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Fokker

fokker 100, fokker triplane
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919

During its most successful period in the 1920s and 1930s, it dominated the civil aviation market Fokker went into bankruptcy in 1996, and its operations were sold to competitors

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Fokker in Germany
    • 12 World War I
    • 13 Return to the Netherlands
    • 14 1920s and 30s: Fokker's glory period
    • 15 World War II
    • 16 Post-World War II rebuilding
    • 17 Aerospace
    • 18 Fokker 50, Fokker 100, and Fokker 70
    • 19 Bankruptcy
  • 2 Famous Fokker aircraft and pilots
  • 3 Fokker aircraft
    • 31 1912–1918
    • 32 1919–1940
    • 33 Fokker-Atlantic designs
    • 34 1945–1996
  • 4 References
    • 41 Notes
    • 42 Bibliography
  • 5 External links

Historyedit

Fokker's first airplane, the Spin Spider 1910

Fokker in Germanyedit

At age 20, while studying in Germany, Anthony Fokker built his initial aircraft, the Spin Spider—the first Dutch-built plane to fly in his home country Taking advantage of better opportunities in Germany, he moved to Berlin, where in 1912, he founded his first company, Fokker Aeroplanbau, later moving to the Görries suburb just southwest of Schwerin at 53°36′4590″N 11°22′3160″E / 536127500°N 113754444°E / 536127500; 113754444, where the current company was founded, as Fokker Aviatik GmbH, on 12 February 19121

World War Iedit

Fokker capitalized on having sold several Fokker Spin monoplanes to the German government and set up a factory in Germany to supply the German Army His first new design for the Germans to be produced in any numbers was the Fokker M5, which was little more than a copy of the Morane-Saulnier G, built with steel tube instead of wood for the fuselage, and with minor alterations to the outline of the rudder and undercarriage and a new aerofoil section2 When it was realized that arming these scouts with a machine gun firing through the propeller was desirable, Fokker developed a synchronization gear similar to that patented by Franz Schneider3

Fokker Eindecker in flight

Fitted with a developed version of this gear, the M5 became the Fokker Eindecker, which due to its revolutionary armament, became one of the most feared aircraft over the western front, its introduction leading to a period of German air superiority known as the Fokker Scourge which only ended with the introduction of new aircraft such as the Nieuport 11 and Airco DH2

During World War I, Fokker engineers were working on the Fokker-Leimberger, an externally powered 12-barrel Gatling gun in the 792×57mm round claimed to be capable of firing over 7200 round per minute4

Later in the war, after the Fokker DV had failed to gain acceptance with the Luftstreitkräfte the last design by earlier chief designer Martin Kreutzer, the German government forced Fokker for their aircraft production expertise and Junkers for their pioneering all-metal airframe construction techniques, and advanced design concepts to cooperate more closely, which resulted in the foundation of the Junkers-Fokker Aktiengesellschaft, or Jfa, on 20 October 1917 As this partnership proved to be troublesome, it was eventually dissolved again By then, former Fokker welder and new designer Reinhold Platz, who had taken the late Martin Kreutzer's place with the firm, had adapted some of Prof Junkers' design concepts, that resulted in a visual similarity between the aircraft of those two manufacturers during the next decade

Some of the noteworthy types produced by Fokker during the second half of the war, all designed primarily by Herr Platz, included the Fokker DVI biplane, Fokker DrI triplane or Dreidecker remembered as a mount of the Red Baron, Fokker DVII biplane the only aircraft ever referred to directly in a treaty: all DVII's were singled out for handover to the allies in their terms of the armistice agreement and the Fokker DVIII parasol monoplane

Return to the Netherlandsedit

In 1919, Fokker, owing large sums in back taxes including 14,250,000 marks of income-tax,5 returned to the Netherlands and founded a new company near Amsterdam with the support of Steenkolen Handels Vereniging, now known as SHV Holdings He chose the name Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek Dutch Aircraft Factory to conceal the Fokker brand because of his World War I involvement Despite the strict disarmament conditions in the Treaty of Versailles, Fokker did not return home empty-handed In 1919, he arranged an export permit and brought six entire trains of parts, and 180 types of aircraft across the Dutch-German border, among them 117 Fokker CIs, DVIIs, and DVIIIs This initial stock enabled him to set up shop quickly

After his company's relocation, many Fokker CI and CIV military airplanes were delivered to Russia, Romania, and the still clandestine German air force Success came on the commercial market, too, with the development of the Fokker FVII, a high-winged aircraft capable of taking on various types of engines Fokker continued to design and build military aircraft, delivering planes to the Royal Netherlands Air Force Foreign military customers eventually included Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Switzerland, Hungary, and Italy These countries bought substantial numbers of the Fokker CV reconnaissance aircraft, which became Fokker's main success in the late 1920s and early 1930s

1920s and 30s: Fokker's glory periodedit

Fokker FVII

In the 1920s, Fokker entered its glory years, becoming the world's largest aircraft manufacturer by the late 1920s Its greatest success was the 1925 FVIIa/3m trimotor passenger aircraft, which was used by 54 airline companies worldwide and captured 40% of the American market in 1936 It shared the European market with the Junkers all-metal aircraft, but dominated the American market until the arrival of the Ford Trimotor which copied the aerodynamic features of the Fokker FVII, and Junkers structural concepts

A serious blow to Fokker's reputation came after the 1931 TWA Flight 599 disaster in Kansas, when it became known that the crash was caused by a structural failure caused by wood rot Notre Dame legendary football coach Knute Rockne was among the fatalities, prompting extensive media coverage and technical investigation As a result, all Fokkers were grounded in the USA, along with many other types that had copied Fokker's wings

In 1923, Anthony Fokker moved to the United States, where in 1927, he established an American branch of his company, the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, which was renamed the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America In 1930, this company merged with General Motors Corporation and the company's name became General Aviation Manufacturing Corporation, which in turn merged with North American Aviation and was divested by GM in 1948 In 1931, discontented at being totally subordinate to GM management, Fokker resigned On December 23, 1939, he died in New York City

World War IIedit

At the outset of World War II, the few GIs and DXXIs of the Dutch Air Force were able to score a respectable number of victories against the Luftwaffe, but many were destroyed on the ground before they could be used

The Fokker factories were confiscated by the Germans and were used to build Bücker Bü 181 Bestmann trainers and parts for the Junkers Ju 52 transport At the end of the war, the factories were completely stripped by the Germans and destroyed by Allied bombing

Post-World War II rebuildingedit

Fokker-built Gloster Meteor of the Belgian Air Force in 1955

Rebuilding after the war proved difficult The market was flooded with cheap surplus planes from the war The company cautiously started building gliders and autobuses and converting Dakota transport planes to civilian versions A few F25s were built Nevertheless, the S-11 trainer was a success, being purchased by several air forces The S-14 Machtrainer became one of the first jet trainers, and although not an export success, it served for over a decade with the Royal Netherlands Air Force

A new factory was built next to Schiphol Airport near Amsterdam in 1951 A number of military planes were built there under license, among them the Gloster Meteor twin-jet fighter and Lockheed's F-104 Starfighter A second production and maintenance facility was established at Woensdrecht

The Fokker F-27 turboprop airliner

In 1958, the F-27 Friendship was introduced, Fokker's most successful postwar airliner The Dutch government contributed 27 million guilders to its development Powered by the Rolls-Royce Dart, it became the world's best-selling turboprop airliner, reaching almost 800 units sold by 1986, including 206 under license by Fairchild Also, a military version of the F-27, the F-27 Troopship, was built

In 1962, the F-27 was followed by the jet-powered F-28 Fellowship Until production stopped in 1987, a total of 241 were built in various versions Both an F-27 and later an F-28 served with the Dutch Royal Flight, Prince Bernhard himself being a pilotcitation needed

In 1969, Fokker agreed to an alliance with Bremen-based Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke under control of a transnational holding company They collaborated on an unsuccessful regional jetliner, the VFW-614, of which only 19 were sold This collaboration ended in early 1980

A Fokker-assembled Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 arrives for the Royal International Air Tattoo, England, 2014

Fokker was one of the main partners in the F-16 Fighting Falcon consortium European Participating Air Forces, which was responsible for the production of these fighters for the Belgian, Danish, Dutch, and Norwegian Air Forces It consisted of companies and government agencies from these four countries and the United States F-16s were assembled at Fokker and at SABCA in Belgium with parts from the five countries involved

In 1986, Fokker released the title song "Fokker on the Wing"6 to promote the company's work on the Fokker 50 and 100 aircraft The song talks about Fokker "knows how to build aircraft", "builds you wings to sail the sky", and "on our way to new horizons" The song is now famouscitation needed and is used in many Fokker promotions and advertisements It was sung by Toon Vieijra

Aerospaceedit

In 1967, Fokker started a modest space division building parts for European satellites A major advance came in 1968 when Fokker developed the first Dutch satellite the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite together with Philips and Dutch universities This was followed by a second major satellite project, IRAS, successfully launched in 1983 The European Space Agency in June 1974 named a consortium headed by ERNO-VFW-Fokker GmbH to build pressurized modules for Spacelab

Subsequently, Fokker contributed to many European satellite projects, as well as to the Ariane rocket in its various models Together with a Russian contractor, they developed the huge parachute system for the Ariane 5 rocket boosters which would allow the boosters to return to Earth safely and be reused

The space division became more and more independent, until just before Fokker's bankruptcy in 1996, it became a fully stand-alone corporation, known successively as Fokker Space and Systems, Fokker Space, and Dutch Space On 1 January 2006, it was taken over by EADS-Space Transportation

Fokker 50, Fokker 100, and Fokker 70edit

Fokker 70, Fokker's last successful aircraft Fokker 100

After a brief and unsuccessful collaboration effort with McDonnell Douglas in 1981, Fokker began an ambitious project to develop two new aircraft concurrently The Fokker 50 was to be a completely modernised version of the F-27, and the Fokker 100 a new airliner based on the F-28 Yet development costs were allowed to spiral out of control, almost forcing Fokker out of business in 1987 The Dutch government bailed the company out with 212 million guilders, but demanded Fokker look for a "strategic partner", British Aerospace and DASA being named most likely candidates

Initial sales of the Fokker 100 were good, leading Fokker to begin development of the Fokker 70, a smaller version of the F100, in 1991, but sales of the F70 were below expectations and the F 100 had strong competition from Boeing and Airbus by then

In 1992, after a long and arduous negotiation process, Fokker signed an agreement with DASA This did not solve Fokker's problems, though, mostly because DASA's parent company Daimler-Benz also had to deal with its own organisational problems

Bankruptcyedit

On 22 January 1996, the board of directors of Daimler-Benz decided to focus on its core automobile business and cut ties with Fokker The next day, an Amsterdam court extended temporary creditor protection

Discussions were initiated with Bombardier on February 5, 1996 After having reviewed and evaluated the opportunities and challenges Fokker represented at the time, Bombardier renounced its acquisition on February 277 On 15 March, the Fokker company was declared bankrupt

Differences in national culture could have played a role in the failed takeover of Fokker by Deutsche Aerospace DASA8

Those divisions of the company that manufactured parts and carried out maintenance and repair work were taken over by Stork NV; it is now known as Stork Aerospace Group Stork Fokker exists to sustain remarketing of the company's existing aircraft: it refurbishes and resells F 50s and F 100s, and has converted a few F 50s to transport aircraft Special projects included the development of an F50 maritime patrol variant and an F100 executive jet For this project, Stork received the 2005 "Aerospace Industry Award" in the Air Transport category from Flight International magazine

Other divisions of the company that were profitable continued as separate companies: Fokker Space later Dutch Space and Fokker Control Systems

In November 2009, Stork Aerospace changed its name to Fokker Aerospace Group As of 2011, the Fokker Aerospace Group changed its name to Fokker Technologies The four individual business units within Fokker Technologies all carry the Fokker name:

  • Fokker Aerostructures
  • Fokker Landing Gear
  • Fokker Elmo
  • Fokker Services

The former Fokker aircraft facilities at Schiphol were redeveloped into the Fokker Logistics Park One of the former Fokker tenants is Fokker Services

Meanwhile, Rekkof Aircraft "Fokker" backwards is attempting to restart production of the Fokker F70 and F100, supported by suppliers and airlines

Famous Fokker aircraft and pilotsedit

Fokker DrI replica at the ILA 2006, the "Red Baron" triplane
  • In 1915, the Fokker EI was the first fighter armed with a synchronized machine gun firing through the propeller, achieving air superiority during the Fokker Scourge
  • Manfred von Richthofen the top scoring World War I ace is associated with an all red Fokker DrI triplane, at least for some of his 80 victories 1917–1918
  • The 1918 Fokker DVII revolutionized aircraft design, prompting demands for their surrender when Germany capitulated
  • In 1923, Oakley George Kelly and John Arthur Macready completed the first non-stop flight spanning the North American continent in a Fokker T-2
  • In 1927, Richard E Byrd completed his trans-Atlantic flight from New York City to Paris in the Fokker FVII America
  • In 1928, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across the Atlantic as a passenger in a Fokker FVII
  • In 1928, Charles Kingsford-Smith completed the first trans-Pacific flight in another FVII, the Southern Cross
  • Finnish pilot Jorma Sarvanto shot down six Soviet Ilyushin DB-3s in a quick succession using a Fokker DXXI fighter during the Winter War, drawing international attention
  • The 1951 Fokker S14 Machtrainer was one of the first purpose-built jet training aircraft in the world

Fokker aircraftedit

1912–1918edit

  • Fokker Spin
  • Fokker M1 – M4 Spin military version
  • Fokker W1 – W2
  • Fokker AIII M5K
  • Fokker AII M5L
  • Fokker M6
  • Fokker BI M7 en M10E
  • Fokker W3
  • Fokker AI M8
  • Fokker M9
  • Fokker BII M10Z
  • Fokker Eindecker fighters
    • Fokker EI M5K/MG
    • Fokker EII M14
    • Fokker EIII M14v
    • Fokker EIV M15
  • Fokker M16E and M16Z
  • Fokker BII M17Z
  • Fokker BIII M18Z
  • Fokker DI M18E
  • Fokker DII M17E
  • Fokker DIII M19
  • Fokker DIV M21
  • Fokker DV M22
  • Fokker V1
  • Fokker V2 and V3
  • Fokker V4
  • Fokker FI V5
  • Fokker DrI
  • Fokker V6
  • Fokker V7
  • Fokker V8
  • Fokker V9, V11, V12, V13 V14, and V16
  • Fokker DVI
  • Fokker DVII V11/13
  • Fokker V17 – V25
  • Fokker EV/DVIII V26
  • Fokker V27 – V37
  • Fokker CI V38
  • Fokker V39

1919–1940edit

  • Fokker V39 – Fokker V42
  • Fokker CI
  • Fokker F6
  • Fokker FII
  • Fokker FIII
  • Fokker FIV
  • Fokker TII
  • Fokker SI
  • Fokker DIX
  • Fokker DX
  • Fokker SII
  • Fokker BI
  • Fokker CIV
  • Fokker FV
  • Fokker SIII
  • Fokker DXI
  • Fokker DCI
  • Fokker TIII
  • Fokker BII
  • Fokker FVII
  • Fokker CV
  • Fokker DXII
  • Fokker DXIII
  • Fokker SIV
  • Fokker DXIV
  • Fokker BIII
  • Fokker FVIII
  • Fokker TIV – TIVa
  • Fokker CVII-W
  • Fokker FXI "Universal"
  • Fokker FXIV
  • Fokker DXVI
  • Fokker FIX
  • Fokker CVIII
  • Fokker CIX
  • Fokker FXII
  • Fokker DXVII
  • Fokker FXVIII
  • Fokker FXX
  • Fokker FXXXVI
  • Fokker CX
  • Fokker FXXII
  • Fokker CXI-W
  • Fokker DXXI
  • Fokker GI
  • Fokker TV
  • Fokker SIX
  • Fokker CIV-W
  • Fokker TVIII
  • Fokker DXXIII
  • Fokker FXXIV
  • Fokker TIX

Fokker-Atlantic designsedit

  • Fokker A-2 Ambulance
  • Fokker AO-1 Artillery Observation / Atlantic Observation
  • Fokker C-2
  • Fokker C-5
  • Fokker C-7
  • Fokker C-14
  • Fokker C-15
  • Fokker C-16
  • Fokker C-20
  • Fokker CO-4
  • Fokker CO-4 Mailplane
  • Fokker CO-8
  • Fokker LB-2 Light Bomber
  • Fokker O-27
  • Fokker FLB/PJ
  • Fokker PW-5
  • Fokker PW-6
  • Fokker PW-7
  • Fokker RA
  • Fokker T-2
  • Fokker XA-7 Attack
  • Fokker XB-8 Bomber
  • Fokker XJA-1
  • Fokker XLB-2 Light Bomber
  • Fokker AF15
  • Fokker B11 Sport/Trainer
  • Fokker F7
  • Fokker F9 Universal Airliner & freighter
  • Fokker F10
  • Fokker F11
  • Fokker F12
  • Fokker F13
  • Fokker F14
  • Fokker F18 Super Universal Airliner & freighter
  • Fokker F32
  • Fokker DH-4M
  • Fokker-Hall H-51

1945–1996edit

  • Fokker F24
  • Fokker F25 Promotor
  • Fokker S-11 Instructor
  • Fokker S-12 Instructor
  • Fokker S-13 Universal Trainer
  • Fokker S-14 Machtrainer
  • Fokker F26 Phantom
  • Fokker F27 Friendship
  • Fokker F28 Fellowship
  • Fokker F29
  • Fokker 50
  • Fokker 60 Utility
  • Fokker 70
  • Fokker 100
  • Fokker 120NG in development
  • Fokker 130 concept stage only

Referencesedit

Notesedit

  1. ^ "Anthony Herman Gerard Fokker" Fokker, A Living History Retrieved: 19 December 2010
  2. ^ Weyl 1965, pp 65–67
  3. ^ Weyl 1965, p 96
  4. ^ "Motor Guns-A flashback to 1914–18" Flight, 8 March 1957, pp 313–314
  5. ^ Weyl 1965, p354
  6. ^ Huib De Bruijn 2015-05-12, fokker on the wing Title song, retrieved 2016-04-07 
  7. ^ "Bombardier Ends Talks With Fokker" Press release Bombardier February 27, 1996 
  8. ^ JAN ULIJN Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands; HANS HEERKENS University of Twente, The Netherlands September 1999 "FOKKER, A CLASH OF CULTURE" J Enterprising Culture doi:101142/S0218495899000169 

Bibliographyedit

  • Bowers, Peter and Ernest McDowell Triplanes: A Pictorial History of the World's Triplanes and Multiplanes St Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1993 ISBN 0-87938-614-2
  • Dierikx, Marc Fokker: A Transatlantic Biography Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997 ISBN 1-56098-735-9
  • Hegener, Henri Fokker – the man and the aircraft Herts, UK: Harleyford Publications, 1961 LCCN 61-10595
  • Molson, KM Pioneering in Canadian Air Transport Winnipeg: James Richardson & Sons, Ltd, 1974 ISBN 0-919212-39-5
  • Nevin, David The Pathfinders The Epic of Flight Series Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1980 ISBN 0-8094-3256-0
  • Postma, Thijs Fokker: Aircraft Builders to the World London: Jane's, 1979 ISBN 978-0-71060-059-2
  • Weyl, AR Fokker: The Creative Years London: Putnam, 1965 ISBN 978-0851778174

External linksedit

  • Netherlands portal
  • Companies portal
  • Aviation portal
  • Fokker Technologies Official company website
  • Pictures of the Fokker fleet
  • Rekkof official website
  • Fokker, a living history
  • FokkerPilotnet
  • Fokker aircraft website
  • The assembly-hall at Fokker with lots of F-16s
  • Armistice terms

fokker 100, fokker 50, fokker 70, fokker aircraft, fokker d.vii, fokker d.viii, fokker dr1, fokker eindecker, fokker f28, fokker triplane


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