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Execution by firing squad

execution by firing squad, execution by firing squad in the united states
Execution by firing squad, in the past sometimes called fusillading1 from the French fusil, rifle, is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in the military and in times of war Execution by shooting is a fairly old practice Some reasons for its use are that firearms are usually readily available and a gunshot to a vital organ usually kills relatively quickly Before the introduction of firearms, bows or crossbows were often used—Saint Sebastian is usually depicted as executed by a squad of Roman auxiliary archers in around 288 AD; King Edmund the Martyr of East Anglia, by some accounts, was tied to a tree and executed by Viking archers on 20 November 869 or 870 AD

A firing squad is normally composed of several military personnel or law enforcement officers Usually, all members of the group are instructed to fire simultaneously, thus preventing both disruption of the process by a single member and identification of the member who fired the lethal shot To avoid the disfigurement of multiple shots to the head, the shooters are typically instructed to aim at the heart, sometimes aided by a paper target The prisoner is typically blindfolded or hooded, as well as restrained, although in some cases prisoners have asked to be allowed to face the firing squad without their eyes covered Executions can be carried out with the condemned either standing or sitting There is a tradition in some jurisdictions that such executions are carried out at first light, or at sunrise, which is usually up to half an hour later This gave rise to the phrase "shot at dawn"

Execution by firing squad is distinct from other forms of execution by firearms, such as an execution by a single firearm to the back of the head or neck However, the single shot by the squad's officer with a pistol coup de grâce is sometimes incorporated in a firing squad execution, particularly if the initial volley turns out not to be immediately fatal


  • 1 Military significance
  • 2 Blank cartridge
  • 3 By country
    • 31 Belgium
    • 32 Brazil
    • 33 Cuba
    • 34 Finland
    • 35 France
    • 36 Indonesia
    • 37 Ireland
    • 38 Italy
    • 39 Mexico
    • 310 Netherlands
    • 311 Nigeria
    • 312 Norway
    • 313 Philippines
    • 314 Romania
    • 315 Russia / USSR
    • 316 South Africa
    • 317 Saudi Arabia
    • 318 Syria
    • 319 United Arab Emirates
    • 320 United Kingdom
    • 321 United States
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading
  • 7 External links

Military significanceedit

The method is often the supreme punishment or disciplinary means employed by military courts for crimes such as cowardice, desertion, espionage, murder, mutiny, or treason For servicemen, the firing squad is symbolic The condemned serviceman is executed by a group of his peers indicating that he is found guilty by the entire group Although a court-martial might be presided over and prosecuted by officers, the instruments of execution are the ordinary weapons fired by members of the group from which he is being expunged Furthermore, in judicially approved executions, the condemned man is allowed to stand, rather than kneel; in many cultures, the ability or the will to stand in the face of adversity or danger is considered a salient feature of individual pride Finally, the group action on one side being the firing squad, with the condemned standing opposite, presents a visual contrast that reinforces to all witnesses that solidarity is an overriding necessity in a military unit

If the condemned prisoner is an ex-officer who is acknowledged to have shown bravery in their past career, they may be accorded the privilege of giving the order to fire An example of this is Marshal of France Michel Ney

Blank cartridgeedit

In some cases, all but one member of the firing squad may be issued a weapon containing a blank cartridge2 Sometimes all but one member has live rounds3 No member of the firing squad is told beforehand if he is using live ammunition This is believed to reinforce the sense of diffusion of responsibility among the firing squad members This diffusion of responsibility makes the execution process more reliable because the members are more likely to aim to kill if they are not entirely blamed for it, or if there is a chance they did not fire the lethal shot It also allows each member of the firing squad to believe afterwards that he did not personally fire a fatal shot4—for this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "conscience round"

According to Pvt WA Quinton, who served in the British Army during the First World War and had the experience of being in a firing squad in October 1915, he and 11 colleagues were relieved of any live ammunition and their own rifles before being issued replacement weapons The firing squad was then given a short speech by an officer before they fired a volley at the condemned man He said about the episode, "I had the satisfaction of knowing that as soon as I fired, the absence of any recoil, indicated that I had merely fired a blank cartridge"5

In more recent times, such as in the execution of Ronnie Lee Gardner in the American state of Utah in 2010, a rifleman may be given a "dummy" cartridge containing a wax bullet instead of a lead bullet, which provides a more realistic recoil6

By countryedit

The revolt of Czech units in Austria in May 1918 was brutally suppressed


Main article: Capital punishment in Belgium

On 1 April 1916, Belgian woman Gabrielle Petit was executed by a German firing squad at Schaerbeek after being convicted of spying for the British Secret Service during World War I

During the Battle of the Bulge in World War II, three captured German spies were tried and executed by a US firing squad at Henri-Chapelle on 23 December 1944 Thirteen other Germans were also tried and shot at either Henri-Chapelle or Huy7 These executed spies took part in Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny's Operation Greif, in which English-speaking German commandos operated behind US lines, masquerading in US uniforms and equipment78


Main article: Capital punishment in Brazil

The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 expressly prohibits the usage of capital punishment in peacetime, but authorizes the use of the death penalty for military crimes committed during wartime9 War needs to be declared formally, in accordance with international law and article 84, item 19 of the Federal Constitution, with due authorization from the Brazilian Congress The Brazilian Code of Military Penal Law, in its chapter dealing with wartime offences, specifies the crimes that are subject to the death penalty The death penalty is never the only possible sentence for a crime, and the punishment must be imposed by the military courts system Per the norms of the Brazilian Code of Military Penal Procedure, the death penalty is carried out by firing squad

Although Brazil still permits the use of capital punishment during wartime, no convicts were actually executed during Brazil's last military conflict, the Second World War The military personnel sentenced to death during World War II had their sentences reduced by the President of the Republic


An accused anti-Batista insurgent is blindfolded and executed by firing squad, Cuba 1956 Main article: Capital punishment in Cuba

Cuba, as part of its penal system, still utilizes death by firing squad, although the last recorded execution was in 2003 In January 1992, a Cuban exile convicted of "terrorism, sabotage and enemy propaganda" was executed by firing squad10 The Council of the State noted that the punishment served as a deterrent and stated that the death penalty "fulfills a goal of overall prevention, especially when the idea is to stop such loathsome actions from being repeated, to deter others and so to prevent innocent human lives from being endangered in the future"10

During the Cuban Revolution, revolutionary forces under Castro executed Batista supporters by firing squad11 Later, Cuban dissidents met the same fate12

A Soviet infiltrator being executed by a firing squad during the Continuation War


Main article: Capital punishment in Finland

The death penalty was widely used during and after the Finnish Civil War January–May 1918; some 9,700 Finns and an unknown number of Russian volunteers on the Red side were executed during the war or in its aftermath13 Most executions were carried out by firing squads after the sentences were given by illegal or semi-legal courts martial Only some 250 persons were sentenced to death in courts acting on legal authority14

During World War II, some 500 persons were executed, half of them condemned spies The usual causes for death penalty for Finnish citizens were treason and high treason and to a lesser extent cowardice and disobedience, applicable for military personnel Almost all cases of capital punishment were tried by court-martial Usually the executions were carried out by the regimental military police platoon, or in the case of spies, by the local military police One Finn, Toivo Koljonen, was executed for a civilian crime six murders Most executions occurred in 1941 and during the Soviet Summer Offensive in 1944 The last death sentences were given in 1945 for murder, but later commuted to life imprisonment14

The death penalty was abolished by Finnish law in 1949 for crimes committed during peacetime, and in 1972 for all crimes15 Finland is party to the Optional protocol of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, forbidding the use of the death penalty in all circumstances16


Main article: Capital punishment in France Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917

Pvt Thomas Highgate was the first British soldier to be convicted of desertion and executed by firing squad in September 1914 at Tournan-en-Brie during World War I In October 1916 Pvt Harry Farr was shot for cowardice at Carnoy, which was later suspected to be acoustic shock Highgate and Farr, along with 304 other British and Imperial troops who were executed for similar offenses, were listed at the Shot at Dawn Memorial which was erected to honor them1718

On 15 October 1917 Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari was executed by a French firing squad at Château de Vincennes castle in the town of Vincennes under charges of espionage for Germany during World War I19

During World War II, on 24 September 1944, Josef Wende and Stephan Kortas, two Poles drafted into the German army, crossed the Moselle Rivers behind US lines in civilian clothes, posing as Polish slave laborers, to observe Allied strength and were to rejoin their own army on the same day However, they were discovered by the Americans and captured On 18 October 1944 they were found guilty of espionage by a US military commission and sentenced to death20 On 11 November 1944, they were shot in the garden of a farmhouse at Toul The footage of Wende's execution21 as well as Kortas22 are shown in these links23

On 15 October 1945 Pierre Laval, the puppet leader of Nazi-occupied Vichy France, was executed by firing squad at Fresnes Prison in Paris for treason against France2425

The memorial "Shoes on the Danube Promenade" created to honor the Jews who were lined up on the banks of the Danube and shot dead by fascist Arrow Cross militiamen in Budapest during World War II


Main article: Capital punishment in Indonesia

Execution by firing squad is the capital punishment method used in Indonesia The following persons were executed reported by BBC World Service by firing squad on 29 April 2015 following convictions for drug offences:

  • Australians Myuran Sukumaran and Andrew Chan
  • Ghanaian Martin Anderson
  • Indonesian Zainal Abidin bin Mgs Mahmud Badarudin
  • Nigerians Raheem Agbaje Salami, Sylvester Obiekwe Nwolise, Okwudili Oyatanze
  • Brazilian Rodrigo Gularte

Fabianus Tibo, Dominggus da Silva and Marinus Riwu were executed in 2006 Nigerian drug smugglers Samuel Iwachekwu Okoye and Hansen Anthoni Nwaolisa were executed in June 2008 in Nusakambangan Island26 Five months later three men convicted for the 2002 Bali bombing—Amrozi, Imam Samudra and Ali Ghufron—were executed on the same spot in Nusakambangan27 In January 2013 56-year-old British woman Lindsay Sandiford was sentenced to execution by firing squad for importing a large amount of cocaine; she lost her appeal against her sentence in April 2013282930 While on 18 January 2015, under the new leadership of Joko Widodo, six people who were convicted of producing and smuggling drugs into Indonesia who had been sentenced to death were executed at Nusa Kambangan Penitentiary shortly after midnight31


Main article: Capital punishment in Ireland

Following the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland, 15 of the 16 leaders who were executed were shot by British military authorities under martial law The executions have often been cited as a reason for how the Rising managed to galvanise public support in Ireland after the failed rebellion32


Main article: Capital punishment in Italy

Italy had used the firing squad as its only form of death penalty, both for civilians and military, since the unification of the country in 1861 The death penalty was abolished completely by both Italian Houses of Parliament in 1889 but revived under the Italian dictatorship of Benito Mussolini in 1926 Mussolini was himself shot after World War two33

On 1 December 1945 Anton Dostler, the first German general to be tried for war crimes, was executed by a US firing squad in Aversa after being found guilty by a US military tribunal for ordering the killing of 15 US prisoners of war in Italy during World War II

The last execution took place on 4 March 1947, as Francesco La Barbera, Giovanni Puleo and Giovanni D'Ignoti, sentenced to death on multiple accounts of robbery and murder, faced the firing squad at the range of Basse di Stura, near Turin Soon after the Constitution of the newly proclaimed Republic prohibited the death penalty except for some crimes, like high treason, during wartime; no one was sentenced to death after 1947 In 2007 the Constitution was amended to ban the death penalty altogether

Execution of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, by Édouard Manet, 1868


Main article: Capital punishment in Mexico

During the Mexican Independence War, several Independentist generals such as Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos were executed by Spanish firing squads34 Also, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico and several of his generals were executed in the Cerro de las Campanas after the Juaristas took control of Mexico in 186734 Manet immortalized the execution in a now-famous painting, The Execution of Emperor Maximilian; he painted at least three versions

Firing-squad execution was the most common way to carry out a death sentence in Mexico, especially during the Mexican Revolution and the Cristero War An example of that is in the attempted execution of Wenseslao Moguel, shot ten times—one of them at point-blank range—and lived because he fought under Pancho Villa34 After these events, the death sentence was reduced to some events in Article 22 of the Mexican Constitution; however, in 1917 capital punishment was abolished completely35


Main article: Capital punishment in the Netherlands

During World War II some 3,000 persons were executed by German firing squads The victims were sometimes sentenced by a military court; in other cases they were hostages or arbitrary people passing by who were executed publicly to intimidate the population and as reprisals against the resistance movements After the attack on high-ranking German officer Hanns Albin Rauter, about 300 persons were executed publicly as reprisal Rauter himself was shot near Scheveningen on 12 January 1949, following his conviction for war crimes

On 13 May 1945, five days after the capitulation of Adolf Hitler's Wehrmacht, a German firing squad executed two Navy sailors on the wall of an air raid shelter near the Ford plant in Amsterdam for desertion At the time the execution was supervised and under Canadian control in Amsterdam36

Anton Mussert, a Dutch Nazi leader, was sentenced to death by firing squad and executed in the dunes near The Hague on 7 May 194637


Nigeria executed criminals who committed armed robberies--such as Ishola Oyenusi, Lawrence Anini and Monday Osunbor--as well as military officers convicted of plotting coups against the government, such as Buka Suka Dimka and Major Gideon Orkar, by firing squad It has not been used since the advent of democracy in recent years


Main article: Capital punishment in Norway

Vidkun Quisling, the leader of the collaborationist Nasjonal Samling Party and of Norway during the German occupation in World War II, was sentenced to death by firing squad for treason and executed on 24 October 1945 at the Akershus Fortress38


Main article: Capital punishment in the Philippines

Jose Rizal was executed by firing squad on the morning of 30 December 1896, in what is now Rizal Park, where his remains have since been placed39

During the Marcos administration, drug trafficking was punishable by firing-squad execution, as was done to Lim Seng Execution by firing squad was later replaced by the electric chair, then lethal injection On 24 June 2006, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo abolished capital punishment by Republic Act 9346 Existing death row inmates, who numbered in the thousands, were eventually given life sentences or reclusion perpetua instead40

The mass execution of 56 Polish citizens in Bochnia, near Kraków, following the Nazi invasion of Poland, December 18, 1939 Serbian prisoners of war are arranged in a semi-circle and executed by an Austrian firing squad, 1917 World War I


Nicolae Ceausescu was executed by firing squad alongside his wife while singing41 the Communist Internationale following a show trial, bringing an end to the Romanian Revolution

Russia / USSRedit

In Tsarist Russia firing squads were, undoubtedly, used in the army, for executions during combat on the orders of military tribunals

In the Soviet Union, from the very earliest days, the bullet to the back of the head, in front of a ready-dug burial trench was by far the most common practise It became especially widely used during the Great Purges of the late 1930s42

South Africaedit

Main article: Capital punishment in South Africa

Australian soldiers Harry "Breaker" Morant and Peter Handcock were executed by a British firing squad in the South African Republic on 27 February 1902, for war crimes during the Second Boer War; questions have since been raised in Australia as to whether they received a fair trial

Saudi Arabiaedit

Executions in Saudi Arabia are usually carried out by beheading; however, at times other methods have been used Al-Beshi, a Saudi executioner, has said that he has conducted some executions by shooting4344Misha'el bint Fahd bin Mohammed al Saud, a Saudi princess, was also executed in the same way; however, her partner was not so lucky454647


Main article: Capital punishment in Syria

Both sides in the ongoing Syrian civil war have employed firing squads In January 2013, a Syrian civilian described how he narrowly survived a firing squad assembled by government supporters that resulted in the deaths of some 20 people48

United Arab Emiratesedit

Main article: Capital punishment in the United Arab Emirates

In the United Arab Emirates, firing squad is the preferred method of execution49

United Kingdomedit

Main article: Capital punishment in the United Kingdom

Execution by firing squad in the United Kingdom was limited to times of war, armed insurrection and within the military, although it is now outlawed in all circumstances, along with all other forms of capital punishment

The Tower of London was used during both World Wars for executions: during World War I 11 captured German spies were shot between 1914-16 All spies executed on British soil during the First World War were buried in East London Cemetery, in Plaistow, London50 On 15 August 1941, German Cpl Josef Jakobs was shot for espionage during World War II, the last person to be executed at the Tower

When the US Army took over Shepton Mallet prison in Somerset in 1942, renaming it Disciplinary Training Center No1 and housing troops convicted of offences across Europe, two men were executed by firing squad for murder--Pvt Alexander Miranda on 30 May 1944 and Pvt Benjamin Pigate on 28 November 1944 Locals complained about the noise, as the executions took place in the open air at 1:00 am

Since the 1960s there has been some controversy concerning the 346 British and Imperial troops --including 25 Canadians, 22 Irish and five New Zealanders --shot for desertion, murder, cowardice and other offences during World War I, some of whom are now thought to have been suffering from combat stress reaction or post-traumatic stress disorder "shell-shock", as it was then known This led to organisations such as the Shot at Dawn Campaign being set up in later years to try to uncover just why these soldiers were executed1718 The Shot at Dawn Memorial was erected at Staffordshire to honour these soldiers

United Statesedit

Main articles: Capital punishment in the United States and Opposition to capital punishment in the United States

The American Civil War saw several hundred firing squad deaths, but reliable numbers are not available

During World War II, Edward "Eddie" Slovik was the only soldier to face a firing squad for desertion since the American Civil War

In 1913 Andriza Mircovich became the first and only inmate in Nevada to be executed by shooting51 After the warden of Nevada State Prison was unable to find five men to form a firing squad,52 a shooting machine was built to carry out Mircovich's execution53

John W Deering allowed an electrocardiogram recording of the effect of gunshot wounds on his heart during his 1938 execution by firing squad,54 and afterwards his body was donated to the University of Utah School of Medicine, at his request

Utah's 1960 execution of James W Rodgers became the last execution by firing squad in the United States for nearly two decades Since 1960 there have been three executions by firing squad, all in Utah:

Andriza Mircovich was the first and only inmate in Nevada to be executed by shooting
  1. Gary Gilmore was executed in 1977
  2. John Albert Taylor chose a firing squad for his 1996 execution, in the words of the New York Times, "to make a statement that Utah was sanctioning murder"55 However, a 2010 article for the British newspaper The Times quotes Taylor justifying his choice because he did not want to "flop around like a dying fish" during a lethal injection56
  3. Ronnie Lee Gardner was executed by firing squad in 2010, having said he preferred this method of execution because of his "Mormon heritage" Gardner also felt that lawmakers were trying to eliminate the firing squad, in opposition to popular opinion in Utah, because of concern over the state's image in the 2002 Winter Olympics57

Execution by firing squad was banned in Utah in 2004, but as the ban was not retroactive;58 three inmates on Utah's death row have the firing squad set as their method of execution59 Idaho banned execution by firing squad in 2009,60 temporarily leaving Oklahoma as the only state in the union utilizing this method of execution and only as a secondary method

Reluctance by drug companies to see their drugs used to kill people has led to a shortage of the commonly used lethal injection drugs6162 In March 2015, Utah enacted legislation allowing for execution by firing squad if the drugs they use are unavailable63 Several other states are also exploring a return to the firing squad64

In Arthur v Dunn, Justice Sonia Sotomayer argued, "In addition to being near instant, death by shooting may also be comparatively painless And historically, the firing squad has yielded significantly fewer botched executions"65

See alsoedit

  • Criminal justice portal
  • Law portal
  • Military portal
  • Court-martial
  • Execution by shooting
  • Shot at Dawn Memorial
  • Bullet fee
  • Use of capital punishment by country


  1. ^ "fusilade" Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed Oxford University Press September 2005  Subscription or UK public library membership required
  2. ^ Huie, William Bradford 1954 The Execution of Private Slovik Duell, Sloan & Pearce p 208 ISBN 978-1594160035 
  3. ^ "Crime Library: Firing Squad" Crime Museum 2016-05-25 Retrieved 2016-05-30 
  4. ^ "Procedure for Military Executions" PDF Department of the Army December 1947 Retrieved 2017-01-23 
  5. ^ Carver, Field Marshal Lord Michael 1999-11-12 Britain's Army in the Twentieth Century ISBN 978-0330372008 
  6. ^ Westcott, Kathryn June 18, 2010 "How and why Gardner was shot" BBC News 
  7. ^ a b Pallud, p 15
  8. ^ "HD Stock Video Footage — Military police execute German spies in Belgium" 
  9. ^ "Brazilian Laws — the Federal Constitution — Individual and collective rights and duties" 
  10. ^ a b "Cuban Firing Squad Executes Exile" The New York Times 21 January 1992 
  11. ^
    • Silvia Pedraza, Political Disaffection in Cuba's Revolution and Exodus Cambridge University Press, 2007, p 62
    • Samuel Farber, The Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered University of North Carolina Press: 2006, p 96
  12. ^ María de los Angeles Torres, In the Land of Mirrors: Cuban Exile Politics in the United States University of Michigan Press 1999: 2001 paperback ed, p 49: "Arrests, trials, and firing squads first used against Batista's former henchmen were now turned against anyone who was critical of Fidel"
  13. ^ War Victims of Finland 1914–1922 at the Finnish National Archives
  14. ^ a b Yliopistolehti 1995
  15. ^ Kuolemantuomio kuolemantuomiolle at Statistics Finland in Finnish
  16. ^ Ulkoministeriö "FINLEX ® - Valtiosopimukset viitetietokanta: 7/1976" 
  17. ^ a b The Shot at Dawn Campaign The New Zealand government pardoned its troops in 2000; the British government in 1998 expressed sympathy for the executed, and in 2006 the Secretary of State for Defence announced a full pardon for all 306 executed soldiers from the First World War
  18. ^ a b The Daily Telegraph, Ben Fenton, August 16, 2006, accessed October 14, 2006
  19. ^ "Mata Hari is executed — Oct 15, 1917 - HISTORYcom" 
  20. ^ David Kahn June 2000 Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence In World War II Da Capo Press; 1 edition p 363 ISBN 0-3068-0949-4 
  21. ^ "HD Stock Video Footage — German spy Josef Wende is executed by US Military Police firing squad in Toul, France, during World War II" 
  22. ^ "HD Stock Video Footage — German spy Stephan Kortas is executed by Military Police and carried away covered in white sheet in Toul, France" 
  23. ^ David Kahn June 2000 Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence In World War II Da Capo Press; 1 edition p 504 and 505 ISBN 0-3068-0949-4 
  24. ^ "Vichy leader executed for treason — Oct 15, 1945 - HISTORYcom" 
  25. ^ "Pierre Laval" 
  26. ^ Agus Maryono and Suherdjoko June 28, 2008 "Nigerian drug smugglers buried a day after execution" The Jakarta Post 
  27. ^ "Bali bomb burials stoke tensions" BBC News November 9, 2008 Retrieved March 27, 2010 
  28. ^ 11 Feb 2013 2013-02-11 "British grandmother Lindsay Sandiford appeals Indonesia death sentence" Telegraph Retrieved 2013-07-25 
  29. ^ Karishma Vaswani 2013-01-22 "BBC News — Bali drugs: Death sentence for Briton Lindsay Sandiford" Mbbccouk Retrieved 2013-07-25 
  30. ^ "'At least a bullet is quick': British grandmother on death row in Indonesia for smuggling drugs prefers firing squad" NY Daily News Retrieved 2013-07-25 
  31. ^ AFP 2015-01-18 "Fury as Indonesia executes foreigners by firing squad" Daily Mail Retrieved 2015-01-18 
  32. ^ English, R Irish Freedom, London, 2006, p 264-276
  33. ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Benito Mussolini 1883-1945" 
  34. ^ a b c Known history of the Mexican Revolution
  35. ^ "Legislación – Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" 
  36. ^ The Execution of German Deserters by Surrendered German Troops Under Canadian Control in Amsterdam, May 1945
  37. ^ "Dutch Nazi Executed," Amarillo Globe, May 7, 1946, p1
  38. ^ Knudsen, Harald Franklin I was Quisling's Secretary, Britons Publishing Co, 1967, p 176
  39. ^ "Philippines 'restores' death penalty" BBC News December 21, 2003 Retrieved May 2, 2010 
  40. ^ Sun Star Cebu 25 June 2006 Arroyo kills death law Archived June 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Emma Graham-Harrison "'I'm still nervous,' says soldier who shot Nicolae Ceausescu | World news" The Guardian Retrieved 2016-05-30 
  42. ^ Chapter 2, "Niyazov", in Lev Razgon, True Stories: Memoirs of a Survivor, Souvenir Press: London, 1999, pp 21-34
  43. ^ Ahmed, Mahmoud 6 June 2003 "The work of God" – via The Guardian 
  44. ^ Hubbard, Ben 18 October 2016 "Saudi Arabia Executes a Prince Convicted in a Fatal Shooting" – via NYTimescom 
  45. ^ Laube, Lydia 1 January 1991 "Behind the Veil: An Australian Nurse in Saudi Arabia" Wakefield Press – via Google Books 
  46. ^ Weston, Mark 28 July 2008 "Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present" John Wiley & Sons – via Google Books 
  47. ^ http://wwweurasiareviewcom/04012016-saudi-arabia-carries-out-largest-mass-execution-since-1980/
  48. ^ Alexander Marquardt 10 January 2013 "Syrian Describes Surviving Firing Squad" ABC News 
  49. ^ United Arab Emirates UAE: Death penalty, Archived October 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Amnesty International Urgent Action, April 3, 2002
  50. ^ "Spying during World War One" 
  51. ^ "Nevada State Prison Inmate Case Files: Andriza Mircovich" Nevada State Library and Archives Retrieved November 8, 2010 
  52. ^ "No One To Shoot Murderer" The New York Times August 12, 1912 Retrieved November 9, 2010 
  53. ^ Cafferata, Patty June 2010 "Capital Punishment Nevada Style" Nevada Lawyer State Bar of Nevada Retrieved November 8, 2010 
  54. ^ Boese, Alex 2007 "Heartbeat at Death" Elephants on Acid: And Other Bizarre Experiments Houghton Mifflin Harcourt pp 246–249 ISBN 9780156031356 Retrieved December 20, 2010 
  55. ^ "Firing Squad Executes Killer" The New York Times 1996-01-27 Retrieved 2008-06-16 
  56. ^ Giles Whittell 2010-04-24 "Utah death row inmate Ronnie Lee Gardner elects to die by firing squad" The Times London 
  57. ^ Donaldson, Amy 1996-02-09 "Inmate threatens to sue if state won't let him die by firing squad" Deseret News p A1 Retrieved 2010-09-25 
  58. ^ "Methods of Execution" Death Penalty Information Center 2010 Retrieved 2010-06-17 
  59. ^ Dobner, Jennifer January 22, 2004 "Plan to abolish firing squad advances" Deseret News pp 1–2 Retrieved 2010-10-03 
  60. ^ "Recent Legislative Activity" Death Penalty Information Center 2009 Retrieved 2009-10-30 
  61. ^ Horne, Jennifer 2017 "Lethal Injection Drug Shortage" Council of State Governments Retrieved 2017-04-07 
  62. ^ "Why the execution drug shortage won't go away" Los Angeles Times 2015-04-13 ISSN 0458-3035 Retrieved 2017-04-07 
  63. ^ Associated Press "Firing squad gets final OK So how does it work" Salt Lake City Tribune March 24, 2015
  64. ^ "The Firing Squad Is Making a Comeback in Death Penalty Cases" US News 2017-03-03 Archived from the original on 2017-03-03 Retrieved 2017-04-07 
  65. ^ Arthur v Dunn Supreme Court of the United States 21 February 2017 Text

Further readingedit

  • Moore, William, The Thin Yellow Line, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1974
  • Putkowski and Sykes, Shot at Dawn, Leo Cooper, 2006
  • Hughs-Wilson, John and Corns, Cathryn M, Blindfold and Alone: British Military Executions in the Great War, Cassell, 2005
  • Johnson, David, Executed at Dawn: The British Firing Squads of the First World War, History Press, 2015

External linksedit

  • Firing Squad Execution of a Civil War Deserter Described in an 1861 Newspaper
  • The Shot at Dawn Campaign with biographies of executed British and Commonwealth soldiers
  • Death by Firing Squad – slideshow by The First Post
  • Nazis Meet the Firing Squad – slideshow by Life magazine

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