Emperor Huai of Jin
Mon . 18 Aug 2018

Emperor Huai of Jin


Emperor Huai of Jin simplified Chinese: 晋怀帝; traditional Chinese: 晉懷帝; pinyin: Jìn Huái Dì; Wade–Giles: Chin Huai-ti; 284 – March 14, 313, personal name Sima Chi 司馬熾, courtesy name Fengdu 豐度, was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty 265-420

Emperor Huai was captured in 311 and later executed in 313 under the order of Liu Cong, ruler of the Xiongnu state of Han Zhao

Contents

  • 1 As Prince of Yuzhang and crown prince
  • 2 Reign
  • 3 After capture by Han Zhao
  • 4 Era name
  • 5 Personal information
  • 6 References

As Prince of Yuzhang and crown prince

Sima Chi was one of the youngest sons of Emperor Wu, the founding emperor of Jin, by his concubine Consort Wang Just prior to Emperor Wu's death in 290, he was created the Prince of Yuzhang During the early stages of the War of the Eight Princes during his developmentally disabled brother Emperor Hui's reign, unlike the other princes fighting for power, Prince Chi did not get himself in political or military matters, but spent his time studying history

In late 304, when Emperor Hui was forcibly taken from the capital Luoyang to Chang'an, then under the control of the regent Sima Yong Prince of Hejian, Prince Chi was forced to accompany the emperor In early 305, when his more ambitious brother Sima Ying the crown prince was demoted back to Prince of Chengdu by Sima Yong, Prince Chi was created crown prince to replace him He was initially going to decline the honor, believing that his nephew Sima Qin 司馬覃 the Prince of Qinghe and one-time crown prince should be returned to that position, but was persuaded to accept by his associate Xiu Su 脩肅 Later, after Sima Yue the Prince of Donghai defeated Sima Yong in 306, Crown Prince Chi accompanied Emperor Hui and returned to Luoyang

Early in 307, Emperor Hui was poisoned Most historians believe that Sima Yue ordered the murder, but there is no conclusive evidence Emperor Hui's wife, Yang Xianrong, believing that she would not be honored as empress dowager if her brother-in-law inherited the throne, tried to have Sima Qin declared emperor; she was rebuffed by Sima Yue, however, and Crown Prince Chi succeeded to the throne as Emperor Huai Emperor Huai honored her with the title "Empress Hui," but not empress dowager He created his wife Crown Princess Liang Lanbi empress

Reign

Emperor Huai was commonly regarded as an intelligent man, and he tried to institute reforms that he felt would allow the empire to recover from the ravages of the War of the Eight Princes and the subsequent Wu Hu and agrarian uprisings However, Sima Yue maintained a tight grip on power and would not allow the emperor to exercise much actual authority

In spring 307, Emperor Huai created Sima Qin's brother and therefore fellow son of Emperor Huai's brother Sima Yan 司馬晏 the Prince of Wu Sima Quan 司馬詮 crown prince His apparent conclusion, at the young age of 23, that he should make a nephew his heir, may indicate that he concluded himself infertile

In spring 307, Sima Yue left Luoyang and set up headquarters at Xuchang 許昌, in modern Xuchang, Henan, but continued to control the government remotely In 309, Sima Yue, concerned about the growing use of authority that Emperor Huai was exerting, made a sudden return to Luoyang and arrested and executed a number of Emperor Huai's associates, including Emperor Huai's uncle Wang Yan 王延 Other than privately mourning them, there was nothing that Emperor Huai could do Sima Yue further disbanded the imperial guards and put his own personal forces in charge of protecting the emperor

For all of Sima Yue's assertion of authority, he could not stop Han Zhao, under its generals Liu Cong the Prince of Chu the son of Han Zhao's emperor Liu Yuan, Liu Yao the Prince of Shi'an Liu Yuan's nephew, Wang Mi 王彌, and Shi Le 石勒, from disrupting Jin rule throughout northern and central China and gradually wearing out Jin forces and capturing Jin cities and towns In late 309, he managed to fight off a joint attack by Liu Cong and Wang on Luoyang, but that victory was the exception to Han Zhao's inexorable advances After Liu Yuan died in 310 and was succeeded by Liu Cong, Han Zhao renewed its attacks on the Luoyang region Meanwhile, Sima Yue continued to alienate other generals and officials, and when Liu Kun 劉琨, the military commander of Bing 并州, roughly modern Shanxi proposed to him the plan of an attack on the Han Zhao capital Pingyang 平陽, in modern Linfen, Shanxi in conjunction with the powerful Xianbei chieftain Tuoba Yilu 拓拔漪盧 the Duke of Dai, Sima Yue was fearful of backstabbing attack by some of these warlords and therefore unable to accept Liu's plan Indeed, when Emperor Huai and Sima Yue sent out calls for the various governors to come to Luoyang's aid later that year, there were few responses Sima Yue became uncertain of himself, and late in 310 left Luoyang with virtually all of the central government's remaining troops, along with a large number of officials, effectively stripping Luoyang and Emperor Huai bare of their defenses, except for a small detachment commanded by Sima Yue's subordinate He Lun 何倫, intended as much to monitor as to protect Emperor Huai From that point on, Luoyang was left even without a police force and became largely a city abandoned to bandits and thugs

Emperor Huai soon entered into a plan with Xun Xi 荀唏, the military commander of Qing Province 青州, modern central and eastern Shandong, who had been dissatisfied with Sima Yue, to overthrow Sima Yue's yoke Sima Yue discovered this plan, but was unable to wage a campaign against Xun He grew ill in his anger and distress, and died in spring 311 The generals and officials in his army, instead of returning to Luoyang, headed east toward Sima Yue's principality of Donghai roughly modern Linyi, Shandong to bury him there He Lun, upon hearing about Sima Yue's death, also withdrew from Luoyang and sought to join that force However, both were intercepted by Shi Le and wiped out Shi, declaring that Sima Yue had caused the empire much damage, burned Sima Yue's body Sima Yue's sons were all captured and presumably killed by Shi

Sima Yue's death, however, only left Emperor Huai even more vulnerable to Han Zhao attacks Xun sent a force to welcome Emperor Huai to move the capital to Cangyuan 倉垣, in modern Kaifeng, Henan, and Emperor Huai was going to do so, but his officials all still missed Luoyang and did not want to leave Soon, however, the famine that had already overtaken Luoyang got even more severe Emperor Huai resolved to head for Cangyuan, but with Xun's force having already left Luoyang, was unable to even leave the palace without being attacked by bandits, and therefore was forced to return to the palace In summer 311, knowing that Luoyang was defenseless, the Han Zhao generals Liu Yao, Wang Mi, Shi Le, and Huyan Yan 呼延晏 converged on Luoyang, and they easily captured Emperor Huai A large number of Jin nobility was slaughtered, although Emperor Huai was, for the time being, spared and delivered to the Han Zhao capital Pingyang, to be presented to the emperor Liu Cong Liu Cong created Emperor Huai the Duke of Ping'a

After capture by Han Zhao

For one and a half years, the former Jin emperor lived a humiliating existence in the Han Zhao capital In 312, Liu Cong promoted him to the title of the Duke of Kuaiji Once, after inviting the duke to a feast, Liu Cong commented on a meeting they had while the former emperor was still the Prince of Yuzhang, leading to a notable colloquy Liu Cong first stated,

When you were the Prince of Yuzhang, I had once visited you with Wang Ji 王濟 Wang praised me, and you said, "I have long heard of your fame" You showed me the music that you had written, and then asked me and Wang to write lyrics for them We wrote lyrics praising you, and you liked them Then, we spent some time shooting arrows; I hit the target 12 times, and both you and Wang hit nine times You gave me gifts of a mulberry bow and a silver inkstone Do you still remember

The duke responded, "How can I forget What I regret is not realizing that I was in the presence of a dragon" Liu Cong, impressed by the flattery, then asked, "How is it that your clan members slaughtered each other" The duke replied:

This is not a human matter, but was the will of Heaven The great Han was going to receive divine favor, so our clan eliminated itself for Han If our clan members could follow the directives of Emperor Wu and remain united, how could Your Imperial Majesty become emperor

Liu Cong was impressed, and they spent all night talking The next day, Liu Cong gave one of his favorite concubines to the duke as a gift, creating her as the Duchess of Kuaiji

In 313, however, the former emperor would suffer his death At the imperial new year celebration, Liu Cong ordered him to serve the high level officials wine, and former Jin officials Yu Min 庾珉 and Wang Juan 王雋 could not control their emotions at seeing his humiliation, and cried out loud This made Liu Cong angry, and he falsely accused Yu and Wang, along with a number of former Jin officials, of being ready to betray Pingyang and offer it to the Jin general Liu Kun He then executed those former Jin officials and poisoned the former emperor

Era name

  • Yongjia 永嘉 Yǒngjiā 307–313

Personal information

  • Father
    • Emperor Wu of Jin 25th son of
  • Mother
    • Consort Wang Yuanji 王媛姬, posthumously honored Empress Dowager
  • Wife
    • Empress Liang Lanbi created 307
    • Duchess Liu married 311

References

  1. ^ Book of Jin of Zang Rongxu, "Archived copy" Archived from the original on 2010-01-02 Retrieved 2010-08-08 , vol 4
  • Fang, Xuanling Book of Jin Jin Shu
Emperor Huai of Jin House of Sima Born: 284 Died: 14 March 313
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Hui of Jin
Emperor of China
Western Jin
307–311
with Sima Yue 307–311
Vacant Captured by Han Zhao Title next held by Emperor Min of Jin
Chinese nobility
Recreated Last known title holder: Sun Xiu Duke of Kuaiji
311–313
Unknown Next known title holder: Helian Chang


Emperor Huai of Jin Information about



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