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ferae naturae definition, ferae latin
The Ferae are a clade of mammals, consisting of the orders Carnivora over 260 species, around the globe and Pholidota eight species of pangolins in tropical Africa and Asia Pangolins do not exhibit morphological traits typically associated with carnivorans wolves, cats, seals, and so on, and were thought to be the closest relatives of Xenarthra armadillos and sloths, but DNA research conducted in the 2000s found the close relationship to carnivorans Several extinct orders, relatives of the Pholidota, such as Creodonts,[1] are members of Ferae as well An alternate name, Ostentoria, has also been proposed for a grouping of the Carnivora and Pholidota[2]

According to recent studies reflected in the diagram below, the closest relatives of Ferae are Perissodactyla horses, tapirs, and rhinos and Cetartiodactyla which combines Artiodactyla—camels, pigs, ruminants and hippos—with Cetacea—whales and dolphins[3][4] An alternate phylogeny less supported holds that the closest relatives to the Ferae are the Perissodactyla and Chiroptera bats, not Cetartiodactyla[5] Ferae together with Perissodactyla has been called Zooamata Ferae, Perissodactyla, and Chiroptera together has been called Pegasoferae



 Eulipotyphla hedgehogs, shrews, moles, solenodons


 Chiroptera bats and flying foxes



 Pholidota pangolins

 Carnivora cats, hyenas, dogs, bears, seals   


 Perissodactyla horses, tapirs, rhinos

 Cetartiodactyla camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, whales

 Euarchontoglires primates, colugos, treeshrews, rodents, rabbits


  1. ^ Halliday, Thomas J D; Upchurch, Paul; Goswami, Anjali 2015 "Resolving the relationships of Paleocene placental mammals" Biological Reviews: n/a–n/a doi:101111/brv12242 ISSN 1464-7931 
  2. ^ Amrine-madsen, H; Koepfli, KP; Wayne, RK; Springer, MS 2003 "A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships" Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28 2: 225–240 doi:101016/S1055-79030300118-0 PMID 12878460 Retrieved 2008-04-19 
  3. ^ Beck, Robin MD; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo; Purvis, Andy 13 November 2006 "A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals" BMC Evolutionary Biology 6 1: 93 doi:101186/1471-2148-6-93 PMC 1654192  PMID 17101039 
  4. ^ Zhou, X; et al 2011 "Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the Laurasiatherian mammals" Systematic Biology 61 1: 150–64 doi:101093/sysbio/syr089 PMC 3243735  PMID 21900649 Retrieved 3 October 2011  Advance Access; published online 7 September 2011
  5. ^ Nishihara, H; Hasegawa, M; Okada, N 2006 "Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 26: 9929–34 doi:101073/pnas0603797103 PMC 1479866  PMID 16785431 

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