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Evesham

evesham school district, evesham library
Evesham /ˈivʃəm/, /ˈivɪʃəm/, or /ˈisəm/2 is a market town and parish in the Wychavon district of Worcestershire, England with a population of 23,576, according to the 2011 census It is located roughly equidistant between Worcester, Cheltenham and Stratford-upon-Avon It lies within the Vale of Evesham, an area comprising the flood plain of the River Avon, which has been renowned for market gardening The town centre, situated within a meander of the river, is regularly subject to flooding The 2007 floods were the most severe in recorded history

The town was founded around an 8th-century abbey, one of the largest in Europe, which was destroyed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, with only Abbot Lichfield's Bell Tower remaining During the 13th century, one of the two main battles of England's Second Barons' War took place near the town, marking the victory of Prince Edward who later became King Edward I

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Abbey
    • 12 Battle
    • 13 Town
  • 2 Governance
  • 3 Geography
  • 4 Demography
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Transport
  • 7 Education
  • 8 Places of worship
  • 9 Culture
  • 10 Amenities and media
    • 101 Sport
  • 11 Notable people
  • 12 Twin towns
  • 13 References
    • 131 Bibliography
  • 14 External links

Historyedit

The Market Place in Evesham, circa 1904 by Edmund Hort New

Evesham is derived from the Old English homme or ham,3 and Eof,4 the name of a swineherd in the service of Egwin, third bishop of Worcester It was originally named Homme or Haum5 and recorded as Eveshomme in 709 and Evesham in 10864 The second part of the name homme or ham typically only signifies a home or dwelling, but in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire was commonly applied to land on the sides of a river, generally in bends of a river, which were liable to flood6

Some sources notably Tindal incorrectly cite 'holm' as a source for the town's name; but this is simple ignorance of early forms of the name Some sources Rudge, Tindall, Lewis, May, etc incorrectly give the name of the swineherd as Eoves, but it should be Eof, as explained as long ago as 1920 by OG Knapp:

It is impossible that Eoves should have been the Swineherd's name for several reasons In the first place the letter 'V' is not found in the Saxon alphabet , having been brought to this country by the Normans; so that Eofeshamme, given in one of the charters, indicates the older and better form of the name But even if Eofes is older and more accurate than Eoves it cannot be the original form of the name A moment's reflection will show that if Evesham means the meadow of some person, the name of that person must be in what Grammarians call the Genitive or Possessive Case, Singular This in modern English is nearly always denoted by 's placed at the end of the word; the apostrophe showing that a vowel has dropped out of the termination Anglo-Saxon had a larger selection of endings for the Genitive Case, but the one in –es the original form of our modern 's belonged to what are called 'strong' Masculine nouns, which usually ended in a consonant Eofes, therefore, would be the natural Genitive of a man's proper name, Eof Ferguson suggests that the original form of the name might have been Eofa, but such a name would correspond to the 'weak' nouns which made their Genitive by adding not –es but –an; in which case the name of the town would have been Eofanham, as is shown in the case of Offenham, the Ham of Offa or Uffa We may therefore take it as certain that the real name of the Swineherd was not Eoves, Eofes, or even Eofa, but Eof And this is not a mere theoretical reconstruction, for Eof was actually a Saxon name The form Eoves, though current for many centuries, is a mere blunder7

Abbeyedit

Evesham Abbey, which became possibly the third largest in England,8 was founded by Saint Egwin, the third Bishop of Worcester, in around 701 AD, following the vision of the Virgin Mary to a local swineherd or shepherd named Eof910

An entry in the Great Domesday Book of 1086 lists Evesham, mentioning "Two free men; Two radmen; Abbey of St Mary of Evesham; Abbey of St Mary of Pershore; Edmund, Abbot of St Mary of Pershore; Walter, Abbot of St Mary of Evesham; Aethelwig, Abbot of St Mary of Evesham; King William as donor; Odo, Bishop of Bayeux; Ranulph; Turstin, Abbot of St Mary of Pershore; Walter Ponther; Westminster, Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of St Peter"11

The abbey was redeveloped and extended after the Norman Conquest, employing many tradesmen and significantly contributing to the growth of Evesham12 Income for the abbey came from pilgrims to the abbey to celebrate the vision and visitors to the tomb of Simon de Montfort As a result of Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries, Evesham Abbey was dismantled in 1540 and sold as building stone, leaving little but the Lichfield Bell Tower13 The abbey remains are a Scheduled Ancient Monument No WT253, and parts of the abbey complex, Abbot Reginald's Wall registered monument and the ruins of Abbot Chryton's Wall Grade II, are English Heritage listed buildings14 The abbey's coat of arms is used as the crest of Prince Henry's High School Two surviving buildings with links to the abbey are the Middle Littleton Tythe Barn and the Almonry Museum and Heritage Centre, which is housed in the old almonry of the abbey and also displays artifacts from excavations there

Battleedit

Following the Battle of Lewes a year earlier, where Simon de Montfort had gained control of parliament, the Battle of Evesham in August 1265 was the second of two main battles of the Second Barons' War It marked the victory of Prince Edward, who led the 8,000 strong army of his father Henry III, over the 6,000 men of de Montfort, and the beginning of the end of the rebellion The battle was a massacre; de Montfort's army were trapped in the horseshoe bend of the river,15 and although de Montfort and his son were killed, Prince Edward's victory was not decisive towards the King's hold on the country, and the struggle continued until 1267,1617 after which the kingdom returned to a period of unity and progress that was to last until the early 1290s18

Townedit

The Almonry, originally part of Evesham Abbey

The medieval town developed within the meander of the River Avon, while Bengeworth developed to the east on the opposite bank of the river In 1055 a market was granted to the Saxon town by King Edward12 In the 11th century Leofric, Earl of Mercia, had a hunting lodge at Bengeworth Leofric founded Holy Trinity Church with his wife Godifu Lady Godiva Godifu, who died in about 1067, is possibly buried at the abbey19 During the reign of King Stephen, William de Beauchamp erected an adulterine castle at Bengeworth, whose occupants vied for control of the town and abbey When Abbot William had the castle destroyed between 1149 and 1159, he consecrated the site as a graveyard to prevent the castle being rebuilt2021

Governanceedit

Evesham was a borough and market town in the hundred of Blackenhurst in county of Worcestershire5 and after 1837 head of the Evesham Poor Law Union which took responsibility for the administration and funding of the Poor Law, and built a workhouse for that area22

Evesham is a town and civil parish governed at the lowest tier of local government by Evesham Town Council, part of the Wychavon District of the County of Worcestershire Residents in the six council electoral wards are represented by 24 elected members The wards, based on streets, are represented by elected councillors: Avon 3, Bengworth 5, Great Hampton 3, Little Hampton 5, South 5, Twyford 3 The council is chaired by a mayor, and has a Town Clerk who acts as chief officer23

Geographyedit

Evesham
Average max and min temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: 24
Average max and min temperatures in °F

Evesham is situated on a horse shoe shaped peninsula almost completely surrounded by water in a meander of the River Avon between Stratford-on-Avon and Tewkesbury The modern town encompasses Bengeworth and Greater and Little Hampton, which were originally independent villages on the opposite bank of the river Evesham is linked to Bengeworth by Workman Bridge and Hampton by Abbey Bridge, or New Bridge the first completely structural concrete bridge in the country25 The Cotswold hills stretch from the east to the south-west, while to the west the area is bounded by the Malvern Hills To the north the land is flat with gentle undulations26 The Avon, a tributary of the River Severn, is navigable but mainly used by leisure traffic and there is a marina providing moorings

The River Avon at Evesham has always been susceptible to heavy flooding which is well documented from the 13th century In May 1924 floods at Evesham ranked 5th in the annual flood list 1848 to 193527 In May 1998, Evesham was one of the towns worst hit by record flooding along the River Avon The river rose 19 feet 58 m in just a few hours, sinking tethered narrowboats, flooding areas of Bengeworth, and threatening the 19th century Workman Bridge as static homes from a riverside caravan site broke up and became wedged in its arches In July 2007 Evesham had its heaviest rainfall for 200 years, reaching more than 320% the average in some areas In the Severn catchment, it caused some of the heaviest floods recorded, and in Evesham the flooding was the worst in its recorded history28

Location grid Destinations from Evesham

Demographyedit

At the 2001 UK census, Evesham had a total population of 22,304 For every 100 females, there were 967 males The average household size was 2329 Of those aged 16–74 in Evesham, 575% had no academic qualifications or one General Certificate of Secondary Education GCSE,30 above the figures for all of the Wychavon district 442% and England 455%31 According to the census, 24% were unemployed and 94% were economically inactive30 201% of the population were under the age of 16 and 77% were aged 75 and over; the mean age of the people of the civil parish was 382 699% of residents described their health as "good", similar to the average of 691% for the wider district32

Economyedit

This twin gabled 15th-century timbered merchants house is now occupied by NatWest bank The Riverside Shopping Centre

Due to its exceptionally fertile soil, market gardening is carried out on a commercial scale in the surrounding area, known as the Vale of Evesham, which is known for its production of fruit and vegetables A distinctive form of leasehold tenure, known as the Evesham Custom, still regulates market garden tenancies in the area A decline in the second half of the 20th century resulted in the closing of Evesham's Smithfield Market while the Central Market stopped being used for produce auctions Between 1983 and 2008, Evesham was home to computer manufacturer Evesham Micros, later renamed Evesham Technology It was a significant contributor to the United Kingdom's domestic computer and digital television market At its peak, the company employed up to 300 people with a chain of 19 retail stores in towns and cities throughout the UK It went into liquidation in 200833

Retail and food outlets are provided for in the traditional high street and the Riverside Shopping Centre, and Four Pools Lane Retail Park The Valley formerly Evesham Country Park, is a large retail and leisure park located out of town with a diversity of stores,restaurants and cafés

Transportedit

In 1728 the London to Worcester road through Evesham was turnpiked as was the Evesham to Alcester road in 1778 improving communications in the area34 Evesham is at the junction of the A46 and A44 trunk roads – the 4-mile 6 km £7 million, A46 single-carriageway bypass to the east of the town opened in July 1987 as the A43535

The River Avon is a navigable waterway linking the River Severn at Tewkesbury to the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal at Stratford-upon-Avon The river between the town and Stratford is managed by the Upper Avon Navigation Trust, and below by the Lower Avon Navigation Trust, reflecting the administration of the river since the Restoration, when the lower Avon required only modest repairs, but significant investment was required above the town36 The ancient Hampton Ferry links the town to Hampton

In 1845 an Act of parliament was passed for the Oxford, Worcester and Wolverhampton Railway5 and Evesham railway station opened between Honeybourne and Pershore The station is on the Cotswold Line from Oxford to Worcester, Great Malvern and Hereford There are trains every 45–55 minutes to London Paddington that take approximately 1 hour 45 minutes and trains to Birmingham take around 90 minutes changing at Worcester

The nearest major airport is Birmingham International about 40 minutes away by trunk roads and the M42 motorway Gloucestershire Airport at Staverton is a general aviation airport used for pilot training, private charter and scheduled flights to Jersey and the Isle of Man

Work began in September 2013 to replace the Abbey Bridge and was completed in March 201437

Educationedit

Schools in Evesham follow the three-tier education model of first school ages 5–10, middle school ages 10–13, and high school ages 13–18 adopted by Wychavon District Council 1974 and completed by 1977 Twelve first primary schools which include state non-denominational schools as well as Church of England and Roman Catholic school feed four middle schools which in turn send their pupils to complete their secondary education at Evesham High School and Prince Henry's High School which originated as a grammar school established by the monastery and was re-founded by Henry VIII after the Dissolution5 The Vale of Evesham School, operated by Worcestershire County Council, caters for children from the area aged 2 – 19 with special needs, and learning disabilities Further education is provided by Evesham College, part of the Warwickshire College Group following the merger with South Worcestershire College previously known as Evesham and Malvern Hills College38 which caters mainly for students studying at the NVQ and BTEC level or undertaking practical vocational courses39 40

The nearest higher education providers are the University of Worcester and the University of Gloucestershire A University of the Third Age was established in 2003 and in 2010 had 600 members41

Places of worshipedit

The 1906 sandstone and red brick Evesham Methodist Church on the banks of the River Avon

It is possible that the 8th-century Anglo-Saxon Minster Church of Evesham Abbey was founded on the site of an even older church The medieval town had two parish churches, All Saints and St Lawrence built within the abbey precinct12 Religious establishments in Evesham include All Saints Church, Evesham Baptist Church, Evesham Evangelical Church, Evesham Methodist Church, St Andrew's C of E Church, St Mary & Saint Egwin's Church, St Peter's Church, Vale Of Evesham Christian Centre, the Unitarian Chapel in Oat Street and a Quaker meeting place

Cultureedit

The art deco Regal Cinema

Evesham had a distinctive dialect, which locals called "Asum Grammar",42 or "Asum Grammer" The editor of the local newspaper quoted extracts from a fictitious dictionary of the language43 In 1891, a glossary was published of words and phrases in South-East Worcestershire, comprising the district around Evesham and Pershore This publication itself built on that of an 1882 author identified only as "Mrs Chamberlain"44 Prior to the 1882 book, little attention had been paid to the dialect of "the old Worcestershire folks", despite it being "interesting and peculiar" A decline in the dialect was already being noted, attributed at that time to standardisation of English schooling,45 something noted also by later writers on English dialects46 The dialect continues to decline, but is stronger in older generations42 More recent factors in its decline are attributed to changes in the market gardening scene, where the dialect was to be heard at its fullest, and the impact of television43 In the local dialect, "Asum" is a contraction of the town's name4247 Asum was an ale produced by the now defunct Evesham Brewery "Eve-shum" is the more common phonetic pronunciation, but "Eve-uh-shum" is not uncommon47

Evesham Arts Centre was built in 1979 and is staffed and operated by volunteers48 It provides a venue for professional and amateur performance Events hosted include drama, stand-up comedy, brass bands, orchestras, pantomime to ballet The centre has a raked 300-seat auditorium, full technical facilities and film projection and a 60-seat studio space for smaller productions The centre's foyer it is an exhibition space for local artists The centre is managed by the Evesham Arts Association, a registered charity49

The Regal Cinema reopened in December 200950 Its Grade II listed building was designed in 1932 by architect Hurley Robinson5152 who was responsible for several public buildings in classical and Art Deco styles, including 55 other cinemas52 The Regal is the most important surviving example53 In 2009 the cinema signed a contract to show all Universal Studios films It also serves as a community arts centre, offering a programme of music and stand-up comedy54

Medieval Evesham, and the Earl of Evesham, inspired a novel Winning His Spurs by historical fiction author G A Henty55 A more recent novel by MC Beaton entitled Agatha Raisin and the Wizard of Evesham, takes place largely in Evesham, and two of the main characters visit the local sights, with descriptions56 Local folklore is provided for by the Legend of Evesham surrounding the life of Eof, an 8th-century swineherd credited with the founding of the town, and St Egwin the Bishop of Worcester who founded the abbey and who whose feet had been fettered and the key thrown in the River Avon According to the legend, the key turned up in Rome inside a fish On returning to Evesham, Egwin declared that a monastery be built on the spot where the key had been cast in the river13 A major landmark is the statue of Eof by the sculptor John McKenna that was funded by the townsfolk and unveiled in the market place in June 200857

Amenities and mediaedit

The Evesham Library, managed by Worcestershire Libraries & Learning division of Worcestershire County Council, is located in the town centre and was completely modernised following a closure for refurbishment in January 2011 It offers community services that include an online catalogue, Wi-Fi internet access, public internet terminals, and a mobile library58

A local museum opened in 1957 and is funded by the council, The Almonry Museum and Heritage Centre, and the Tourist Information Centre are housed in a 14th-century half timbered building that was the home of the almoner of Evesham Abbey Exhibits include many items of local interest including an exhibition themed on the battle of Evesham59

Evesham has a 97-bed community hospital in Waterside, outside the town centre, used mainly by the elderly and for convalescence, although consultants from major Worcester NHS hospitals hold clinics there The hospital maintains a reduced hours 9am to 9pm s-s Minor Injuries Unit60 The town has three health centres providing general practitioner first care services, and a dental centre Evesham also has several nursing and retirement homes for the care of senior citizens The Evesham area is covered by the Midlands Air Ambulance service, which has operated from the site of Strensham motorway services since 199161

Evesham local news has been served since 1860 by the Evesham Journal, now part of the Newsquest Midlands South Ltd subsidiary of Gannett Corporation, which is predominantly a weekly free newspaper that is distributed over four counties62 In 2007 the weekly free newspaper Evesham Observer was launched by Midlands-based Observer-Standard series of newspapers, now the family-owned Bullivant Media63

Commercial radio stations that provide music and local news include Wyvern radio broadcasting on 967 FM, Touch FM broadcasting on 102 FM, and BBC Hereford & Worcester broadcasting on 104 FM and 947 FM

Sportedit

The Evesham Leisure Centre comprises two swimming pools, a climbing wall, a 100-station fitness room to our health and a beauty salon64 Sport in Evesham is represented by Evesham United FC which plays in the Southern Football League Division One South & West, and Rugby Union – Senior and Youth Sections at Evesham Rugby Club There is also a cricket ground The town also has a pétanque team,65 and a cycling club, Evesham & District Wheelers, which was founded in 1947 Because of its situation on the river, the town is home to various watersports including Evesham Rowing Club, Kayaking & Canoeing provided by the Evesham Paddle Monsters club, and Evesham Sailing Club The town includes two golf courses, Evesham Golf Club, which is situated outside Fladbury, and Twyford Golf Club, which is situated just outside Lenchwick Evesham Vale Running Club hold the Evesham Vale 10K Race event very year66

Notable peopleedit

  • John Aldridge, a professional English and international cricketer who also played for Worcestershire Born in Evesham in 193567
  • Ariel Bender, guitarist for Mott the Hoople and Spooky Tooth, was born and raised in Evesham
  • Molly Badham who was awarded the MBE was a co-founder of Twycross Zoo She trained the chimpanzees who appeared on the famous Brooke Bond PG Tips TV ads for tea Born in Evesham in 191468
  • Roger Burrows, educator and mathematician
  • Jim Capaldi, songwriter and founding member of Traffic was born and raised in Evesham
  • Muzio Clementi was a celebrated classical composer, pianist, pedagogue, conductor, music publisher, and piano manufacturer He spent his final years in Evesham where he died in 1832
  • Daniel Flynn, the actor who plays Superintendent John Heaton in the long-running ITV1 police drama The Bill was born in Evesham in 1961 but whose family moved to Bromley, Kent when an infant
  • Sir Henry Fowler, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Midland Railway and subsequently the London, Midland and Scottish Railway was born in Evesham, on 29 July 187069
  • Edmund Hort New, was an artist who was born and grew up in Evesham in 1871 In 1905, he moved to Oxford where he began work on a series of drawings of the University of Oxford colleges, a project which occupied him for the rest of his life
  • Harry King 1886–1968 was a professional English footballer who was born in Northampton, and began his career at Evesham Star FC
  • Robert Lanchbury, is a former English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Gloucestershire and Worcestershire in the early 1970s Born in Evesham in 195070
  • Alistair McGowan, impressionist and actor Born in Evesham on 24 November 196471
  • Andy Preece, a part-time professional English footballer and manager He began his career as a junior with Worcester City He subsequently played for Evesham United Born in Evesham in 196772
  • P J Proby American pop singer lives in Evesham7374
  • Edward Righton 1884–1964 was an English cricketer who played first-class cricket matches for Worcestershire between 1911 and 1913 Born in Evesham75
  • John Watson was born in Evesham around 1491 and was a Bishop of Winchester, and a Chancellor of St Pauls Cathedral, London Today's Evesham Hotel is a Tudor mansion he built as the family home
  • William Jones, 1839–1913 was awarded the Victoria Cross for bravery at Rorke's Drift, the highest military award that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth citizens Born in Evesham c1839
  • Guy Whittingham is a retired professional footballer with over 450 appearances for a number of English clubs including Premier League Aston Villa and Sheffield Wednesday Born in Evesham in 196476
  • CH Waddington biologist
  • John Watson, acting Bluemantle Pursuivant at the College of Arms
  • Henry Walton Smith who was the Mayor of Evesham in 1858 and 1860 was a founder of high street retailer W H Smith77

Twin townsedit

Evesham is twinned with:78

  • Dreux, France
  • Melsungen, Germany
  • Evesham Township, New Jersey, USA

Referencesedit

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  8. ^ "Welcome to the Almonry Website" Almonry Museum and Heritage Centre Retrieved 17 January 2011 
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Bibliographyedit

  • Mills, AD 1998, Dictionary of English Place-Names, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-280074-4 
  • Burne, A H 1950, reprint 2002, The Battlefields of England London: Penguin ISBN 0-14-139077-8
  • English Heritage 1995 English Heritage Battlefield Report: Evesham 1265
  • Maddicott, J R 1994, Simon de Montfort, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-37493-6
  • Powicke, F M 1953, The Thirteenth Century: 1216-1307, Oxford: Clarendon ISBN 0-19-285249-3
  • Prestwich, Michael 1988, Edward I, London: Methuen London ISBN 0-413-28150-7
  • Prestwich, Michael 2005, Plantagenet England: 1225-1360, Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-822844-9
  • Cox, Benjamin G 1977, The Book of Evesham, Chesham: Barracuda Books ISBN 0-86023-043-0

External linksedit

  • Evesham Town Council
  • Almonry Museum and Heritage Centre
  • Evesham - a 1904 book about the town, by Edmund H New, from Project Gutenberg
  • Worcestershire County Council web site
  • Evesham at DMOZ
  • BBC Battle of Evesham, 4 August 1265
  • BBC Battle of Evesham timeline

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    Evesham beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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