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European and American voyages of scientific exploration

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The era of European and American voyages of scientific exploration followed the Age of Discovery1 and were inspired by a new confidence in science and reason that arose in the Age of Enlightenment Maritime expeditions in the Age of Discovery were a means of expanding colonial empires, establishing new trade routes and extending diplomatic and trade relations to new territories, but with the Enlightenment scientific curiosity became a new motive for exploration to add to the commercial and political ambitions of the past2 See also List of Arctic expeditions and List of Antarctic expeditions

Contents

  • 1 Maritime exploration in the Age of Discovery
  • 2 Maritime exploration in the Age of Enlightenment
    • 21 Chronology of voyages
      • 211 1764–66 : HMS Dolphin
      • 212 1766–68 : HMS Dolphin and HMS Swallow
      • 213 1766 : HMS Niger
      • 214 1766–69 : La Boudeuse and L'Étoile
      • 215 1768–71 : HMS Endeavour
      • 216 1771–72 : Isle de France and Le Nécessaire
      • 217 1772 : Sir Lawrence
      • 218 1772–75 : HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure
      • 219 1771–72 : La Fortune and Le Gros-Ventre
      • 2110 1773–74 : Le Roland and L'Oiseau
      • 2111 1773–74: HMS Racehorse and HMS Carcass
      • 2112 1776–80: HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery
      • 2113 1785–88: La Boussole and L'Astrolabe
      • 2114 1785–88 HMS King George
      • 2115 1785–94: Slava Rossii
      • 2116 1790–91: La Solide
      • 2117 1789–94: Descubierta and Atrevida
      • 2118 1791–94: La Recherche and L'Espérance
      • 2119 1791–y93: HMS Providence
      • 2120 1791–95: HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham
      • 2121 1800–04: Le Géographe and Naturaliste
      • 2122 1801–03: HMS Investigator
      • 2123 1803–06: Nadezhda and Neva
      • 2124 1815–18: Rurik
      • 2125 1817–20: L'Uranie and La Physicienne
      • 2126 1819–21: Le Rhône and La Durance
      • 2127 1822–25: La Coquille
      • 2128 1823–26: Predpriyatiye
      • 2129 1824–25: HMS Blonde
      • 2130 1824–26: Le Thétis and L'Espérance
      • 2131 1825–28: HMS Blossom
      • 2132 1825–30: HMS Adventure and HMS Beagle
      • 2133 1826–29: L'Astrolabe
      • 2134 1826–29: Senyavin and Moller
      • 2135 1827–28: La Chevrette
      • 2136 1828: Ms Korvet Triton
      • 2137 1829: La Cybèle
      • 2138 1829–32: La Favorite
      • 2139 1831–36: HMS Beagle
      • 2140 1835 and 1836: La Recherche
      • 2141 1836–39: Vénus
      • 2142 1836–37: La Bonite
      • 2143 1836–42: HMS Sulphur
      • 2144 1837–40: L'Astrolabe and La Zélée
      • 2145 1837–43: HMS Beagle
      • 2146 1838–42: USS Vincennes and USS Peacock
      • 2147 1839–43: HMS Erebus and HMS Terror
      • 2148 1841–1844: La Favorite
      • 2149 1842–46: HMS Fly
      • 2150 1846–50: HMS Rattlesnake and HMS Bramble
      • 2151 1851–54: Capricieuse
      • 2152 1851–53: Eugenie
      • 2153 1852–63: HMS Herald
      • 2154 1853–55: USS Vincennes and USS Porpoise
      • 2155 1857–60: SMS Novara
      • 2156 1860: HMS Bulldog
      • 2157 1865–68: Magenta
      • 2158 1865: HMS Curacoa
      • 2159 1868 and 1869–1870: HMS Lightning and HMS Porcupine
      • 2160 1873–76: HMS Challenger
      • 2161 1875–76: HMS Alert and HMS Discovery
      • 2162 1881: USRC Thomas Corwin
      • 2163 1882–83: La Romanche
      • 2164 1882–85: Vettor Pisani
      • 2165 1886–96: USS Albatross
      • 2166 1897–98: Lila & Mattie
      • 2167 1897–98: Belgica
      • 2168 1898–99: Valdivia
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Bibliography

Maritime exploration in the Age of Discoveryedit

From the early 15th century to the early 17th century the Age of Discovery had, through Spanish and Portuguese seafarers, opened up southern Africa, the Americas New World, Asia and Oceania to European eyes: Bartholomew Dias had sailed around the Cape of southern Africa in search of a trade route to India; Christopher Columbus, on four journeys across the Atlantic, had prepared the way for European colonisation of the New World; Ferdinand Magellan had commanded the first expedition to sail across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to complete the first circumnavigation of the Earth Over this period colonial power shifted from the Portuguese and Spanish to the Dutch and then the British and French The new era of scientific exploration began in the late 17th century as scientists, and in particular natural historians, established scientific societies that published their researches in specialist journals The British Royal Society was founded in 1660 and encouraged the scientific rigour of empiricism with its principles of careful observation and deduction Activities of early members of the Royal Society served as models for later maritime exploration Hans Sloane 1650–1753 was elected a member in 1685 and travelled to Jamaica from 1687 to 1689 as physician to the Duke of Albemarle 1653–1688 who had been appointed Governor of Jamaica In Jamaica Sloane collected numerous specimens which were carefully described and illustrated in a published account of his stay3 Sloane bequeathed his vast collection of natural history 'curiosities' and library of over 50,000 bound volumes to the nation, prompting the establishment in 1753 of the British Museum His travels also made him an extremely wealthy man as he patented a recipe that combined milk with the fruit of Theobroma cacao cocoa he saw growing in Jamaica, to produce milk chocolate Books of distinguished social figures like the intellectual commentator Jean Jacques Rousseau, Director of the Paris Museum of Natural History Comte de Buffon, and scientist-travellers like Joseph Banks, and Charles Darwin, along with the romantic and often fanciful travelogues of intrepid explorers, increased the desire of European governments and the general public for accurate information about the newly discovered distant lands4

One of the earliest French expeditions on the coasts of Africa, South America and through the Strait of Magellan was made by a squadron of French men-of-war under the command of M de Gennes in 1695–97 The young French explorer, engineer and hydrographer François Froger described this expedition in his A Relation of a Voyage 1699

Maritime exploration in the Age of Enlightenmentedit

By the 18th century maritime exploration had become safer and more efficient with technical innovations that vastly improved navigation and cartography: improvements were made to the theodolite, octant, precision clocks, as well as the compass, telescope, and general shipbuilding techniques From the mid-18th century through the 19th century scientific missions mapped the newly discovered regions, brought back to Europe the newly discovered fauna and flora, made hydrological, astronomical and meteorological observations and improved the methods of navigation This stimulated great advances in the scientific disciplines of natural history, botany, zoology, ichthyology, conchology, taxonomy, medicine, geography, geology, mineralogy, hydrology, oceanography, physics, meteorology etc – all contributing to the sense of "improvement" and "progress" that characterized the Enlightenment Artists were used to record landscapes and indigenous peoples, while natural history illustrators captured the appearance of organisms before they deteriorated after collection5 Some of the worlds finest natural history illustrations were produced at this time and the illustrators changed from informed amateurs to fully trained professionals acutely aware of the need for scientific accuracy6

By the middle of the 19th century all of the world's major land masses, and most of the minor ones, had been discovered by Europeans and their coastlines charted7 This marked the end of this phase of science as the Challenger Expedition of 1872–1876 began exploring the deep seas beyond a depth of 20 or 30 meters In spite of the growing community of scientists, for nearly 200 years science had been the preserve of wealthy amateurs, educated middle classes and clerics5 At the start of the 18th century most voyages were privately organized and financed but by the second half of the century these scientific expeditions, like James Cook's three Pacific voyages under the auspices of the British Admiralty, were instigated by government6 In the late 19th century, when this phase of science was drawing to a close, it became possible to earn a living as a professional scientist although photography was beginning to replace the illustrators The exploratory sailing ship had gradually evolved into the modern research vessels From now on maritime research in new European colonies in America, Africa, Australia, India and elsewhere, would be carried out by researchers within the occupied territories themselves7

Chronology of voyagesedit

This compendium of voyages of scientific exploration provides an overview of maritime scientific research carried out at the time of the Enlightenment in Europe Published journals and accounts are included with the individual voyages

1764–66 : HMS Dolphinedit

HMS Dolphin at Tahiti in 1767

Considered the first scientific voyage undertaken by the Royal Navy, its primary purpose was the discovery of new lands in the South Atlantic Ocean It was during this trip that several islands of the Tuamotu archipelago were discovered Dolphin was a 24-gun post ship launched in 1751 and used as a survey ship from 1764, making two circumnavigations under the command of John Byron and Samuel Wallis She was broken up in 1777

    • Captain: John Byron 1723–1786
    • Publications: J Byron, A Voyage round the world London, 1767, translated into French the same year under the title Journey around the world in 1764 and 1765, on the English warship "The Dolphin", commissioned by Vice-Admiral Byron Paris

1766–68 : HMS Dolphin and HMS Swallowedit

A circumnavigation by the English navigator Samuel Wallis, on board Dolphin, accompanied by Philip Carteret on the consort ship Swallow In August 1766, the two ships passed through the Strait of Magellan In December 1766, conflicts between the two captains led to the separation of the ships Dolphin reached Tahiti in June 1767 Samuel Wallis studied the customs of the Polynesians, reaching the Dutch East Indies at Batavia, returning to London in May 1768 Meanwhile, Philip Carteret in Swallow explored and studied the Solomon Islands, New Ireland island now part of Papua New Guinea and the islands of the Indonesian archipelago Sulawesi among others The expedition also stopped in Batavia from June to September 1768 and returned to London in March 1769

    • Captains: Samuel Wallis 1728–1795 leader of the expedition, Philip Carteret 1733–1796 Commander of Swallow which was separated from the Dolphin and returned to its point of departure a year later
    • Second Lieutenant: Tobias Furneaux 1735–1781

1766 : HMS Nigeredit

This British ship explored Newfoundland and Labrador with Constantine Phipps aboard and Thomas Adams Captain, and with Joseph Banks also aboard HMS Niger was a 33-gun fifth-rate launched in 1759, converted to a prison ship in 1810 and renamed Negro in 1813 She was sold in 1814

    • Captain: Thomas Adams –1770
    • Also aboard: Joseph Banks 1743–1820 and Constantine Phipps

1766–69 : La Boudeuse and L'Étoileedit

La Boudeuse arriving in Matavai in 1767

Ordered by Louis XV, it is the first trip around the world initiated by the French The discovery and description of Tahiti by Louis Antoine de Bougainville in his trip will have a very significant impact on the philosophers of the Enlightenment including Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712–1778 The expedition was organised by Louis Antoine de Bougainville and received the support of such prominent figures of the time as Charles de Brosses 1709–1777, Comte de Buffon 1707–1788, Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis 1698–1759 and Jérôme Lalande 1732–1807

The purpose of the expedition is to discover new territories available for settlement, to open a new route to reach China, to found new outlets for the French East India Company and, finally, discover acclimatable spices for the Isle de France now Mauritius

    • Captains: Louis Antoine de Bougainville 1729–1811 Chief of expedition, Nicolas Pierre Duclos-Guyot Captain of La Boudeuse, François Chenard de la Giraudais 1727–1775 Captain of L'Étoile
    • Naturalists: Philibert Commerçon 1727–1773, Jeanne Baré 1740–1807
    • Astronomer: Pierre-Antoine Véron 1736–1770
    • Cartographer: Charles Routier de Romainville 1742–1792
    • Publication: Louis Antoine de Bougainville, Journey Around the World by the Commander of the La Boudeuse and L'Étoile, in 1766, 1767, 1768 and 1769" Paris, 1771

1768–71 : HMS Endeavouredit

Main article: First voyage of James Cook HMS Endeavour off the coast of New Holland, by Samuel Atkins c 1794

An expedition to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun in 1769 that included the discovery of new Islands, Tuamotu and Society Islands, the first circumnavigation of New Zealand and charting of the East coast of New Holland

    • Captain: James Cook 1728–1779
    • Naturalists: Sir Joseph Banks 1743–1820 and Daniel Solander 1733–1782
    • Astronomer: Charles Green 1735–1771
    • Artist: Sydney Parkinson 1745–1771
    • Publications: "A Journal of a voyage round the world printed, in His Majesty's ship Endeavour, in the years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771… to which is added, a Concise vocabulary of the language of Otahitee" London, 1771 The identity of the authors of this report remains controversial because different authors attribute it to Cook, to Banks, Solander as well as various officers having shared in the voyage It is translated into French under the title of "Journal of a voyage around the world, 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771; containing the various events of the voyage; with the relationship of the lands newly discovered in the méridional… hemisphere " Paris, 1772
      John Hawkesworth c 1715 – 1773 is commissioned by the Admiralty to make a synthesis of different shipments under the title "An Account of the Voyages undertaken… for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere and performed by Commodore Byrone John Byron, Captain Hallis, Captain Carteret and Captain Cook from 1702 to 1771 drawn up from the Journals…" London, three volumes, 1773

1771–72 : Isle de France and Le Nécessaireedit

Expedition to harvest spices for production on Mauritius, to prevent the monopoly of their trade by the Dutch

    • Captains: Chevalier de Coëtivi Isle of France and Mr Cordé Le Nécessaire
    • Naturalist: Pierre Sonnerat 1748–1814
    • Publication: P Sonnerat, Trip to New Guinea, which is the description of places, the physical and moral observations, and details about the naturelle… history Paris, 1776

1772 : Sir Lawrenceedit

An expedition in the brig Sir Lawrence exploring Iceland and the islands along the West coast of Scotland

    • Captain: John Gore 1772–1836
    • Aboard: Joseph Banks 1743–1820
    • Aboard: Daniel Solander 1733–1782

1772–75 : HMS Resolution and HMS Adventureedit

Main article: Second voyage of James Cook

Cook's second voyage in Resolution and Adventure around the world He again visited New Zealand, sailed near the Antarctic and discovered many islands in the Pacific Swedish Sparrman embarked during a stopover at the Cape

    • Captains: James Cook 1728–1779 Resolution expedition leader, Charles Clerke and Tobias Furneaux 1735–1781 Adventure
    • Surgeon-naturalist: William Anderson 1750–1788
    • Naturalists: Johann Reinhold Forster 1729–1798, Georg Forster 1754–1794 and Anders Sparrman 1748–1820
    • Astronomer: William Wales c 1734 – 1798
    • Aboard as crew member George Vancouver, also to become a famous Explorer
    • Publications: Cook's journals; also the two Forsters released an account of this journey

1771–72 : La Fortune and Le Gros-Ventreedit

Exploration of the southern Indian Ocean and the shipping routes to India

    • Captains: Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec 1734–1797, Louis Aleno de St Aloüarn 1738–1772

1773–74 : Le Roland and L'Oiseauedit

Exploration of the southern Indian Ocean

    • Captain: Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec 1734–1797
    • Naturalist: Jean Guillaume Bruguière 1749 or 1750–1798
    • Astronomer: Joseph Lepaute Dagelet

1773–74: HMS Racehorse and HMS Carcassedit

Racehorse and Carcass 7 August 1773 enclosed by ice Lat 80o 37' N In Payne's Universal Geography Vol V, p 481

A British expedition to explore the Arctic Sea The two ships reached Svalbard before turning back because of the ice Horatio Nelson was involved with the trip

    • Captain: Constantine John Phipps 1744–1792
    • Surgeon-naturalist: Irving
    • Astronomer: Israel Lyons 1739–1775
    • Publication: CJ Phipps 1774, A Voyage towards the north pole undertaken

1776–80: HMS Resolution and HMS Discoveryedit

Main article: Third voyage of James Cook Resolution and Discovery by Samuel Adkin

Cook's Third Voyage to find the North-West passage by crossing the Bering Strait Cook was killed in the Hawaiian archipelago

    • Captains: James Cook 1728–1779 Resolution and Charles Clerke 1741–1779 Discovery
    • Surgeon-naturalists: William Anderson 1750–1788 and William Ellis 1747–1810
    • Astronomer: Joseph Billings 1758–1806
    • Illustrater: John Webber 1750–1793
    • Crew member: George Vancouver was to become a celebrated explorer himself

1785–88: La Boussole and L'Astrolabeedit

The Astrolabe on an ice floe – 6 February 1838

French King Louis XVI inspired by Cook's voyages mounted his own expedition under the direction of La Pérouse Cook's anti-scorbutic remedies to eradicate scurvy were applied successfully Lamanon and twelve other members of the expedition were massacred by natives at Vanuatu where they were looking for water The two ships disappeared in the Solomon Islands, at Vanikoro, during a violent storm

    • Captain: Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse 1741–1788 La Boussole and Paul Antoine Fleuriot de Langle 1744–1787 L'Astrolabe
    • Chief Engineer: Paul Mérault Monneron 1748–1788
    • Geologist: Robert de Lamanon 1752–1787
    • Artists: the uncle and nephew Prevost, Duché De Vancy
    • Naturalists: Jean-André Mongez 1751 – c 1788
    • Interpreter of Russian: Barthélemy de Lesseps 1766–1834 landed at Petropavlovsk, and in charge of bringing to France the log, maps and drawings of the trip

1785–88 HMS King Georgeedit

Global circumnavigation

    • Captain: Woodcock

1785–94: Slava Rossiiedit

A Russian expedition commanded by the British Captain Joseph Billings, astronomer on Cook's third voyage This expedition lasted more than ten years attempting, unsuccessfully, to find the northwest passage that had remained undiscovered after Cook's explorations

    • Captain: Joseph Billings c 1758 – 1806
    • Naturalists: Carl Heinrich Merck and Carl Krebs
    • Surgeons-naturalists: Michael Robeck and Peter Allegretti
    • Cartographer: Gavriil Sarytchev
    • Publications: J Billings, An Account of a Geographical and Astronomical expedition to the Northern parts of Russia 1802, translated into French the same year under the title of Voyage made by order of Empress Catherine II Russia, in the North of the Asian Russiain the icy sea, in the sea on the coasts of America, from 1785 until 1794, by commodore Billings and Anadyr Paris, 1802; Peter Simon Pallas 1741–1811, Zoographia Rosso – Asiatica 1811, where he described the species discovered by this expedition

1790–91: La Solideedit

The Solide expedition was the second successful circumnavigation by the French, after that by Bougainville It occurred from 1790 to 1792 but remains little known due to its mostly commercial aims in the fur trade between the northwest American coast and China

    • Captain: Étienne Marchand 1755–1793

1789–94: Descubierta and Atrevidaedit

Drawing of the corvettes Descubierta and Atrevida Main article: Descubierta and Atrevida

The Spanish Malaspina Expedition around the world explored the coasts of Spanish possessions in America and Alaska, always looking for the northwest passage More than 70 crates of natural history specimens were sent to Madrid On return Captain Malaspina was forced into exile because of his ideas, suggesting, among other things, that Spain abandon the military domination of its colonies in favour of a Federation The scientific journal of the trip was lost but recovered in 1885

    • Captains: Alessandro Malaspina 1754–1810 "Descubierta" and José de Bustamante y Guerra 1759–1825 "Atravida"
    • Naturalists: Antonio Pineda y Ramírez 1751–1792, Thaddäus Haenke 1761–1817, Luis Née c 1789 – 1794 and Tomas de Suria
    • Artist: José del Pozo and José Guío
    • Publication: Pedro de Novo y Colson 1846–1931, Viaje político-científico alrededor del mundo: por las corbetas Descubierta y Atrevida al mando los capitanes navío d Alejandro Malaspina y Don José de Bustamante y Guerra, desde 1789 á 1794 Madrid, 1885

1791–94: La Recherche and L'Espéranceedit

The frigates Recherche and Espérance

An expedition to find the two vessels commanded by Jean-François de La Pérouse 1741–1788 and of which there was no news after they left Port Jackson heading for southern Tasmania and southern Australia Captain Kermadec died in May 1793 and Captain d'Entrecasteaux in July of the same year The expedition was headed by a royalist and heard of the terror in France when putting into the Dutch colonies The crew was arrested and collections of natural history confiscated and offered by the Dutch to the British These were however, on the express request of Joseph Banks 1743–1820, returned to France

    • Captains: Antoine Bruni d'Entrecasteaux 1737–1793 La Recherche and Jean-Michel de Kermadec 1748–1793 L'Espérance
    • Naturalists: Jacques-Julien de Labillardière 1755–1834, Claude Riche 1762–1798, Jean Blavier 1764–1828, the father Louis Ventenat 1765–1794 and Louis Deschamps 1765–1842
    • Hydrographer: Charles-François Beautemps-Beaupré 1766–1854
    • Gardener: Félix Delahaye 1767–1829
    • Artist: Piron –1796
    • Publication: JH La Billardière, Relation of the voyage for the Perugia, made by order of the constituent Assembly during the years 1791, 1792 and during the first and second years of the Republic Françoise Paris, 1799; Elizabeth Rossel Voyage of Entrecasteaux, sent for Lapérouse, 2 vols, 1809

1791–y93: HMS Providenceedit

The Royal Society offered a reward of fifty pounds for living Bread-fruit plants Bligh completed this in Providence, his second mission to collect breadfruit plants and other botanical specimens from the Pacific These he transported to the West Indies, specimens being given to the Royal Botanic Gardens in St Vincent This expedition was a success, returning to the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew with 1,283 plants including varieties of apple, pear, oranges and mangoescitation needed In addition to these specimens, the expedition accomplished many observations and cartographic surveys in the South Seas

    • Captain: William Bligh 1754–1817
    • Surgeons-naturalists: Thomas Dancer c 1750 – 1811

1791–95: HMS Discovery and HMS Chathamedit

Discovery in 1789 Main article: Vancouver Expedition

A mission to the South Seas and Pacific Northwest coast of America In 1791, Discovery left England with Chatham Both ships anchored at Cape Town before exploring the south coast of Australia In King George Sound, the Discovery's naturalist and surgeon Archibald Menzies collected various plant species including Banksia grandis, the first recording of the Banksia genus from Western Australia The two ships sailed to Hawaiʻi where Vancouver named Kamehameha I Chatham and Discovery then sailed on to the Northwest Pacific Over the course of the next four years, Vancouver surveyed the northern Pacific Ocean coast in Discovery wintering in Spanish California or Hawaiʻi Discovery's primary mission was to exert British sovereignty over this part of the Northwest Coast following the hand-over of the Spanish Fort San Miguel at Nootka Sound, although exploration in co-operation with the Spanish was seen as an important secondary objective Exploration work was successful as relations with the Spanish went well; resupply in California was especially helpful Vancouver and the Spanish commandant Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra were on such good terms that the original name of Vancouver Island was actually Quadra and Vancouver's Island

    • Captains: George Vancouver 1757–1798 Discovery and William Robert Broughton 1763–1822 Chatham
    • Naturalist: Archibald Menzies 1754–1842
    • Physician-naturalist: Alexander Cranstoun

1800–04: Le Géographe and Naturalisteedit

Main article: Baudin expedition to Australia

This expedition was organised to establish a permanent colonial presence in the South seas before the British, concentrating on the mapping of the coast of the Australia and New Guinea Nicolas Baudin died in Mauritius in 1803, another naturalist on the island of Timor, two other naturalists chose to stay on the island and two astronomers died of dysentery Péron, assisted by his friend Lesueur, managed to gather a vast zoological collection Naturaliste returned to France in 1803 with a part of the collections Captain Baudin bought a schooner, the Casuarina then at Port Jackson Baudin was replaced by Pierre Bernard Milius 1773–1829

    • Commanders: Nicolas Baudin 1754–1803 Le Géographe and Jacques Hamelin 1768–1839 Le Naturaliste
    • Physician, surgeon first doctor in the Navy and biologist: Pierre François Keraudren 1769–1858 Le Géographe
    • Naturalists: Jean Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour 1773–1826, René Maugé Cely, Stanislas Levillain 1774–1801, François Péron 1775–1810, Jean-Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent 1778–1846 left the expedition to Mauritius, Désiré Dumont, André Michaux 1746–1803
    • Artist: Charles-Alexandre Lesueur 1778–1846 assisted by Nicolas-Martin Petit 1777–1804
    • Astronomers: Pierre-François Bernier 1779–1803 and Frédéric de Bissy 1768–1803
    • Cartographer: Charles-Pierre Boullanger
    • Geographer: Pierre Faure 1777–1855
    • Mineralogist: Louis Depuch, Joseph Charles Bailly
    • Publications: F Péron, Voyage of discovery to the southern lands three volumes, Paris, 1807–1816; many species of birds are described by Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot 1748–1831 in the New Dictionary of Natural History 1816–1819

1801–03: HMS Investigatoredit

A 20th-century drawing of Investigator

The first circumnavigation of Australia The work of scientific observation was interrupted due to damage and many specimens transferred to HMS Porpoise were lost when it sank The observations of Brown on the flora of this continent were the most extensive at this time

    • Captain: Matthew Flinders 1774–1814
    • Naturalist: Robert Brown 1773–1858
    • Physician-naturalist: Hugh Bell
    • Mineralogist: John Allen
    • Astronomer: John Crosley
    • Artists: Ferdinand Bauer 1760–1826 and William Westall 1781–1850
    • Publication: M Flinders, A Voyage to Terra Australis, undertaken for the purpose of completing the discovery of that vast country and prosecuted in the years 1801, 1802 and 1803 two volumes, 1814

1803–06: Nadezhda and Nevaedit

The Russian sloop Neva visits Kodiak in Alaska

The first Russian circumnavigation of the world was intended to establish a link with Russian possessions in America, the transport of goods at that time being via Siberia a journey lasting about two years The second objective, which was not achieved, was to establish trade and diplomatic links with Japan This expedition took place during the rule of emperor Alexander I 1777–1825

Nadezhda and Neva explored the Aleutian Islands, Sakhalin and discovered the mouth of the Love River They also visited the Marquesas Islands and Hawaii Baron von Langsdorff left the expedition in 1805 to explore the Interior of Alaska and California Thirteen cases of natural history specimens were shipped to the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences

    • Captains: Adam Johann von Krusenstern 1770–1846 Nadezhda and Yuri Fyodorovich Lisianski Neva
    • Naturalist: Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff 1774–1852
    • Physician-naturalist: Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau 1769–1857
    • Publication: G H von Langsdorff, Bemerkungen auf einer Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803 bis 1807, von G h von Langsdorff, Frankfurt am Main, two volumes, 1812

1815–18: Rurikedit

A Russian expedition funded by the Chancellor of Russia, count Nikolai P Romanzof to investigate the northeast passage in the Bering Sea The coast of Alaska was studied and the South Pacific, also the cartography of 36 islands including the Marshall Islands Also natural history collections made

    • Captain: Otto von Kotzebue 1787–1846
    • Naturalist: Adelbert von Chamisso 1781–1838
    • Physician-naturalist: Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz 1793–1831
    • Publication: JF Eschscholtz, Entdeckungs - Reise in die Süd - See und nach der Berings - Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt, unternommen in den Jahren 1815, 1816, 1817 1818 und, auf Kosten… a… Grafen Rumanzoff, auf dem Schiffe ″Rurick″, unter dem Befehle of the Lieutenants… Otto von Kotzebue… three volumes, Weimer, 1821

1817–20: L'Uranie and La Physicienneedit

Baptism of Hawaiians on the Uranie in 1819

A French expedition exploring Western Australia and islands of Timor, Molucca, Samoa and Hawaii L'Uranie visited Rio de Janeiro to take a series of pendulum measurements as well as other observations, not only in geography and ethnology, but in astronomy, terrestrial magnetism, and meteorology, and for the collection of specimens in natural history

    • Commander: Commander Louis Claude de Saulces Freycinet 1779–1842
    • Second: Louis Isidore Duperrey 1786–1865
    • Physician-naturalist: Joseph Paul Gaimard 1796–1858 and Jean René Constant Quoy 1790–1869
    • Botanist: Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré 1789–1854
    • Illustrator: Jacques Arago 1790–1855, Adrien Taunay the Younger 1803–1828
    • Publication: de Freycinet, L Voyage autour du Mondeexécuté sur les corvettes de L M "L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820 Paris pp 192–401 J Arago, Drive around the world during the years 1817, 1818, 1819 and 1820, on the corvettes of the King the Urania and physicist, commissioned by Mr Freycinet, by Js Arago, designer of the expedition Paris, 2 volumes, 1822

1819–21: Le Rhône and La Duranceedit

One of the missions of this expedition and recruit workers to Java and Philippines to French Guiana Botanist Samuel Perrottet 1793–1870 settled in Guyana to investigate the acclimation of plants reported to Asia La Durance returned to France in 1820, Le Rhône the following year

    • Captain: Pierre Henri Philibert 1774-
    • Botanist: George Samuel Perrottet 1793–1870

1822–25: La Coquilleedit

Louis Isidore Duperrey commanded the expedition in La Coquille with Jules Dumont d'Urville as second in command The naturalists appointed to the expedition were the surgeon, pharmacist and zoologist René Primevère Lesson and surgeon-major Prosper Garnot Doctor Garnot had a severe attack of dysentery and was sent back on the Castle Forbes with some of the specimens collected in South America and the Pacific The specimens were lost when the ship was wrecked off the Cape of Good Hope in July 1824 Garnot and Lesson wrote the zoological section of the voyage's report

    • Commander: lieutenant Louis Isidore Duperrey 1786–1865
    • Second: lieutenant Jules Dumont d'Urville botanist 1790–1842
    • Physician-naturalist: the surgeon, pharmacist and zoologist René Primevère Lesson 1794–1849 and surgeon-major Prosper Garnot 1794–1838
    • Astronomer: sign of vessel Charles Hector Jacquinot 1796–1879
    • Illustrators: Jules Louis Lejeune 1804–1851, Jacques Arago 1790–1855
    • Hydrographer: Victor Charles Lottin 1795–1858
    • Publications: Lesson and Garnot, Voyage autour du monde exécuté par order du roi sur la corvette La Coquille 1828–32 / "Journey around the world on the corvette La Coquille" Paris, six volumes, 1826–1830

1823–26: Predpriyatiyeedit

An expedition of two ships of war, the main object of which was to take reinforcements to Kamchatka There was, however, a staff of scientists on board the Russian sailing sloop Predpriyatiye Russian: "Enterprise", who collected much valuable information and material on geography, ethnography and natural history The expedition, proceeding by Cape Horn, visited the Radak and Society Islands, and reached Petropavlovsk in July 1824 Many positions along the coast were mapped more accurately, the Navigator islands visited, and several discoveries made The expedition returned by the Marianas, Philippines, New Caledonia and the Hawaiian Islands, reaching Kronstadt on July 10, 1826

    • Captain: Otto von Kotzebue 1787–1846
    • Physician-naturalist: Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz 1793–1831 and Dr Lenz
    • Publication: O von Kotzebue, Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1823, 24, 25 und 26, von Otto von Kotzebue, Weimer, 1830

1824–25: HMS Blondeedit

HMS Blonde, by Robert Dampier, 1825

In 1824 Byron was chosen to accompany homewards the bodies of Hawaiian monarchs Liholiho known as King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamāmalu, who had died of measles during a state visit to England8 He sailed in Blonde in September 1824, accompanied by several naturalists and, amongst others, his lieutenant, Edward Belcher9 He toured the islands and made observations With the consent of Christian missionaries to the islands, he also removed wooden carvings and other artifacts of the chiefs of ancient Hawaii from the temple ruins of Puʻuhonua O Hōnaunau10 On his return journey in 1825, Lord Byron discovered and charted Malden Island, which he named after his surveying officer, Mauke; and Starbuck Island11 Starbuck was named in honour of Captain Valentine Starbuck, an American whaler who had sighted the island while carrying the Hawaiian royal couple to England in 1823–1824, but which had probably been previously sighted by his cousin and fellow-whaler Captain Obed Starbuck in 182312

    • Captain: George Anson Byron 1789–1868
    • Naturalists: Andrew Bloxam 1801–1878 and James Macrae
    • Published by: GA Byron, Voyage of HMS Blonde to the Sandwich Islands, in the years 1824–1825 The Right Hon captain Lord Byron order London, 1826

1824–26: Le Thétis and L'Espéranceedit

1813 model of the frigate Thétis in the Musée National de la Marine Rochefort

A mission to establish diplomatic relations with Indochina and make geographical observations On 12 January 1825, Hyacinthe de Bougainville led an embassy to Vietnam with Captain Courson de la Ville-Hélio, arriving in Da Nang, with the warships Thétis and L'Espérance13 Although they had a 28 January 1824 letter from Louis XVIII, the ambassadors could not obtain an audience with Minh Mạng14

    • Captains: Hyacinthe de Bougainville 1781–1846 Le Thétis and Paul de Nourquer du Camper L'Espérance
    • Surgeon-naturalist: François Louis Busseuil 1791–1835

1825–28: HMS Blossomedit

HMS Blossom off the Sandwich Islands

A British expedition to the Bering Sea attempting a rendezvous with the expedition of Sir John Franklin 1786–1847 at the mouth of Mackenzie River Blossom reached as far north as Point Barrow, Alaska, the furthest point into the Arctic any non-Inuit had been at the time, but was unable to join the Franklin expedition With Lay ill it was Beechey and Collie that performed most of the specimen collection but many could not be preserved

    • Captain: Frederick William Beechey 1796–1856
    • Physician-naturalist: Alexander Collie 1793–1835
    • Naturalist: George Tradescant Lay 1800–1854
    • Publication: FW Beechey, Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait" 1831, "The Zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait 1839

1825–30: HMS Adventure and HMS Beagleedit

The mission was the hydrographic survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, under the overall command of the surveyor Commander Phillip Parker King, in HMS Adventure

In the desolate waters of Tierra del Fuego Stokes, the captain of HMS Beagle, became depressed and shot himself on 2 August 1828 dying a few days later15 Parker King replaced Stokes with Lieutenant WG Skyring as commander of the ship, and both ships sailed to Montevideo After the ships arrived at Rio de Janeiro for repairs and provisioning, Rear Admiral Sir Robert Otway, the Commander-in-chief of the South American station, gave command of Beagle to his aide, Lieutenant Robert FitzRoy16 Fuegians were taken back with them when the Beagle returned15 During this survey, the Beagle Channel was identified and named after the ship17

    • Captain: Philip Parker King 1793–1856 Adventure and Pringle Stokes –1828 Beagle
    • Naturalist: James Anderson 1797–1842
    • Publication: PP King, Narrative of the first surveying voyage of H M ships ″Adventure″ and ″Beagle″, between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the Southern shores of South-America and the ″Beagle's″ circumnavigation of the world Vol i containing the proceedings of the first expedition, 1826–1830 under the command of captain P Parker King "London, 1839

1826–29: L'Astrolabeedit

This mission, led by Dumont d'Urville, searched for the two vessels of La Pérouse 1741–1788 The coasts of Australia, of New Zealand, of Fiji and the Loyalty Islands were explored Dumont d'Urville renamed La Coquille as L'Astrolabe as a tribute to the ship of La Pérouse

    • Captain: Jules Dumont d'Urville 1790–1842
    • Physician-naturalist: Joseph Paul Gaimard 1796–1858 and Jean René Constant Quoy 1790–1869
    • Pharmacy-botanist: René Primevère Lesson 1805–1888
    • Publications: J Dumont d'Urville, Voyage of the Astrolabe 14 volumes, 1830–1835

1826–29: Senyavin and Molleredit

A Russian circumnavigation on the ship Senyavin, sailing from Cronstadt and rounding Cape Horn accompanied by Captain Mikhail Nikolaievich Staniukovich in command of the sloop Moller During the voyage Litke and his team described the western coastline of the Bering Sea, the Bonin Islands off Japan, and the Carolines, discovered 12 new islands An expedition to strengthen Russian presence near Alaska A large collection of natural history specimens was made including 1,000 new speciess of insects, fish, birds and other animals and 2,500 plant specimens including algae and minerals

    • Captain: Fyodor Litke 1797–1882
    • Botanist-naturalist: Karl Heinrich Mertens 1796–1830
    • Naturalist: Heinrich von Kittlitz 1799–1874
    • Mineralogist: Alexander Philipov Postels 1801–1871
    • Published by: F Litke, Trip around the world 1835–1836

1827–28: La Chevretteedit

The first expedition to map the coast of India

    • Captain: Theodore Fabré 1795–1830
    • Surgeon-naturalist: Auguste Adolphe Marc Reynaud 1804-

1828: Ms Korvet Tritonedit

Dutch exploration of New Guinea

  • The corvette Triton
  • The brig Iris
    • Expedition leader: Dr HC Macklot
    • Captain of Triton: JJ Steenboom

1829: La Cybèleedit

Scientific exploration was placed under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent 1778–1846

    • Captain: Marie Antoine Chevalier de Robillard 1788–1837
    • Zoologists: Gaspard Auguste Brullé 1809–1873 and Sextius Delaunay
    • Botanist: Jean-Marie Despréaux 1794–1843
    • Geologist: Pierre Théodore Virlet D'Aoust of 1800–1894
    • Artist: Prosper Baccuet 1798–1854

1829–32: La Favoriteedit

As British, American and Dutch voyages consolidated their interest in Australia, Hawaii and New Guinea, the French government sought to secure the religious freedoms and rights of French residents in the South Pacific18 The expedition passed the Cape of Good Hope, stopping at Pondicherry and Madras, and then exploring the coast of Cochinchina and Tonkin, stopping in the Philippines, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand The expedition was considered a great success, many hydrological observations were completed and natural history collections assembled

    • Captain: Cyrille Pierre Théodore Laplace 1793–1875
    • Naturalist: Joseph Fortuné Théodore Eydoux 1802–1841
    • Publication: CPT Laplace, Journey around the world by the India and China seas, running on the corvette of the State the Favorite during the 1830s, 1831 and 1832 under the command of Mr Laplace captain of frégatte Published by order of Mr Vice-Admiral comte Rigny Minister of marine and colonies seven volumes including two atlas, Paris, 1833–1839

1831–36: HMS Beagleedit

Main article: Second voyage of the Beagle

A world circumnavigation to make a hydrographic survey of the coast of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, Chile and Peru, and establish accurate longitude measurements Charles Darwin paid his own way as a naturalist/companion to the captain, and found the voyage a stimulus both to his career as a geologist and to the formulation of his theory of evolution

    • Captain: Robert FitzRoy 1805–1865
    • Physician-naturalist: Robert McCormick 1800–1890 until April 1832, followed by Benjamin Bynoe 1804–1865
    • Artist: Augustus Earle, replaced by Conrad Martens
    • Naturalist supernumerary passenger: Charles Darwin 1809–1882
    • Publications: C Darwin editor, Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle five volumes, 1838–1843,
      R FitzRoy editor, Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe volume 2 and appendix by FitzRoy, Proceedings of the second expedition, 1831–36, under the command of Captain Robert Fitz-Roy, RN 1839, volume 3 by C Darwin Journal and Remarks, 1839
      C Darwin, The Geology of the Voyage of The Beagle three volumes, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs 1842, Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands 1844, Geological Observations on South America 1846

1835 and 1836: La Rechercheedit

Main article: La Recherche Expedition 1838–1840

Two expeditions to the coasts of Iceland and Greenland in an attempt to trace the Bordelaise commanded by Jules de Blosseville 1802–1833 which had been missing since 1833

    • Captain François Thomas Tréhouart 1798–1873
    • Physician-naturalist: Joseph Paul Gaimard 1796–1858 assisted by Elie Jean-François Le Guillou 1806–1894 first voyage and by Charles René Augustin Léclancher 1804–1857 second voyage, Louis Eugène Robert

1836–39: Vénusedit

Expedition circumnavigation in the frigate Vénus to assess the economic viability of whaling in the North Pacific

    • Captain: Abel Aubert Du Petit-Thouars 1793–1864
    • Engineer hydrographer: Urbain Dortet de Tessan 1804–1879
    • Physician-naturalist: Adolphe Simon Neboux 1806–1844
    • Surgeon: Charles René Augustin Léclancher 1804–1857
    • Publication: AA Petit-Thouars, Travel around the world on the fragate Venus eleven volumes, 1840–1864

1836–37: La Boniteedit

A global circumnavigation sailing the coast of South America, back along the West Coast to California, across the Pacific, reaching Manila, China, India, the Isla Borbón and returning to France More than 1,000 new plant species were collected and many geographical and meteorological observations made

    • Captain: Auguste-Nicolas Vaillant 1793–1858
    • Physician-naturalist: Joseph Fortuné Théodore Eydoux 1803–1841 and Louis François Auguste Souleyet 1811–1852
    • Hydrographer: Benoît Darondeau 1805–1869
    • Pharmacy-botanist: Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré 1789–1854
    • Publication: A N Vaillant, Trip around the world executed during the years 1836 and 1837 on the corvette Bonito eleven volumes, Paris, 1841–1852

1836–42: HMS Sulphuredit

Exploration of the Pacific coast of America and interior of Nicaragua and El Salvador Sulphur participated in the First Opium War between 1840 and 1841 and was later used to survey the harbour of Hong Kong in 1841, returning to England in 1842

    • Captain: Edward Belcher 1799–1877
    • Physician-naturalist: Richard Brinsley Hinds 1811–1846
    • Publications: E Belcher, Narrative of a Voyage Round the World in HMS Sulphur two volumes, 1843 Volume 1, Volume 2; RB Hinds editor, "The Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Sulphur" two volumes, 1843–1844

1837–40: L'Astrolabe and La Zéléeedit

The second voyage of L'Astrolabe, this time accompanied by La Zélée, sailed on 7 September 1837 and at the end of November, the ships reached the Strait of Magellan Dumont thought there was sufficient time to explore the strait for three weeks, taking into account the precise maps drawn by Phillip Parker King between 1826 and 1830, before heading south again but two weeks after seeing their first iceberg, the ships were encased in pack ice for a while After reaching the South Orkney Islands, the expedition headed directly to the South Shetland Islands and the Bransfield Strait Then located some land which was named Terre de Louis-Philippe now called Graham Land, the Joinville Island group and Rosamel Island now called Andersson Island In poor shape the two ships headed for Talcahuano in Chile Turning south they led for the first time some experiments to determine the approximate position of the South magnetic pole, discovered the Terre Adélie on January 20, 1840 and landed two days later on an islet of the Géologie Archipelago 66°36′19″S 140°4′0″E / 6660528°S 14006667°E / -6660528; 14006667 4 km from the mainland to take mineral and animal samples

    • Captains: Jules Dumont d'Urville 1790–1842 L'Astrolabe, Charles Hector Jacquinot 1796–1879 La Zélée
    • Physician-naturalist: on "The Astrolabe", Jacques Bernard Hombron 1798–1852 surgeon-major of 2nd class and Louis Le Breton 1818–1866 surgeon 3rd class and "La Zélée" Honoré Jacquinot 1815–1887 3rd class surgeon, Elie Jean François Le Guillou 1806 - after 1860 surgeon, 3rd class
    • Preparer-naturalist: Pierre Marie Alexandre Dumoutier 1797–1871
    • Illustrator: Ernest Goupil 1814–1840 replaced on his death on 01/4/1840 to Hobart-Town by Louis Le Breton surgeon, 3rd class
    • Hydrographer-cartographer: Clément Adrien Vincendon-Dumoulin fr1811–1858
    • Publications: J Dumont d'Urville then Clément Adrien Vincendon-Dumoulin fr, assisted Desgraz Secretary of L'Astrolabe "Histoire du voyage" from Tome 4 to 10 tome 1, tome 2, tome 3, tome 4, tome 5, volume 6, tome 7, tome 8, tome 9, tome 10

For all other publications by themes and authors, refer to Expédition Dumont d'Urville fr in the Publications part

1837–43: HMS Beagleedit

The mission was the hydrographic survey of the coasts of Australia In 1839 Lieutenant Stokes sighted a natural harbour which Wickham named Port Darwin, the later settlement nearby eventually became the city of Darwin, Northern Territory In 1841 Wickham fell ill, and Stokes took command

    • Captain: John Clements Wickham 1798–1864, succeeded by John Lort Stokes 1812–1885
    • Physician-naturalist: Benjamin Bynoe 1804–1865
    • Publication: J L Stokes, Discoveries in Australia, With an Account of the Coasts and Rivers Explored and Surveyed During The Voyage of HMS Beagle, in the Years 1837-38-39-40-41-42-43 By Command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty Also a Narrative of Captain Owen Stanley's Visits to the Islands in the Arafura Sea Vol 1 and Vol 2 London, 1846

1838–42: USS Vincennes and USS Peacockedit

USS Vincennes in Disappointment Bay, Antarctica, during the Wilkes expedition Main article: United States Exploring Expedition

The "Wilkes Expedition", included naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, taxidermists, artists and a philologist in the ships Vincennes, Peacock, the brig Porpoise, the store-ship Relief, and two schooners, Sea Gull, and Flying Fish

Departing Hampton Roads on 18 August 18, 1838, the expedition stopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro, Argentina; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Tuamotu Archipelago, Samoa, and New South Wales From Sydney, Australia, the fleet sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands" of which it sighted the coast on January 25, 1840 Next, the expedition visited Fiji and the Hawaiian Islands in 1840 In July 1840, two sailors, one of whom was Wilkes' nephew, Midshipman Wilkes Henry, were killed while bartering for food on Malolo, in Fiji Wilkes retribution was swift and severe According to an old man of Malolo Island, nearly 80 Fijians were killed in the incident

From December 1840 to March 1841, his men with native Hawaiian porters hauled a pendulum to the summit of Mauna Loa to measure gravity He explored the west coast of North America, including the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, the Columbia River, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento River, in 1841 The expedition returned by way of the Philippines, the Sulu Archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York City on 10 June 1842 This was the first circumnavigation of the world funded by the Government of the United States and the last by a sailing vessel The expedition was poorly prepared and of five vessels which left, only two returned to port The natural history collections were very rich with 50,000 plant specimens approximately 10 000 species and 4,000 specimens of animals half being new species

    • Captains: Charles Wilkes 1798–1877 USS Vincennes and William Levereth Hudson USS Peacock 1794–1862
    • Doctor-tries: JL Fox
    • Naturalists: Charles Pickering 1805–1878, Titian Ramsay Peale 1799–1885, James Dwight Dana 1813–1895, William Dunlop Brackenridge 1810–1893
    • Publication: V Wilkes, Narrative of the United States exploring Expedition twenty volumes, 1845–1876

1839–43: HMS Erebus and HMS Terroredit

Erebus and Terror, ships of James Clark Ross Terror in the Arctic

This British trip, sponsored by the Royal Society, was to discover magnetic and geographic features of the Antarctic The expedition was prepared with great care by James Clark Ross, already familiar with Polar navigation The two ships left the United Kingdom on 19 September 1839, stopping to explore the Kerguelen Islands in 1840, and then on Tasmania to build a magnetic observatory for the Antarctic and to conduct cartographic work Mount Erebus and the Ross Sea were discovered during this journey After three attempts, Ross admitted that the magnetic pole lay in land that he could not reach Following the footsteps of his uncle John Ross, he performed the first deep sea surveys up to 4800 m 2677 fathoms, using ropes Unfortunately biological specimens collected decomposed

    • Captains: Sir James Clark Ross 1800–1862 Erebus and Francis Crozier 1796–1848 Terror
    • Physician-naturalist: Robert McCormick 1800–1890, Joseph Hooker 1817–1911, John Robertson, David Lyall 1817–1895
    • Publications: JC Ross, A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions 1847, JE Gray and John Richardson, The zoology of the Voyage of HM Ships Erebus and Terror 1844–1875 JD Hooker, The botany of the Antarctic voyage of HM discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839–1843 under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross Three volumes: I Flora Antarctica 1844, II Flora Novae Zelandiae 1853–1855, III Flora Tasmaniae 1860

1841–1844: La Favoriteedit

A scientific exploration in the China Sea and Indian Ocean

    • Captain: Théogène François Page 1807–1867
    • Surgeon-naturalist: Charles René Augustin Léclancher 1804–1857

1842–46: HMS Flyedit

During the early to mid-1840s, Fly charted numerous trade and other routes between many locations, primarily off Australia's North-east coast and nearby islands Such islands included Whitsunday Island and the Capricorn Islands After being discovered during the survey of the Gulf of Papua, New Guinea, the Fly River was named after Fly For the most of its seaworthy existence, Fly was captained by Francis Price Blackwood

    • Captain: Francis Price Blackwood 1809–1854
    • Physician-naturalist: Benjamin Bynoe 1804–1865
    • Naturalists: Joseph Beete Jukes 1811–1869 and John MacGillivray 1821–1867
    • Publication: JB Jukes, "Narrative of the surveying voyage of H M S ″Fly″, commanded by captain F P Blackwood, in Torres Strait, New Guinea and other islands of the Eastern Archipelago, during the years 1842–1846, together with an excursion into the interior of the Eastern part of Java" two volumes, 1847

1846–50: HMS Rattlesnake and HMS Brambleedit

Rattlesnake, painted 1853 by Oswald Brierly, artist on the expedition

An expedition to the Cape York and Torres Strait areas of northern Australia

    • Captain: Owen Stanley 1811–1850 Rattlesnake and Charles Bampfield Yule Bramble
    • Surgeon: John Thomson
    • Physician-naturalist: Thomas Henry Huxley 1825–1895
    • Naturalists: John MacGillivray 1821–1867 and James Fowler Wilcox 1823–1881
    • Artist: Oswald Brierly 1817–1894
    • Publication: J MacGillivray, Narrative of the Voyage of HMS Rattlesnake 1852 Goodman, J The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery to the Coral Sea London: Faber & Faber, ISBN 978-0-571-21078-7 2006 Goodman, J Losing it in New Guinea: the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake Endeavour Elsevier 29 2: 60–65, doi:101016/jendeavour200504005, PMID 15935857 2005 J Huxley, TH Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake London: Chatto & Windus 1935

1851–54: Capricieuseedit

A French expedition circumnavigating the world via Cape Horn, stopping in Tahiti and Ualan to determine an astronomical Meridian intended for future travel in the Pacific, then arriving in China There, the ship performed several missions of exploration including, in July–August 1852, in the seas of Korea and Japan then very little known in Europe and on the coasts of Kamchatkato completely unknown the Lapérouse expedition The Capricieuse then returned to France via the Cape of Good Hope This was the last French global circumnavigation by sail

    • Commander: Commander Gaston de Rocquemaurel 1804–1878
    • Second: Navy lieutenant Jules Duroch
    • Publication: The narrative of the voyage remained unpublished

1851–53: Eugenieedit

Main article: HMS Eugenie

A Swedish natural history excursion, contributing to the capture of Manuel Briones, a robber who seized an American whaler "George Howland" and who was the terror on the coast of the Ecuador

    • Captain: Christian Adolf Virgin sv 1797–1870
    • Physician-naturalist: Johan Gustaf Hjalmar Kinberg sv 1820–1908
    • Naturalist: Nils Johan Andersson 1821–1880
    • Publication: NJ Andersson, Fregatten "Eugenies" resa omkring jorden åren 1851–1853, under befäl af utgifven af, v a Virgin v Skogman Stockholm, 1856

1852–63: HMS Heraldedit

Herald

A survey of the Australian coast and Fiji Islands, continuing the mission of HMS Rattlesnake Following disagreements with the captain, naturalist John MacGillivray disembarks at Sydney in January 1854 Herald was a 500-ton, 28-gun sixth-rate, launched as Termagant in 1822 and renamed in 1824 She served as a survey ship under Henry Kellett and Henry Mangles Denham and was sold in 1864

    • Captain: Henry Mangles Denham 1800–1887
    • Naturalists: John MacGillivray 1821–1867, William Milne botanist and Denis Macdonald as Assistant Surgeon-zoologist
    • Publication: Edward Forbes 1815–1854, The zoology of the voyage of HMS Herald under the command of Captain Henry Kellett, during the years 1845–51 London, 1854

1853–55: USS Vincennes and USS Porpoiseedit

USS Porpoise

This American expedition explored the coasts of Japan, China, Siberia and Kamchatka before putting in at the Cape of Good Hope and returning to the United States Porpoise sank in a typhoon in 1854

    • Captain: John Rodgers 1812–1882
    • Naturalists: William Stimpson 1832–1872 and Charles Wright 1811–1885
    • Publication: due to the outbreak of civil war, there is no record of this voyage, scientific discoveries have been published separately from scientific journals

1857–60: SMS Novaraedit

Frigate Novara from the 21 vol expedition report: Voyage of the Austrian Frigate Novara around the Earth 1861–1876

An expedition organized by the Emperor of Austria to demonstrate the power of the Crown Novara departed Trieste in April 1857, passing the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand Fourteen of the forty-four guns were dumped to make more room for the scientific collections

    • Captain: Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair 1816–1883
    • Naturalists: Ferdinand von Hochstetter 1829–1884, Georg von Frauenfeld 1807–1873 and Johann Zelebor 1819–1869
    • Publication: Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen Commodore b von Wüllerstorf-Urbair 1864–1875

1860: HMS Bulldogedit

An oceanographic survey in Bulldog for the laying of a submarine telegraph cable in the North Atlantic

    • Captain: Francis Leopold McClintock 1819–1907
    • Naturalist: George Charles Wallich 1815–1899
    • Publication: The North Atlantic Sea - Bed; comprising a diary of the voyage on board H M S Bulldog, in 1860, and observations on the presence of animal life, and the formation and nature of organic deposits, at great depths in the ocean 1862

1865–68: Magentaedit

An Italian circumnavigation of the globe that made important scientific observations in South America The purpose of the trip was also to establish diplomatic relations with China and Japan, but without success De Filippi set out in 1866 on a government-sponsored scientific voyage to circumnavigate the globe The ship, the Italian warship Magenta, sailed under the command of Vittorio Arminjon, departing Montevideo on February 2, 1866 It reached Naples on March 28, 1868 However, De Filippi himself died en route at Hong Kong, on February 9, 1867, from serious dysentery and liver problems The scientific report was completed by his assistant, Professor Enrico Hillyer Giglioli Giglioli returned to Italy in 1868

    • Captain: Vittorio Arminjon 1830–1897
    • Naturalists: Filippo de Filippi 1814–1867 and Enrico Hillyer Giglioli 1845–1909
    • Publications: EH Giglioli, Note intorno alla distribuzione della Fauna Vertebrata nell oceano prese durante un viaggio intorno al Blobo 1870 and Viaggio intorno al globo della r pirocorvetta italiana ″Magenta″ negli anni 1865-66-67-68, sotto it comando del capitano di fregata V f Arminjon Relazione descrittiva e scientifica pubblicata sotto gli auspici del ministero di Agricoltura, industria e commercio dal dottore Enrico Hillyer Giglioli… Con una introduzione etnologica di Paolo Mantegazza Milan, 1875

1865: HMS Curacoaedit

An expedition embarked in Curacoa leaving Sydney in June 1865 to explore the Pacific Islands One of the objectives is to punish the inhabitants of the islands of Tanna for mistreating a missionary

    • Captain: Sir William Wiseman, 8th Baronet 1814–1874
    • Naturalist: Julius Lucius Brenchley 1816–1873
    • Publication: JL Brenchley, Jottings during the cruise of HMS Curoçoa among the south sea islands in 1865 London, 1873 Collections by Brenchley are handled by various specialists as George Robert Gray 1808–1872 for Albert Günther 1830–1914 birds to fish and reptiles

1868 and 1869–1870: HMS Lightning and HMS Porcupineedit

Two oceanographic expeditions in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

    • Captains: Captain May Porcupine, Killwick Calver 1813–1892 Lightning
    • Naturalists: Sir Charles Wyville Thomson 1830–1882 and Philip Herbert Carpenter 1813–1885
    • Publication: The Depths of the Sea: An Account of the General Results of the Dredging Cruises of HMSS Porcupine and Lightning during the summers of 1868, 1869, and 1870, Under the Scientific Direction of Dr Carpenter, J Gwyn Jeffreys, and Dr Wyville Thomson

1873–76: HMS Challengeredit

Painting of Challenger by William Frederick Mitchell

The Challenger Expedition was a grand tour of the world during covering 68,000 nautical miles 125,936 km organized by the Royal Society in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh Charles Thomson was the leader of a large scientific team

    • Captains: George Nares 1873 and 1874 and Frank Tourle Thomson 1875 and 1876
    • Naturalists: Charles Wyville Thomson 1830–1882, Henry Nottidge Moseley 1844–1891 and Rudolf von Willemoes-Suhm 1847–1875
    • Oceanographers: John Young Buchanan 1844–1925 and John Murray 1841–1914
    • Publications: CW Thomson, Report on the scientific results of the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873–76… prepared under the superintendence of the late Sir C Wyville Thomson, and now of John Murray, fifty volumes, London, 1880–1895 HN Moseley, Notes by a naturalist on the Challenger 1879 WJJ Spry, The cruise of the Challenger 1876

1875–76: HMS Alert and HMS Discoveryedit

The British Arctic Expedition in Alert and Discovery seeking to establish the geographic and magnetic north pole

    • Captain: George Strong Nares 1831–1915
    • Physician-naturalist: Richard William Coppinger 1847–1910 and Edward Lawton Moss
    • Naturalists: Henry Chichester Hart 1847–1908 and Henry Fielden
    • Publication: G Nares, Narrative of a voyage to the Polar Sea during 1875-6 in the ships HMS Alert and HMS Discovery London, 1878; translated into French Paris, 1877

1881: USRC Thomas Corwinedit

USRC Thomas Corwin: Departure for Alaska, 1885

Several expeditions were conducted in the Bering Sea in 1881 to find the Jeannette and two whaling ships Wrangell Island was discovered and made part of the United States in August 1881 with the landing of famed explorer John Muir and the crew of U S Revenue Marine ship Thomas Corwin under the command of Captain Calvin Leighton Hooper The landing at the mouth of the Clark River was illustrated by Muir in his book "The Cruise of the Corwin" Two weeks after the Corwin took possession, USS John Rodgers conducted a complete survey of the island, which turned out to equal the size of Rhode Island and Delaware combined

    • Captain: Calvin Leighton Hooper
    • Naturalist: Edward William Nelson 1855–1934
    • Explorer: John Muir 1838–1914
    • Publication: Muir, J "The Cruise of the Corwin"

1882–83: La Romancheedit

The building of the French Navy La Romanche was for a French multidisciplinary expedition on a Scientific Mission to Cape Horn See also Romanche Glacier

    • Captain: Ferdinand Martial
    • Officers/photographers: Payen, Doze
    • Botanists: Émile Bescherelle, Paul Auguste Hariot, Adrien René Franchet, Paul Petit
    • Doctor/geologist/ anthropologist: Paul Hyades
    • Ornithologist: Emile Oustalet

1882–85: Vettor Pisaniedit

The Vettor Pisani was an Italian naval corvette equipped for scientific exploration

1886–96: USS Albatrossedit

United States Fish Commission Steamer Albatross, in the 1890s

Albatross belonged to the Committee on Fisheries of the United States and it carried out numerous scientific expeditions under the direction of Alexander Emanuel Agassiz 1835–1910 The primary goal was an inventory of the Pacific fishery reserves but many other observations are carried out by Townsend and other scientists

    • Captain: Zera Tanner 1835–1906
    • Naturalist: Charles Haskins Townsend 1859–1944

1897–98: Lila & Mattieedit

Zoologist Walter Rothschild commissioned the Webster-Harris Expedition to the Galápagos Islands from June 1897 to February 1898 This expedition on the schooner Lila & Mattie is well-described in the 1983 book titled Dear Lord Rothschild by Miriam Rothschild In the 1936 book Oceanic Birds of South America by Robert Cushman Murphy, Rollo Beck describes the seminal telegram from CM Harris that started his long and important association with the Galápagos Islands The original of this telegram is in the Rollo Beck Collection in the California Academy of Sciences Archives There is also a photo from Beck's Sierra Nevada collecting trip in the archives of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology on the University of California, Berkeley campus The story of buried treasure on Tower Island connected with this trip was apparently known to Captain Lindbridge during this voyage, but the information was not revealed until after the group had left Tower Island This trip lasted from June 1897 to February 1898, after having started on a tragic note with the deaths of three of the original crew to Yellow Fever, and having to reconstitute the expedition in San Francisco, California

    • Naturalist: Rollo Beck 1870–1950
    • Organizer: Frank Blake Webster
    • Organizer: Charles Miller Harris

1897–98: Belgicaedit

Adrien de Gerlache was an officer in the Belgian Royal Navy who led the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897 to 1899 He acquired Le Patria in 1896 renaming it Belgica He left Antwerp on 16 August 1897 passing winter in the Antarctic before returning to Belgium on 5 November 1898

    • Captain: Adrien de Gerlache 1866–1934
    • Naturalist: Emil Racovita 1868–1947

1898–99: Valdiviaedit

Valdivia, 1898

A German deep-sea expedition exploring in Antarctic regions, the Valdivia being a steamship in the Hamburg-American line of steamers The subscription was launched by Georg von Neumayer 1826–1909 and only consisted of a single vessel instead of the two planned The expedition quickly reached the Cape of Good Hope where the study of deep waters began The ship reached Antarctic pack ice and rediscovered Bouvet Island followed by the Kerguelen Islands For the first time, evidence of deep water in this region was provided by survey The Valdivia then passed to the Indian Ocean, studying the coast of Sumatra before returning to its port of origin 29 April 1899

    • Captain: Adalbert Krech 1852–1907
    • Naturalist: Carl Chun 1852–1914
    • Publication: C Chun 1903, "Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres"

See alsoedit

  • Circumnavigation
  • History of navigation
  • List of explorers
  • List of circumnavigations
  • Chronology of European exploration of Asia
  • Timeline of European exploration
  • List of Arctic expeditions
  • List of Antarctic expeditions
  • Apostles of Linnaeus

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Brosse 1983, pp 9–11
  2. ^ Hackett, Louis 1992 "The age of Enlightenment" Retrieved 2011-05-06 
  3. ^ SeeSloane & 1707–1725
  4. ^ See Speake 2003
  5. ^ a b Rice 2010, p 320
  6. ^ a b Rice 2010, p 10
  7. ^ a b Rice 2010, p 290
  8. ^ NZETC
  9. ^ Dunmore 1992, p 45
  10. ^ Bloxam, pp 74-76
  11. ^ Dunmore 1992, p 46
  12. ^ Dunmore 1992, pp 237–38
  13. ^ Oscar Chapuis, A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bang to Tu Duc p 190
  14. ^ Oscar Chapuis, The Last Emperors of Vietnam p4
  15. ^ a b Guardian review: Man on a suicide mission
    King 1839, pp 150–153
  16. ^ King 1839, p 188
  17. ^ Herbert, Sandra 1999 "An 1830s View from Outside Switzerland: Charles Darwin on the "Beryl Blue" Glaciers of Tierra del Fuego" Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae pp 92: 339–346 Retrieved 2008-12-22 
  18. ^ Dunmore 1992, pp 228–233

Bibliographyedit

  • Bauchot, Marie-Louise; Daget, Jacques & Bauchot, Roland 1997 "Ichthyology in France at the Beginning of the 19th Century: The Histoire Naturelle des Poissons of Cuvier 1769–1832 and Valenciennes 1794–1865" In Collection Building in Ichthyology and Herpetology Pietsch TW & Anderson WD, eds, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists: 27-80 ISBN 0-935868-91-7
  • Broc, Numa 1988,1992,1999,2003 Dictionnaire illustré des explorateurs et grands voyageurs français du XIXe siècle 4 vols, Éditions du Comité des Travaux historiques et scientifiques Paris ISBN 2-7355-0158-2,ISBN 2-7355-0233-3,ISBN 2-7355-0391-7,ISBN 2-7355-0461-1
  • Brosse, Jacques 1983 Great Voyages of Exploration The Golden Age of Discovery in the Pacific Transl Stanley Hochman Sydney: Doubleday ISBN 0-86824-182-2 
  • Colledge, J J; Warlow, Ben 2006 1969 Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy Rev ed London: Chatham Publishing ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8 OCLC 67375475 
  • Dunmore, John 1992 Who's Who in Pacific Navigation Melbourne University Press ISBN 0-522-84488-X 
  • Mearns, Barbara & Mearns, Richard 1998 The Bird collectors Academic Press London: xvii + 472 p ISBN 0-12-487440-1
  • Rice, Tony 2010 Voyages of Discovery London: Allen & Unwin ISBN 978-1-74237-225-9 
  • Sardet, Michel 2007 Naturalists and explorers of the Health Service of the Navy in the 19th century Pharmathèmes Paris: 285 p ISBN 978-2-914399-17-3
  • Singaravélou, Pierre eds 2008 The empire of Geographers: geography, exploration and colonization, 19th-20th century Belin Paris: 287 p ISBN 978-2-7011-4677-5
  • Speake, Jennifer 2003 Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia New York: Fitzroy Dearborn ISBN 1-57958-247-8 OCLC 55631133 
  • Sloane, Hans 1707–1725 A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S Christophers and Jamaica :with the natural history of the herbs and trees … British Museum
  • Taillemite, Étienne 2004 The discoverers of the Pacific: Bougainville, Cook, Lapérouse Gallimard Paris, collection Discovery: 176 p ISBN 978-2-07-076333-7
  • Zanco, Jean-Philippe 2008 The legacy forgotten Dumont d'Urville and explorers of the Pacific: voyages of Gaston de Rocquemaurel, 1837–1854 Symposium Lapérouse and French explorers of the Pacific, Museum of the Navy, 17–18 October 2008, 1

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