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Excessive daytime sleepiness

excessive daytime sleepiness, excessive daytime sleepiness treatment
Excessive daytime sleepiness EDS is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep EDS can be considered as a broad condition encompassing several sleep disorders where increased sleep is a symptom, or as a symptom of another underlying disorder like narcolepsy, sleep apnea or a circadian rhythm disorder

Some persons with EDS, including those with hypersomnias like narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, are compelled to nap repeatedly during the day; fighting off increasingly strong urges to sleep during inappropriate times such as while driving, while at work, during a meal, or in conversations As the compulsion to sleep intensifies, the ability to complete tasks sharply diminishes, often mimicking the appearance of intoxication During occasional unique and/or stimulating circumstances, a person with EDS can sometimes remain animated, awake and alert, for brief or extended periods of time EDS can affect the ability to function in family, social, occupational, or other settings A proper diagnosis of the underlying cause and ultimately treatment of symptoms and/or the underlying cause can help mitigate such complications1

Contents

  • 1 Diagnosis
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Treatment
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References

Diagnosisedit

An adult who is compelled to nap repeatedly during the day may have excessive daytime sleepiness; however, it is important to distinguish between occasional daytime sleepiness and excessive daytime sleepiness, which is chronic

A number of tools for screening for EDS have been developed One is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale which grades the results of a questionnaire The ESS generates a numerical score from zero 0 to 24 where a score of ten 10 or higher may indicate that the person should consult a specialist in sleep medicine for further evaluation

Another tool is the Multiple Sleep Latency Test MSLT, which has been used since the 1970s It is used to measure the time it takes from the start of a daytime nap period to the first signs of sleep, called sleep latency The test is based on the idea that the sleepier people are, the faster they will fall asleep

The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test MWT is also used to quantitatively assess daytime sleepiness2 This test is performed in a sleep diagnostic center The test is similar to the MSLT However, during this test the patient is instructed to try to stay awake

Causesedit

EDS can be a symptom of a number of factors and disorders Specialists in sleep medicine are trained to diagnose them Some are:

  • Insufficient quality or quantity of night time sleep
  • Misalignments of the body's circadian pacemaker with the environment eg jet lag, shift work or other circadian rhythm sleep disorders
  • Another underlying sleep disorder, such as narcolepsy, sleep apnea,3 idiopathic hypersomnia or restless legs syndrome
  • Disorders such as clinical depression or atypical depression
  • Tumors, head trauma, anemia, kidney failure, hypothyroidism or an injury to the central nervous system
  • Drug abuse
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Vitamin deficiency, such as Biotin deficiency
  • Particular classes of prescription and OTC medication

Treatmentedit

Treatment of EDS relies on identifying and treating the underlying disorder which may cure the person from the EDS Drugs like modafinil,4 Armodafinil,5 Xyrem sodium oxybate oral solution, have been approved as treatment for EDS symptoms in the US There is declining usage of other drugs such as methylphenidate Ritalin, dextroamphetamine Dexedrine, amphetamine Adderall, lisdexamfetamine Vyvanse, methamphetamine Desoxyn, and pemoline Cylert, as these psychostimulants may have several adverse effects6 and may lead to dependency when illicitly misused

See alsoedit

  • Kleine-Levin syndrome

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Guilleminault, C; Brooks, SN August 2001 "Excessive daytime sleepiness: a challenge for the practising neurologist" Brain : a journal of neurology 124 Pt 8: 1482–91 doi:101093/brain/12481482 PMID 11459741 
  2. ^ "Excessive Daytime Sleepiness" American Sleep Association 
  3. ^ "How to Stop Snoring" Sleep Apnea Retrieved 15 August 2015 
  4. ^ Valentino, RM; Foldvary-Schaefer, N August 2007 "Modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness" Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine 74 8: 561–6, 568–71 doi:103949/ccjm748561 PMID 17708127 
  5. ^ Nishino, S; Okuro, M June 2008 "Armodafinil for excessive daytime sleepiness" Drugs of today Barcelona, Spain : 1998 44 6: 395–414 doi:101358/dot20084461223892 PMID 18596995 
  6. ^ Harris, SF; Monderer, RS; Thorpy, M November 2012 "Hypersomnias of central origin" Neurologic Clinics 30 4: 1027–44 doi:101016/jncl201208002 PMID 23099128 

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    Excessive daytime sleepiness beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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