Epitheriaepithelial tissue, epithelial cells
Epitherians comprise all the placental mammals except the Xenarthra They are primarily characterized by having a stirrup-shaped stapes in the middle ear, which allows for passage of a blood vessel This is in contrast to the column-shaped stapes found in marsupials, monotremes, and xenarthrans They are also characterized by having a shorter fibula relative to the tibia
Epitheria — like Xenarthra and Afrotheria — originated after the K-Pg boundary 66 million years ago, with the placental diversification occurring within the first hundred thousand years after the K-Pg event and the first modern placental orders began appearing 2–3 million years later Epitheres are one of the most successful groups of animals
The monophyly of Epitheria has been challenged by molecular phylogenetic studies While preliminary analysis of a set of retroposons shared by both Afrotheria, and Boreoeutheria presence/absence data supported the Epitheria clade, more extensive analysis of such transposable element insertions around the time of the divergence of Xenarthra, Afrotheria, and Boreoeutheria strongly support the hypothesis of a near-concomitant origin trifurcation of these three superorders of mammals
Another analysis suggests that the root of this clade lies between the Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria
Alternative hypotheses place either Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria, or Afrotheria and Exafroplacentalia Notolegia at the base of the tree:
One Bayesian analysis places the root between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria
- ^ O'Leary, M A; Bloch, J I; Flynn, J J; Gaudin, T J; Giallombardo, A; Giannini, N P; Goldberg, S L; Kraatz, B P; Luo, Z-X; Meng, J; Ni, X; Novacek, M J; Perini, F A; Randall, Z S; Rougier, G W; Sargis, E J; Silcox, M T; Simmons, N B; Spaulding, M; Velazco, P M; Weksler, M; Wible, J R; Cirranello, A L 2013 "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post-K-Pg Radiation of Placentals" Science 339 6120: 662–667 doi:101126/science1229237 ISSN 0036-8075 PMID 23393258
- ^ For example: Springer, Mark S, Michael J Stanhope, Ole Madsen, and Wilfried W de Jong 2004 Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree" Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:430–438
- ^ Kriegs, Jan Ole, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, and Juergen Schmitz 2006 Retroposed Elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals" PLoS Biol 44 e91
- ^ Nishihara, H, Maruyama, S & Okada, N 2009 Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of these three superorders of mammals PNAS 106: 5235-40
- ^ Churakov, G, Kriegs, JO, Baertsch, R, Zemann, A, Brosius, J & Schmitz, J 2009 Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals Genome Research 19: 868-75
- ^ Song S, Liu L, Edwards SV, Wu S 2012 Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
- ^ Morgan, CC; Foster, PG; Webb, AE; Pisani, D; McInerney, JO; O'Connell, MJ 2013 "Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny" Mol Biol Evol 30 9: 2145–256 doi:101093/molbev/mst117
- Summary of molecular support for Epitheria
- Waddell PJ, Kishino H, Ota R 2001 A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics Genome Inform Ser Workshop Genome Inform 12: 141–154
- Mark S Springer, William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J O'Brien Edited by Morris Goodman 2002 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
- Wildman DE; Chen C; Erez O; Grossman LI; Goodman M; Romero R 2006 Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis" PNAS 103 9 3203–3208
- Nikolaev, S, Montoya-Burgos, JI, Margulies, EH, Rougemont, J, Nyffeler, B, Antonarakis, SE 2007 Early history of mammals is elucidated with the ENCODE multiple species sequencing data" PLoS Genet 3:e2, doi:101371/journalpgen0030002
- Gennady Churakov, Jan Ole Kriegs, Robert Baertsch, Anja Zemann, Jürgen Brosius, Jürgen Schmitz 2008 Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals
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