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English Wikipedia

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The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia Founded on 15 January 2001, it is the first edition of Wikipedia and, as of July 2016, has the most articles of any of the editions As of November 2016, nearly 124% of articles in all Wikipedias belong to the English-language edition This share has gradually declined from more than 50 percent in 2003, due to the growth of Wikipedias in other languages There are 5,286,242 articles on the site live count In October 2015, the combined text of the English Wikipedia's articles totalled 115 gigabytes when compressed On 1 November 2015, the English Wikipedia announced it had reached 5,000,000 articles and ran a special logo to reflect the milestone

The Simple English Wikipedia is a variation in which most of the articles use only basic English vocabulary There is also the Old English Ænglisc/Anglo-Saxon Wikipedia angwiki Community-produced news publications include The Signpost

Contents

  • 1 Pioneering edition
  • 2 Users and editors
    • 21 Arbitration Committee
  • 3 Controversies
    • 31 Varieties of English
  • 4 Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality
  • 5 Graphics
  • 6 Internal news publications
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Footnotes
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Pioneering edition

See also: Wikipedia:Milestones

The English Wikipedia was the first Wikipedia edition and has remained the largest It has pioneered many ideas as conventions, policies or features which were later adopted by Wikipedia editions in some of the other languages These ideas include "featured articles", the neutral-point-of-view policy, navigation templates, the sorting of short "stub" articles into sub-categories, dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation and arbitration, and weekly collaborations

The English Wikipedia has adopted features from Wikipedias in other languages These features include verified revisions from the German Wikipedia dewiki and town population-lookup templates from the Dutch Wikipedia nlwiki

Although the English Wikipedia stores images and audio files, as well as text files, many of the images have been moved to Wikimedia Commons with the same name, as passed-through files However, the English Wikipedia also has fair-use images and audio/video files with copyright restrictions, most of which are not allowed on Commons

Many of the most active participants in the Wikimedia Foundation, and the developers of the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia, are English Wikipedia users

Users and editors

English Wikipedia statistics
Number of user accounts Number of articles Number of files Number of administrators
29,546,071 5,286,242 849,803 1,278

The English Wikipedia reached 4,000,000 registered user accounts on 1 April 2007, just a little over a year since it had crossed a threshold of 1,000,000 registered user accounts in late February 2006

Over 800,000 editors have edited Wikipedia more than 10 times 300,000 editors edit Wikipedia every month; of these, over 30,000 perform more than 5 edits per month, and a little over 3,000 perform more than 100 edits per month By 24 November 2011, a total of 500 million edits had been performed on the English Wikipedia

As the largest Wikipedia edition, and because English is such a widely used language, the English Wikipedia draws many users and editors whose native language is not English Such users may seek information from the English Wikipedia rather than the Wikipedia of their native language because the English Wikipedia tends to contain more information about general subjects Successful collaborations have developed between non-native English speakers who add content to the English Wikipedia and native English speakers who act as copyeditors for them

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The English Wikipedia has an Arbitration Committee also known as ArbCom that consists of a panel of editors that imposes binding rulings with regard to disputes between other editors of the online encyclopedia The Committee was created by Jimmy Wales on 4 December 2003 as an extension of the decision-making power he had formerly held as owner of the site

When initially founded, the Committee consisted of 12 arbitrators divided into three groups of four members each Since then, the Committee has gradually expanded its membership to 18 arbitrators

Like other aspects of the English Wikipedia, Wikipedia's sister projects have emulated the Arbitration Committee with their own similar versions For instance, in 2007, an Arbitration Committee was founded on the German Wikipedia called the Schiedsgericht de

Controversies

Main article: Criticism of Wikipedia See also: Wikipedia Seigenthaler biography incident and Essjay controversy

Incidents of cyberbullying on Wikipedia have been reported in the mainstream press The Glen A Wilson High School was the subject of such a threat in 2008, and a 14-year-old boy was arrested for making a threat against Niles West High School on Wikipedia in 2006

A 2013 study from Oxford University concluded that the most disputed articles on the English Wikipedia tended to be broader issues, while on other language Wikipedias the most disputed articles tended to be regional issues; this is due to the English language's status as a global lingua franca, which means that many who edit the English Wikipedia do not speak English as a native language The study stated that the most disputed entries on the English Wikipedia were: George W Bush, anarchism, Muhammad, list of WWE personnel, global warming, circumcision, United States, Jesus, race and intelligence, and Christianity

Varieties of English

One controversy in the English Wikipedia concerns which national variety of the English language is to be preferred, with the most commonly advocated candidates being American English and British English Perennial suggestions range from standardizing upon a single form of English to forking the English Wikipedia project A style guideline states, "the English Wikipedia has no general preference for a major national variety of the language" and "an article on a topic that has strong ties to a particular English-speaking nation uses the appropriate variety of English for that nation" An article should use spelling and grammar variants consistently; for example, color and colour are not to be used in the same article, since they represent American and British English, respectively The guide also states that an article must remain in its original national variant

There has been a similar issue in the Chinese language Wikipedia concerning regional differences in writing Efforts at a language fork for Portuguese Wikipedia have failed, and succeeded for Norwegian Wikipedia

Andrew Lih wrote that the English Wikipedia "didn't have the chance to go through a debate over whether there should be a British English Wikipedia or an American English Wikipedia" because the English Wikipedia was the original edition Editors agreed to use US spellings for primarily American topics and British spellings for primarily British topics In 2009 Lih wrote, "No doubt, American spellings tend to dominate by default just because of sheer numbers"

Wikiprojects, and assessments of articles' importance and quality

Main article: WikiProject

A "WikiProject" is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia These groups often focus on a specific topic area for example, women's history, a specific location or a specific kind of task for example, checking newly created pages The English Wikipedia currently has over 2,000 WikiProjects and activity varies

In 2007, in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles Articles are rated by WikiProjects The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" very short pages, followed by "Start", "C" and "B" in increasing order of quality Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either "A", "good article" or the highest, "featured article" Of the about 44 million articles and lists assessed as of March 2015, a little more than 5000 012% are featured articles, and fewer than 2000 004% are featured lists One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia

The articles can also be rated as per "importance" as judged by a WikiProject Currently, there are 5 importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "" for unclassified/uncertain level For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels

The Wikipedia Version 10 Editorial Team has developed a table shown below that displays data of all rated articles by quality and importance, on the English Wikipedia If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart The software regularly auto-updates the data

Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors A 2010 study found unevenness in quality among featured articles and concluded that the community process is ineffective in assessing the quality of articles

Quality-wise distribution of over 48 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 3 April 2015

  Featured articles 012%   Featured lists 004%   A class 003%   Good articles 048%   B class 205%   C class 399%   Start class 2573%   Stub class 5408%   Lists 350%   Unassessed 999%

Importance-wise distribution of over 48 million articles and lists on the English Wikipedia, as of 5 April 2015

  Top 091%   High 321%   Medium 1229%   Low 4937%    3422% 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000 Top High Medium Low
  •   Featured articles
  •   Featured lists
  •   A-class articles
  •   Good articles
  •   B-class articles
  •   C-class articles
  •   Start-class articles
  •   Stub articles
  •   Lists
  •   Unassessed articles and lists

Graphics

Internal news publications

See also: The Signpost Wikipedia

Community-produced news publications include The Signpost The Signpost previously known as The Wikipedia Signpost is the English Wikipedia's newspaper It is managed by the Wikipedia community and is published online weekly Each edition contains stories and articles related to the Wikipedia community A wide range of editors contribute articles and other pieces

The publication was founded in January 2005 by Wikipedia administrator and later Chair of the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, Michael Snow Originally titled The Wikipedia Signpost, it was later shortened to simply The Signpost The newspaper reports on Wikipedia events including Arbitration Committee rulings, Wikimedia Foundation issues, and other Wikipedia-related projects Snow continued to contribute as a writer to The Signpost until his appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Wikimedia Foundation in February 2008

Investigative journalism by The Signpost in 2015 on changes to freedom of panorama copyright restrictions in Europe was covered by publications in multiple languages including German, Italian, Polish, and Russian Wikipedia users Gamaliel and Go Phightins! became editors-in-chief of The Signpost in January 2015; prior editor-in-chief The ed17 noted that during his tenure the publication expanded its scope by including more reporting on the wider Wikimedia movement and English Wikipedia itself In a letter to readers upon the newspaper's tenth anniversary, the new co-editors-in-chief stressed the importance of maintaining independence from the Wikimedia Foundation in their reporting

The Signpost has been the subject of academic analysis in publications including Sociological Forum, the social movements journal Interface, and New Review of Academic Librarianship; and was consulted for data on Wikipedia by researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Dartmouth College It has garnered generally positive reception from media publications including The New York Times, The Register, Nonprofit Quarterly, and Heise Online The book Wikipedia: The Missing Manual called The Signpost essential reading for ambitious new Wikipedia editors

Other past and present community news publications include the "WikiWorld" web comic, the Wikipedia Weekly podcast, and newsletters of specific WikiProjects like The Bugle from WikiProject Military History and the monthly newsletter from The Guild of Copy Editors There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education

See also

  • English Wikipedia blackout
  • History of Wikipedia
  • Reliability of Wikipedia
  • Simple English Wikipedia
  • Wikipedia for Schools
  • Wikipedia community
  • Wikipedia:Milestones
  • Wikipedia:Milestone statistics

Footnotes

  1. ^ There is some controversy over who founded Wikipedia Wales considers himself to be the sole founder of Wikipedia and has told the Boston Globe that "it's preposterous" to call Sanger the co-founder However, Sanger strongly contests that description He was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia as early as September 2001 and referred to himself as being founder as early as January 2002
    • Sidener, Jonathan 6 December 2004 "Everyone's Encyclopedia" San Diego Union Tribune Retrieved 15 October 2006 
    • Meyers, Peter 20 September 2001 "Fact-Driven Collegial This Site Wants You" New York Times Retrieved 15 October 2006 
    • Sanger, Larry "What Wikipedia is and why it matters" Retrieved 12 April 2006 
  2. ^ about 50 percent more than the next in rank, the Swedish Wikipedia See m:List of Wikipedias
  3. ^ Wikimedia Meta-Wiki 21 September 2008 "List of Wikipedias" Retrieved 21 September 2008 
  4. ^ The number of articles on the English Wikipedia is shown by the MediaWiki variable , with all Wikipedias as total = 42,471,189
  5. ^ See size of downloads at Wikipedia:Database download and a list of historical sizes here
  6. ^ "Wikipedia:Five million articles" Wikipedia Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved 1 November 2015 
  7. ^ "File:Wikipedia-logo-v2-en 5m articlespng" Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved 1 November 2015 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Phoebe Ayers; Charles Matthews; Ben Yates 2008 How Wikipedia Works: And how You Can be a Part of it No Starch Press pp 345– ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3 
  9. ^ English Wikipedia 30 January 2007 "Featured articles" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  10. ^ English Wikipedia 25 January 2007 "Neutral point of view" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  11. ^ Wikimedia Meta-Wiki 29 January 2007 "Help:Template" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  12. ^ English Wikipedia 19 January 2007 "WikiProject Stub sorting" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  13. ^ English Wikipedia 27 January 2007 "Resolving disputes" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  14. ^ English Wikipedia 30 January 2007 "Article Creation and Improvement Drive" Retrieved 30 January 2007 
  15. ^ Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2007-04-02/News and notes Retrieved 20 April 2007
  16. ^ Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2006-02-27/News and notes Retrieved 20 April 2007
  17. ^ "Wikipedia Statistics – Tables – English" Statswikimediaorg Retrieved 8 August 2013 
  18. ^ "Wikipedia Statistics – Tables – English" Statswikimediaorg Retrieved 8 August 2013 
  19. ^ Schiff, Stacy 2 December 2006 "Know-alls" The Age Australia: Fairfax Digital Network Retrieved 15 June 2009 
  20. ^ a b Wales, Jimmy 4 December 2003 "WikiEN-l Wikiquette committee appointments" Wikipedia Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved 9 June 2009 
  21. ^ Hoffman, David A; Salil Mehra 2010 "Wikitruth Through Wikiorder" Emory Law Journal 59 2010 SSRN 1354424 
  22. ^ Hyatt, Josh 1 June 2006 "Secrets of Greatness: Great Teams" Fortune Time Warner Retrieved 15 June 2009 
  23. ^ Wales, Jimmy 20 December 2008 "ArbCom Appointments" Wikipedia Retrieved 14 June 2009 
  24. ^ Wikidata 1 April 2015 "Wikipedia sitelinks for Arbitration Committee" Retrieved 1 April 2015 
  25. ^ Kleinz, Torsten 30 April 2007 "Wikipedia sucht Schiedsrichter" in German heise online Retrieved 9 June 2009 
  26. ^ a b Hennessy-Fiske, Molly 29 April 2008 "Wikipedia threats went unchecked – Los Angeles Times" Los Angeles Times 
  27. ^ a b "Hacienda Heights school receives possible threat | abc7com" Abclocalgocom 18 April 2008 Retrieved 8 August 2013 
  28. ^ a b "Student arrested for violent threats on Wikipedia" Los Angeles Times 29 April 2008 Retrieved 19 January 2012 
  29. ^ "Teen charged after threat to school on Wikipedia" Bloomington, IL: Pantagraphcom Associated Press 31 October 2006 Retrieved 26 January 2011 
  30. ^ Gross, Doug "Wiki wars: The 10 most controversial Wikipedia pages" CNN 24 July 2013 Retrieved on 26 July 2013 Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ English Wikipedia "Wikipedia:Manual of Style spelling" Retrieved 25 February 2006 
  32. ^ English Wikipedia "Wikipedia:Manual of Style" Retrieved 10 October 2007 
  33. ^ Lih, p 135
  34. ^ Lih, p 136
  35. ^ "Wikipedia: Wikiprojects" Retrieved 16 March 2015 
  36. ^ "Wikipedia:Version 10 Editorial Team/Assessment" Retrieved 28 October 2007 
  37. ^ "Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia" First Monday Retrieved 13 July 2010 
  38. ^ Fernanda B Viégas; Martin Wattenberg; Matthew M McKeon 22 July 2007 "The Hidden Order of Wikipedia" PDF Visual Communication Lab, IBM Research Retrieved 30 October 2007 
  39. ^ Poderi, Giacomo, Wikipedia and the Featured Articles: How a Technological System Can Produce Best Quality Articles, Master thesis, University of Maastricht, October 2008
  40. ^ Lindsey, David "Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's featured articles" First Monday 
  41. ^ a b Wikipedia:Version 10 Editorial Team/Statistics – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  42. ^ Zachte, Erik 14 November 2011 "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Wikipedia Page Views Per Country – Trends" Wikimedia Statistics Retrieved 19 January 2011 
  43. ^ Zachte, Erik 14 November 2011 "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Page Edits Per Wikipedia Language – Breakdown" Wikimedia Statistics Retrieved 19 January 2011 
  44. ^ "Usability and Experience Study" Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved 19 January 2012 
  45. ^ "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Page Edits Per Wikipedia Language – Breakdown" Statswikimediaorg Retrieved 28 July 2014 
  46. ^ a b c Cohen, Noam 5 March 2007 "A Contributor to Wikipedia Has His Fictional Side" The New York Times p C5 Retrieved 29 February 2016 
  47. ^ Koebler, Jason 16 February 2016 "The Secret Search Engine Tearing Wikipedia Apart" Vice 
  48. ^ Geoffroy, Romain 16 January 2014 "Une employée de Wikipédia débarquée pour avoir monnayé ses articles" Les Inrockuptibles 
  49. ^ Dobusch, Leonhard 12 January 2014 "Interview mit Dirk Franke über "Grenzen der Bezahlung" in der Wikipedia" Netzpolitikorg 
  50. ^ Rosen, Rebecca 6 February 2013 "If You Want Your Wikipedia Page to Get a TON of Traffic, Die While Performing at the Super Bowl Half-Time Show" The Atlantic Retrieved 21 February 2016 
  51. ^ Dariusz Jemielniak 2014 Common Knowledge: An Ethnography of Wikipedia Stanford University Press pp 231– ISBN 978-0804797238 
  52. ^ McCarthy, Caroline 18 July 2008 "Wikimedia Foundation edits its board of trustees" CNET 
  53. ^ Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Lanamäki, Arto 24 October 2012 "The people's encyclopedia under the gaze of the sages: A systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia" doi:102139/ssrn2021326 SSRN 2021326 
  54. ^ Oz, Ayelet 1 September 2014 "The Legal Consciousness of Wikipedia" Harvard Law School doi:102139/ssrn2572381 SSRN 2572381 
  55. ^ Sotirios Paroutis; Loizos Heracleous; Duncan Angwin 1 February 2013 Practicing Strategy: Text and Cases SAGE Publications pp 237– ISBN 978-1-4462-9047-7 
  56. ^ Waters, John K 2010 The Everything Guide to Social Media Adams Media pp 180, 270 ISBN 978-1440506314 
  57. ^ Ral315 18 February 2008 "From the editor: This week, I'd like to congratulate and thank Michael Snow" The Wikipedia Signpost Retrieved 1 March 2016 
  58. ^ Diener, Andrea 27 June 2015 "Geben Sie Panoramafreiheit, Sire!" FAZ – Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in German Archived from the original on 29 June 2015 Retrieved 5 March 2016 
  59. ^ "Libertà di Panorama: a rischio in Europa con una riforma del copyright" Blogo: Informazione libera e indipendente in Italian 22 June 2015 Archived from the original on 23 June 2015 Retrieved 5 March 2016 
  60. ^ "Chcesz robić zdjęcia znanych budowli Europy Spiesz się To mogą być ostatnie tygodnie" Gazeta Wyborcza in Polish 24 June 2015 ISSN 0860-908X Archived from the original on 27 June 2015 Retrieved 5 March 2016 
  61. ^ "ТРЕВОГА! Свободная съемка на улицах Европы – под угрозой" in Russian 23 June 2015 Archived from the original on 27 June 2015 Retrieved 5 March 2016 
  62. ^ The ed17 21 January 2015 "From the editor: Introducing your new editors-in-chief" The Signpost Retrieved 1 March 2016 
  63. ^ Go Phightins! and Gamaliel 28 January 2015 "From the editor: An editorial board that includes you" The Signpost Retrieved 1 March 2016 
  64. ^ Konieczny, Piotr March 2009 "Governance, Organization, and Democracy on the Internet: The Iron Law and the Evolution of Wikipedia" Sociological Forum Wiley 24 1: 167 JSTOR 40210340 subscription required help 
  65. ^ Konieczny, Piotr "Wikipedia: community or social movement" PDF Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements 1 2: 212–232 ISSN 2009-2431 Archived from the original PDF on 7 June 2012 Retrieved 1 March 2016 
  66. ^ Bayliss, Gemma January 2013 "Exploring the Cautionary Attitude Toward Wikipedia in Higher Education: Implications for Higher Education Institutions" New Review of Academic Librarianship 19 1: 39 doi:101080/136145332012740439 ISSN 1361-4533 Retrieved 1 March 2016 – via EBSCO Host 
  67. ^ Yan, Guanhua; Arackaparambil, Chrisil "Wiki-watchdog: Anomaly detection in Wikipedia through a distributional lens" Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology – Volume 01 IEEE Computer Society Washington pp 257–264 doi:101109/WI-IAT201186 ISBN 978-0-7695-4513-4 Retrieved 1 March 2016 
  68. ^ Dee, Jonathan 1 July 2007 "All the News That's Fit to Print Out" The New York Times Retrieved 29 February 2016 
  69. ^ Orlowski, Andrew 12 January 2016 "Wikimedia Foundation bins community-elected trustee" The Register 
  70. ^ McCambridge, Ruth 16 February 2016 "Knight Foundation Grant Request Tears at Wikipedia's Community" Nonprofit Quarterly 
  71. ^ Kleinz, Torsten 27 February 2016 "Kommentar: Wie geht es weiter mit der Wikimedia Foundation" Heise Online 
  72. ^ John Broughton 25 January 2008 Wikipedia: The Missing Manual: The Missing Manual "O'Reilly Media, Inc" pp 454– ISBN 978-0-596-55377-7 

References

  • Lih, Andrew The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia Hyperion, New York City 2009 First Edition ISBN 978-1-4013-0371-6 alkaline paper

External links

  • English Wikipedia
  • English Wikipedia mobile
  • English Wikipedia on Meta-Wiki

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