Eskil of Lund
Eskil was a 12th-century Archbishop of Lund, in Skåne, Denmark now in Sweden
He was one of the most capable and prominent princes of the Church in Scandinavia A man of profound piety, he was always zealous for the welfare of the church, and was a courageous and unselfish defender of the rights of the hierarchy in its struggle against the civil power and clerical usurpers
Eskil was born about 1100 His father Christian was descended from an illustrious dynastic family of Jutland and was related to several royal families When twelve years of age the young Eskil was received into the renowned cathedral school at Hildesheim Here, during a dangerous illness, he was allegedly honoured by a vision of the Mother of God, who, chiding him with his frivolous conduct, saved him from imminent perdition and restored his health, demanding five measures of different varieties of corn as a thank-offering This vision was interpreted to mean that Eskil would attain high ecclesiastical dignity and establish five confraternities
In 1131, his uncle, Asser Asger, the first Archbishop of Lund, nominated him provost of the cathedral In 1134 he was consecrated Bishop of Roskilde, and after Asser's death 1137 succeeded him as archbishop He successfully defended the metropolitan rights of his see in spite of the protestations of the archbishop of Bremen He received the pallium archiepiscopal insignia from Innocent II through the papal legate, Cardinal Theodignus, who, with many Scandinavian bishops, was present at the provincial Synod of Lund 1139 Eskil completed the new cathedral in Romanesque style, which he consecrated in 1145 On this occasion he increased the membership and the endowments of the cathedral chapter and improved the condition of the cathedral school
On various occasions Eskil was involved in the internal political disputes of rival kings, even to the extent of being temporarily held captive in his own cathedral, for which he was later indemnified by various land-grants During the Crusades, Eskil, animated by the example of St Bernard, also preached a crusade against the pagan Wends, which, unfortunately, proved unsuccessful He, nevertheless, continued his campaign with youthful ardour, even in his old age, till, after the conquest of Rügen, the Wends accepted Christianity
In 1152 Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear was sent as papal legate to Scandinavia to settle ecclesiastical affairs Norway was constituted a separate ecclesiastical province, with its metropolitan see of Trondhjem Nidaros Eskil remained Archbishop of Lund He was also nominated Primate of Sweden and papal legate for the North
By a proper selection of persons for the higher ecclesiastical offices he effected an immense improvement in the standard of religious life In 1161 he drew up a code of canon law for Skåne, which, ten years later, was introduced into Seeland Denmark
The monastic orders are especially indebted to Eskil As Bishop of Roskilde he called the Benedictines to Næstved; and the monastery of the Regular Augustinians at Eskilsø near Roskilde most probably traces its origin to him Later he established the Premonstratensian monastery in Tommerup, Skåne; the Knights of St John also settled in Lund during his time There was also, in Seeland, an establishment of Carthusian monks, but only for a short time The Cistercian monks were especial favourites of Eskil, who founded their first monastery in 1144 at Herrevad Herivadum near Helsingborg, which was soon followed by one at Esrom in Sjælland 1154 From both of these various branches were established Eskil corresponded with St Bernard, whom he admired and revered With a view to being admitted to the Cistercian Order he visited St Bernard at Clairvaux in 1152 Bernard refused him admission, pointing out that his services as bishop would be more beneficial to the Church at large
Hearing of Bernard's death 1153, Eskil made a pilgrimage to the saint's grave and thence to Rome, where all his archiepiscopal privileges were ratified by Pope Adrian IV Breakspear Returning he was imprisoned at Thionville at the instigation of the Archbishop of Bremen In a dignified letter to the kings and the bishops of Denmark, Eskil expressed his willingness rather to suffer innocently in defence of the Church's prerogatives than to be ransomed
Having obtained his liberty in 1158, Eskil returned home, where he found King Waldemar sole sovereign When the latter took the part of the antipope Victor, Eskil, faithful to Alexander III, took refuge in foreign parts Excepting a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he lived in France Clairvaux, in close proximity to the pope In 1164 he consecrated Stephen of Alvastra, a Cistercian monk, first Archbishop of Uppsala Year later, Benedictine Fulco was appointed by Eskil as the Bishop of Estonia
After Waldemar's reconciliation with Alexander III, Eskil returned home 1168 Subsequent to the solemn translation of the relics of the canonized 1169 martyr-duke, Knud Lavard d 1131, Waldemar's father, Eskil crowned the king's seven-year-old son at Ringsted, 1170
After another sojourn at Clairvaux 1174–76, the venerable archbishop received permission from the pope to resign and to nominate a successor In the spring of 1177, in the presence of the king, numerous prelates and a great concourse of people assembled in the cathedral of Lund, Eskil, having read the papal decree, declared to resign on his own initiative, laid the official insignia on the altar, and all consenting, designated Bishop Absalon of Roskilde as his successor He then retired to Clairvaux, spending his last days as a simple monk The Cistercians honour him as venerable
The question whether Eskil was married and had a daughter is a subject of controversy Although the celibacy of the clergy did not generally obtain during his time, we may infer from his strictly religious principles that Eskil did not ignore the provisions of canon law by marrying after his admission to Sacred orders The claim that Eskil had a child rests principally on the authority of Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum Saxo, however, was largely hostile to Eskil as a prelate who put the interests of the international church before those of the Danish monarchy
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed 1913 "Eskil" Catholic Encyclopedia New York: Robert Appleton
- CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eskil, retrieved 2008-05-15
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