Wed . 18 Nov 2018

Epitheria

epithelial tissue, epithelial cells
Epitherians comprise all the placental mammals except the Xenarthra They are primarily characterized by having a stirrup-shaped stapes in the middle ear, which allows for passage of a blood vessel This is in contrast to the column-shaped stapes found in marsupials, monotremes, and xenarthrans They are also characterized by having a shorter fibula relative to the tibia

Epitheria — like Xenarthra and Afrotheria — originated after the K-Pg boundary 66 million years ago, with the placental diversification occurring within the first hundred thousand years after the K-Pg event and the first modern placental orders began appearing 2–3 million years later[1] Epitheres are one of the most successful groups of animals

The monophyly of Epitheria has been challenged by molecular phylogenetic studies[2] While preliminary analysis of a set of retroposons shared by both Afrotheria, and Boreoeutheria presence/absence data supported the Epitheria clade,[3] more extensive analysis of such transposable element insertions around the time of the divergence of Xenarthra, Afrotheria, and Boreoeutheria strongly support the hypothesis of a near-concomitant origin trifurcation of these three superorders of mammals[4][5]

Another analysis suggests that the root of this clade lies between the Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria[6]

Placentalia  


Xenarthra


  Epitheria  


Afrotheria


  Boreoeutheria  


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria





Alternative hypotheses

Alternative hypotheses place either Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria, or Afrotheria and Exafroplacentalia Notolegia at the base of the tree:

Placentalia  

  Atlantogenata  


Xenarthra



Afrotheria



  Boreoeutheria  


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria




Placentalia  


Afrotheria


  Exafroplacentalia  


Xenarthra


  Boreoeutheria  


Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria





One Bayesian analysis places the root between Atlantogenata and Boreoeutheria[7]

References

  1. ^ O'Leary, M A; Bloch, J I; Flynn, J J; Gaudin, T J; Giallombardo, A; Giannini, N P; Goldberg, S L; Kraatz, B P; Luo, Z-X; Meng, J; Ni, X; Novacek, M J; Perini, F A; Randall, Z S; Rougier, G W; Sargis, E J; Silcox, M T; Simmons, N B; Spaulding, M; Velazco, P M; Weksler, M; Wible, J R; Cirranello, A L 2013 "The Placental Mammal Ancestor and the Post-K-Pg Radiation of Placentals" Science 339 6120: 662–667 doi:101126/science1229237 ISSN 0036-8075 PMID 23393258 
  2. ^ For example: Springer, Mark S, Michael J Stanhope, Ole Madsen, and Wilfried W de Jong 2004 Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree" Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:430–438
  3. ^ Kriegs, Jan Ole, Gennady Churakov, Martin Kiefmann, Ursula Jordan, Juergen Brosius, and Juergen Schmitz 2006 Retroposed Elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals" PLoS Biol 44 e91
  4. ^ Nishihara, H, Maruyama, S & Okada, N 2009 Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of these three superorders of mammals PNAS 106: 5235-40
  5. ^ Churakov, G, Kriegs, JO, Baertsch, R, Zemann, A, Brosius, J & Schmitz, J 2009 Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals Genome Research 19: 868-75
  6. ^ Song S, Liu L, Edwards SV, Wu S 2012 Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model Proc Natl Acad Sci USA
  7. ^ Morgan, CC; Foster, PG; Webb, AE; Pisani, D; McInerney, JO; O'Connell, MJ 2013 "Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny" Mol Biol Evol 30 9: 2145–256 doi:101093/molbev/mst117 

External links

  • Summary of molecular support for Epitheria
  • Waddell PJ, Kishino H, Ota R 2001 A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics Genome Inform Ser Workshop Genome Inform 12: 141–154
  • Mark S Springer, William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J O'Brien Edited by Morris Goodman 2002 Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary
  • Wildman DE; Chen C; Erez O; Grossman LI; Goodman M; Romero R 2006 Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis" PNAS 103 9 3203–3208
  • Nikolaev, S, Montoya-Burgos, JI, Margulies, EH, Rougemont, J, Nyffeler, B, Antonarakis, SE 2007 Early history of mammals is elucidated with the ENCODE multiple species sequencing data" PLoS Genet 3:e2, doi:101371/journalpgen0030002
  • Gennady Churakov, Jan Ole Kriegs, Robert Baertsch, Anja Zemann, Jürgen Brosius, Jürgen Schmitz 2008 Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

epithelial, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, epithelial cell abnormality, epithelial cells, epithelial cells in urinalysis, epithelial dysplasia, epithelial ovarian cancer, epithelial tissue, epitherialization, epitheriam size


Epitheria Information about

Epitheria


  • user icon

    Epitheria beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Epitheria
Epitheria
Epitheria viewing the topic.
Epitheria what, Epitheria who, Epitheria explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

The San Francisco Examiner

The San Francisco Examiner

The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, Ca...
Frederator Films

Frederator Films

Frederator Films is an animation studio founded by Fred Seibert as part of Frederator Studios, with ...
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980 was an American physicist and mathematici...
Christian Lacroix

Christian Lacroix

Christian Marie Marc Lacroix French pronunciation: ​kʁistjɑ̃ lakʁwa; born 16 May 1951 is a Fren...