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České Budějovice

české budějovice mapy, české budějovice
České Budějovice Czech pronunciation: ˈt͡ʃɛskɛː ˈbuɟɛjovɪt͡sɛ; German: Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, English: Budweis1 is a statutory city in the Czech Republic It is the largest city in the South Bohemian Region as well as its political and commercial capital, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of České Budějovice, the University of South Bohemia, and the Academy of Sciences It is located in the center of a valley of the Vltava River, at the confluence with the Malše

České Budějovice, which is located in the historical province of Bohemia, is not to be confused with Moravské Budějovice in Moravia

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Population
  • 3 Geography
  • 4 Beer
  • 5 Sights
  • 6 People
  • 7 Transport
  • 8 International relations
    • 81 Twin towns – sister cities
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Historyedit

Trams on Radecky street now Žižkova street, c 1909

The city was founded in 1256 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who granted its municipal charter in 1265 The siting and planning of the city was carried out by the king's knight Hirzo The settlers were coming from the Bohemian Forest and Upper Austria2 The royal city was created as a platform of the king's power in South Bohemia and to counterbalance the powerful noble House of Rosenberg, which became extinct in 1611

In 1341 King John of Bohemia allowed Jewish families to reside within the city walls, and the first synagogue was built in 1380; however several pogroms occurred in the late 15th and early 16th century Since the Hussite Wars, the city was traditionally a bulwark of the Catholic Church during the long-lasting religious conflicts in the Kingdom of Bohemia A part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526, Budejovice remained a loyal supporter of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War Budějovice underwent a short occupation by Prussia during the Silesian Wars, and the war between the Habsburgs and the French army in 1742

In 1762 the Piarists established a gymnasium here and Emperor Joseph II founded the diocese in 1785 In 1847, the production of Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth pencils was relocated from Vienna to Budějovice

During the Second World War in March 1945, Budějovice was twice targeted by US Air Force raids that greatly damaged the city and caused great loss of life At the end of the war, on 9 May 1945, Soviet troops liberated the city On the following day, the Red Army and the American Army met on the main square in a joint celebration of the city's liberation

Populationedit

The vast majority of the city's population today are Czechs 949% in 2001, with 115% Slovaks In the past, the city had a significant proportion of ethnic Germans, who had formed the majority since medieval times3 The city remained a German-speaking enclave until 1880, after which Czechs became the majority Until the end of World War II, the city contained a significant German minority about 155% in 1930 For example, the ratios between the Germans and the Czechs were in 1880: 11,829 Germans to 11,812 Czechs, in 1890: 11,642 to 16,585, in 1900: 15,400 to 23,400, in 1910: 16,900 to 27,300 and in 1921: 7,415 to 35,8004 However, the entire German population was forcibly expelled in 1945 under the Beneš decrees

Development of the city population since 1869:5

Year 1869 1880 1890 1900 1910 1921 1930 1950 1961 1980 2001 2011 2015
Population 17 413 23 845 28 491 39 328 44 538 44 022 43 788 56 832 64 785 90 415 97 339 93 883 93 285

Geographyedit

Low-lying city spreads mostly in the plains making it nearly flat in the inner parts with hillier areas in the eastern suburbs The lowest point lies 375 meters ASL 1233 feet and the highest point at 452 meters ASL 1483 feet For it is not very well ventilated some strong frosts do occur; the strongest frost plummeted to −422 °C −440 °F in 1929 in the southern part of Budweis with lower temperatures elsewhere in the meantime Nevertheless, such a strong frost is something exceptional, especially outside of valley bottoms

Budweis has cooler and wet inland version of temperate Oceanic climate Cfb with average annual temperature 83 °C 469 °F There are profound four seasons with murky dry winter between early December and early March, sunny and wetter spring between half of March up to half of May changing to rainy and warm summer during late May and early September when start dry autumn lasting to late November There is between 1550 and 1800 hours of sunshine in most years

Climate data for Budweis
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C °F 14
345
29
372
86
475
139
57
192
666
221
718
240
752
235
743
194
669
133
559
63
433
27
369
131
556
Daily mean °C °F −19
286
−09
304
37
387
82
468
132
558
163
613
180
644
176
637
138
568
84
471
31
376
−01
318
83
469
Average low °C °F −51
228
−47
235
−12
298
26
367
72
45
105
509
121
538
117
531
82
468
36
385
00
32
−29
268
35
383
Average precipitation mm inches 42
165
42
165
45
177
48
189
79
311
94
37
98
386
84
331
58
228
43
169
47
185
50
197
730
2874
Source: Climate Data ORG6

Beeredit

Budweiser Budvar Brewery Main article: Budweiser Budvar Brewery

Budějovice has long been well known for the beer brewed there since the 13th century For a time, the town was the imperial brewery for the Holy Roman Emperor, and Budweiser Bier ie beer from Budweis became,7 along with Pilsner from Plzeň, one of the best-known lagers Brewing remains a major industry In 1256 the Svitavy brewery was founded there, which was closed in 20028

The largest brewery, founded in 1895, is "Pivovar Budějovický Budvar" Budweiser Budvar Brewery which has legal rights to market its beer under the "Budweiser" brand name in much of Europe The same product is also sold elsewhere under the names "Budvar" and "Czechvar" due to legal disagreements with Anheuser-Busch over the Budweiser brand The American lager was originally brewed as an imitation of the famous Bohemian original, but over time has developed its own identity and attained remarkable commercial success Anheuser-Busch has made offers to buy out the Czech brewing company in order to secure global rights to the name "Budweiser", but the Czech government has refused all such offers, regarding the Czech Budweiser name as a matter of national pride

The oldest founded in 1795 and second largest brewery was renamed to "Pivovar Samson", replacing its original German name "Budweiser Bürgerbräu" during the communist period It also exported, mostly under the "Samson" and "Crystal" labels Recently, they reacquired naming rights for Budweiser for Europe while offering "B B Bürgerbräu" in the US since 2005

Sightsedit

Town Hall and Samson fountain at Ottokar II Square The Black Tower and St Nicholas Cathedral on the opposite corner of the square

The old town preserves interesting architecture from the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods This includes buildings around the large Ottokar II Square "Náměstí Přemysla Otakara II", the old Town Hall with murals and bronze gargoyles, and the 16th century Black Tower Černá věž The most valuable historic building in České Budějovice is the Dominican convent with the Gothic Presentation of the Virgin Mary church from the 13th century, on Piaristic Square

The Museum of South Bohemia dates to 1877 and holds a large collection of historic books, coins, weapons and other articles It was closed for reconstruction in 2012-20149

In the new town, the Belle Époque Austro-Hungarian train station is notable The horse-drawn railroad line connecting České Budějovice to Linz was the second oldest public line in continental Europe after the StÉtienne-Andrézieux line in France, constructed from 1824 to 1832; traces of the line can be seen south of the city center

Nearby České Budějovice lies Hluboká nad Vltavou with one of the most visited Czech castle, Hluboká Castle The ruins of the home castle of the Czech national hero Jan Žižka, Trocnov now part of Borovany, are located some ten kilometres 6 miles southeast of the town A bit further away about 30 km, the town of Český Krumlov is another popular tourist destination in South Bohemia In 1992, it was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites

Historical Presentation of Virgin Mary Church rear Museum of South Bohemia Trolleybus Škoda 25Tr serving the city

Peopleedit

See also: Category:People from České Budějovice

It was the birthplace of:

  • Adalbert Gyrowetz Czech: Vojtěch Jírovec 1763–1850, composer
  • Franz Schuselka 1811–1886, politician
  • Otto Pilny 1866–1936, painter
  • Otto Steinhäusl 1879–1940, police officer
  • Jan Palouš 1888–1971, ice hockey player
  • Rudolf Tomaschek 1895–1966, experimental physicist
  • Norbert Frýd 1913–1976, writer
  • Rolf Thiele 1918–1994, film director and producer
  • Haro Senft 1928–2016, film director
  • Marta Kubišová born 1942, singer
  • Vladimír Remek born 1948, cosmonaut first non-USSR, non-US citizen in space aboard Soyuz 28 in 1978
  • Pavel Tobiáš born 1955, football player and manager
  • František Straka born 1958, football player and manager
  • Zdeněk Tůma born 1960, economist
  • Karel Roden born 1962, actor
  • Karel Vácha born 1970, football player
  • Jiří Lerch born 1971, football player
  • Jaroslav Modrý born 1971, ice hockey player
  • Radek Mynář born 1974, football player
  • Stanislav Neckář born 1975, ice hockey player
  • Václav "Vinny" Prospal born 1975, ice hockey player
  • Roman Lengyel born 1978, football player
  • Vladimíra Uhlířová born 1978, tennis player
  • Josef Melichar born 1979, ice hockey player
  • David Lafata born 1981, football player
  • Václav Nedorost born 1982, ice hockey player
  • Filip Novák born 1982, ice hockey player
  • Lukáš Sommer born 1984, guitarist and composer
  • Jiří Kladrubský born 1985, football player
  • Tomáš Mertl born 1986, ice hockey player
  • Martin Hanzal born 1987, ice hockey player

The city is also one of the major settings in the novel "The Good Soldier Švejk" by Jaroslav Hašek Budějovice is the setting and was the working title for the play The Misunderstanding by Albert Camus

Transportedit

Local buses and trolleybuses take passengers to most areas of the city The city can be reached from other locations by inter-city buses and by train Internationally, a direct railroad built by the Austrian Empress Elisabeth Railway company in 1871, connecting the Czech capital Prague with Zürich, via Linz and Salzburg, also makes a stop in České Budějovice The town will receive access to the planned D3 motorway running from Prague to Kaplice A public domestic airport is located 4 kilometres 25 miles south-west from České Budějovice, at the nearby village of Planá

International relationsedit

Sculpture of rushing managers by Czech sculptor Michal Trpák Lannova avenue See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Czech Republic

Twin towns – sister citiesedit

České Budějovice is twinned with:

  • Almere, Netherlands10
  • Gomel, Belarus11
  • Linz, Austria1012
  • Lorient, France1012
  • Nitra, Slovakia1012
  • Passau, Germany1012
  • Suhl, Germany1012

Referencesedit

Notes
  1. ^ Budweis, South Bohemia
  2. ^ Rene Schreiber, Budweis / Ceske Budejovice: Eine südböhmische Stadt, p 1
  3. ^ 1 České Budějovice website
  4. ^ Jeremy King, 'Budweisers into Czechs and Germans', 2002
  5. ^ Historický lexikon obcí České republiky
  6. ^ "Climate: Budweis" Retrieved 10 December 2013 
  7. ^ See the entry for Monday, 4 February 2008 on 365 Amazing Trivia Facts Workman Publishing, 2008
  8. ^ wwweuropeanbeerguidenet
  9. ^ "Jihočeské muzeum vstoupí do další éry S kavárnou i novým ředitelem" iDnes in Czech 
  10. ^ a b c d e f BUDWebcz Budweis information server
  11. ^ Места: Будвайзер
  12. ^ a b c d e Budweis city authority website

External linksedit

  • Czech Republic portal
  • České Budějovice – official page
  • Official page Czech
  • Virtual Tourist tour of České Budějovice
  • University of South Bohemia
  • Region of České Budějovice
  • České Budějovice – tourism, basic facts, hotels
  • České Budějovice – tourism, basic facts, accommodation
  • Text of European Court of Justice judgment in the "Budweiser" trademark case – Judgment of the Court Grand Chamber of 16 November 2004 Anheuser-Busch Inc v Budĕjovický Budvar, národní podnik Reference for a preliminary ruling: Korkein oikeus – Finland Agreement establishing the World Trade Organisation – Articles 21, 161 and 70 of the TRIPs Agreement – Trade marks – Scope of the proprietor's exclusive right to the trade mark – Alleged use of the sign as a trade name Case C-245/02
  • "Švejk Central": Web site devoted to the Hašek novel
  • České Budějovice at the official website of the Czech Republic
  • Virtual show

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