugh C Cairns p 204 ISBN 0-9750908-0-1 
  56. ^ Robinson, JH September 1980 "Fomalhaut and cairn D at the Big Horn and Moose Mountain Medicine Wheels" Bulletin of the Astronomical Society 12: 887 Bibcode:1980BAAS12887R 
  57. ^ Ivan Semeniuk 22 June 2005 "Hubble spies lord of the stellar rings" New Scientist 

External linksedit

  • "Fomalhaut" SolStation Retrieved November 23, 2005 
  • Preprint of planet discovery paper
  • Astrobites summary of Janson et al 2012, the Spitzer IR non-detection of Fomalhaut b
  • Astrobites summary of Boley et al 2012, the ALMA observations of the Fomalhaut ring system
  • "Eye of Sauron" debris ring
  • Researchers find that bright nearby double star Fomalhaut is actually a triple Astronomy magazine : October 8, 2013

Coordinates: 22h 57m 391s, −29° 37′ 20″

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