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facsimile, facsimile meaning
A facsimile from Latin fac simile 'make alike', a spelling that remained in currency until the late 19th century is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible It differs from other forms of reproduction by attempting to replicate the source as accurately as possible in scale, color, condition, and other material qualities For books and manuscripts, this also entails a complete copy of all pages; hence, an incomplete copy is a "partial facsimile" Facsimiles are sometimes used by scholars to research a source that they do not have access to otherwise, and by museums and archives for media preservation and conservation Many are sold commercially, often accompanied by a volume of commentary They may be produced in limited editions, typically of 500–2,000 copies, and cost the equivalent of a few thousand United States dollars The term "fax" is a shortened form of "facsimile" though most faxes are not reproductions of the quality expected in a true facsimile


  • 1 Facsimiles in the age of mechanical reproduction
  • 2 Facsimiles and conservation
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References

Facsimiles in the age of mechanical reproductionedit

Advances in the art of facsimile are closely related to advances in printmaking Maps, for instance, were the focus of early explorations in making facsimiles, although these examples often lack the rigidity to the original source that is now expected1 An early example is the Abraham Ortelius map 15981 Innovations during the 18th century, especially in the realms of lithography and aquatint, facilitated an explosion in the number of facsimiles of old master drawings that could be studied from afar2

Facsimile of Edgar Allan Poe's original manuscript for The Murders in the Rue Morgue

In the past, a technique such as the photostat, hectograph, or lithograph was usually used to create facsimiles More recently, facsimiles have been made by the use of some form of photographic technique For documents, a facsimile most often refers to document reproduction by a photocopy machine In the digital age, an image scanner, a personal computer, and a desktop printer can be used to make a facsimile

Facsimiles and conservationedit

Important illuminated manuscripts like Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry are not only on display to the public as facsimiles, but available in high quality to scholars34 However, unlike normal book reproductions, facsimiles remain truer to the original colors—which is especially important for illuminated manuscripts—and preserve defects5

Facsimiles are best suited to printed or hand-written documents, and not to items such as three-dimensional objects or oil paintings with unique surface texture6 Reproductions of those latter objects are often referred to as replicas

See alsoedit

  • Record type


  1. ^ a b C Koeman, "An Increase in Facsimile Reprints," Imago Mundi, vol 18 1964, pp 87-88
  2. ^ Craig Hartley, "Aquatint," The Oxford Companion to Western Art, ed Hugh Brigstocke Oxford University Press, 2001; Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2005 accessed 20 April 2008
  3. ^ Public institutions with facsimile collections
  4. ^ Paul Lewis, "Preservation takes rare manuscripts from the public," New York Times - 25 January 1987 accessed 19 April 2008
  5. ^ Bronwyn Stocks, "The Facsimile and the Manuscript," - an exhibition in the Leigh Scott Gallery, University of Melbourne on-line catalogue with additional images
  6. ^ Richard Godfrey, "Reproduction reproductive prints," The Oxford Companion to Western Art, ed Hugh Brigstocke Oxford University Press, 2001; Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press, 2005 accessed 20 April 2008

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