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Emerson, Manitoba

emerson manitoba border crossing, emerson manitoba port of entry
Emerson is an unincorporated community recognized as a local urban district in south central Manitoba, Canada, located within the Municipality of Emerson – Franklin It has a population of 655

Contents

  • 1 Location and transportation
    • 11 Emerson port of entry
  • 2 History
    • 21 West Lynne
    • 22 Fort Dufferin
  • 3 Government
  • 4 Community services
  • 5 Climate
  • 6 Local media
    • 61 Television
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Location and transportation

Emerson, named after writer Ralph Waldo Emerson, is located 96 kilometers south of Winnipeg along the Red River, just north of the United States border at the point where the province of Manitoba and states of Minnesota and North Dakota meet The community is bordered by the Rural Municipality of Montcalm in Manitoba, Pembina County in North Dakota, and Kittson County in Minnesota The towns of St Vincent, Minnesota and Pembina, North Dakota are located just a few kilometers south of the border in the United States The unincorporated community of Noyes, Minnesota lies immediately across the border from Emerson, however the border crossing between the two is now closed

The principal roads serving Emerson are Highway 75, which runs from the border north to Winnipeg, and Provincial Road 200, which begins at Highway 75, which runs through the community and north to Winnipeg along the east side of the Red River

Emerson port of entry

Main article: Pembina–Emerson Border Crossing Highways 75 and 200 at Emerson, current and original configurations

The border crossing at Emerson, Manitoba and Pembina, North Dakota is the fifth busiest along the Canada–United States border, and the second busiest west of the Great Lakes It is part of a large trade corridor that links the Canadian prairies with the United States and Mexico Annual cross-border trade is valued at approximately $14 billion CAD The ports of entry on both sides are open 24 hours and offer full border services An estimated one million people pass through the border crossing each year

For many years, Emerson was among very few communities in Canada to have multiple border crossings, as it was serviced by both the current port of entry originally designated as West Lynne and the now-closed Emerson East port of entry opposite Noyes, Minnesota In its original configuration, Highway 75 came from the north, crossed the river at Emerson and ended at the Emerson East crossing, then the more commonly used border crossing, where it continued south as US Route 75 Travelers wishing to enter North Dakota would have to turn south at an intersection about 05 kilometers north of the border onto a short road later designated as Highway 29 leading to the Manitoba-North Dakota border and then continue south on US Route 81

The importance of Emerson East crossing began to decline after Interstate 29 superseded US 81 in 1957 The Highway 75/29 junction was rebuilt in the 1980s to direct through traffic to the West Lynne-Pembina crossing, making it the new primary border crossing Travelers wanting to continue on Highway 75 were afterwards required to turn east at the junction Use of the Emerson East port of entry dwindled, which prompted the Canadian government to close it in 2003, leaving that crossing open to US bound traffic only The crossing was completely barricaded when the American government closed the Noyes port of entry three years later The Manitoba government formally re-routed Highway 75 and Provincial Road 200 to its current configuration in 2012

In order to accommodate future expansion, planning is currently underway to redesign the Highway 75 approach to the Emerson port of entry

South of Emerson, two major US rail lines, the BNSF Railway Formerly the Great Northern Railway and the Soo Line Railroad cross the border and are met, respectively, by the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railways There are customs inspection facilities for both lines on both sides of the border

History

Court house and former town hall, built in 1917

In 1873, American businessmen Thomas Carney and William Fairbanks, following advice from railroad entrepreneur James J Hill, received a grant from the Province of Manitoba for 640 acres along the east side of the Red River near the Canada–United States border Hill had advised Carney and Fairbanks that the area had significant potential to become a railway hub for the region The existing settlement of West Lynne on the west side of the river had already established itself as a key point along the trading routes between Winnipeg and St Paul, Minnesota With the emergence of railroads during this time, the addition of their own railway would bring great economic prosperity

In 1874, the two men led a group of 100 who formed the new settlement of Emerson, which was named after writer and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson With the promise that Emerson could be the new "gateway to the west", the settlement grew quickly and, by 1876, a church and a school were built

Manitoba's first railway, the Emerson Line, which ran along the east side of the Red River from St Boniface to Emerson was completed in 1878 Soon after, the railway from St Paul to St Vincent, Minnesota was completed and the two lines were connected The arrival of the railway to Emerson brought prosperity, and instantly elevated Emerson's status as one of Manitoba's most important settlements

Emerson was originally incorporated as a town in 1879 Over the next four years, the community experienced a boom Its population swelled to over 10,000 and in 1883, the community absorbed the neighbouring community of West Lynne A court house, town hall, and other large, elaborate structures were erected as businesses thrived, thanks to immigrants and travelers from the east stopping in Emerson before embarking west To help cement its status as "gateway to the west", the town negotiated with Canadian Pacific Railway to build a new railway west from Emerson However, shortly after work on the line began, CPR reconsidered and the railway was never built

Coupled with the completion of CPR's transcontinental railroad through Winnipeg, the loss of the western railway ended the prospects of Emerson being the "gateway to the west", a title that would be bestowed upon Winnipeg Businesses relocated to Winnipeg and travelers who would previously would have come to Manitoba through Emerson were now taking the new all-Canadian CPR route to Winnipeg and then west By 1884, only ten years after the settlement was founded, the community was bankrupt It would take the community years to recover

A fire destroyed the original town hall in 1917 A new town hall was built to replace it, with help from the Manitoba government Many of the abandoned buildings were eventually destroyed by Red River floods, while others were removed to make way for the dike that was constructed around the community

From around 1936 to 1956, Emerson obtained its power across the border from a long 2400-volt distribution circuit originating from Pembina This line was initially operated by the Interstate Power Company and was sold to the Otter Tail Power Company in 1944 In 1956, the town made arrangements to obtain its electrical needs from Manitoba Hydro and the cross-border distribution line was removed

Today, Emerson has a population just under 700 and prides itself on being a "charming, friendly town" The community still attracts many visitors each year who pass through the Port of Entry at Emerson There are still some landmarks remaining from Emersons golden age, such as the court house, jail, and home of William Fairbanks, as well as the West Lynne post office and original customs house The Court House, which is designated as a historical landmark, is still in use today

West Lynne

The original post office and customs house at West Lynne, built c 1871 CN Railway bridge crossing the Red River at Emerson

West Lynne was established in the early 1870s by the Hudson's Bay Company, next to their North Pembina post Prior to this, Hudson's Bay Company had been operating a post at Fort Pembina, which was two miles further south in American territory, but after losing the fort in a Fenian raid in 1871, they withdrew and established the post inside Canadian territory

A post office, telegraph station, and customs house were soon constructed at West Lynne, making it a key point along the Red River trade routes for both river and land traffic

After the railway to Emerson was completed in 1878, the importance of West Lynne diminished In 1883, West Lynne and Emerson were amalgamated into one municipality, retaining the name Emerson The Canadian port of entry on the west side of the river was officially known as West Lynne to distinguish it from the Emerson East port on east side until the Canadian government closed Emerson East in 2003 to consolidate operations

The original customs house and post office at West Lynne still stand about 200 meters from the modern facility used by the Canada Border Services Agency

Fort Dufferin

Main article: Fort Dufferin

The fort was located on the west side of the Red River, approximately two kilometers north of West Lynne It was established by the Government of Canada in 1872 as a base for their contingent of the North American Boundary Commission The commission was tasked with defining and marking the Canada-US border It later served an immigration station and police post By 1879, the Canadian government no longer had use for the fort and sold the property

Fort Dufferin is best known as the starting point for the North-West Mounted Police's infamous March West in 1874 This marked the only time the entire force was ever assembled at one place

Today, the Fort Dufferin site is owned by the Province of Manitoba A cairn and plaque mark the historic site, which is open to the public during the summer

Government

Emerson is located at the far southwest corner of the federal riding of Provencher, which is represented by Ted Falk At the provincial level, the community is represented by Cliff Graydon, MLA for the Emerson riding

On January 1, 2015, the former Town of Emerson amalgamated with the neighbouring Rural Municipality of Franklin to form the Municipality of Emerson – Franklin This move was necessary in order to satisfy an ultimatum from the Manitoba government, as part of a plan to amalgamate smaller municipalities in the province Emerson now operates as a local urban district within the new municipality and has two seats on the municipal council

Community services

The community's education needs are served by Emerson Elementary School Kindergarten to Grade 8 and Roseau Valley School Grades 9-12 in nearby Dominion City Recreational facilities include an indoor skating rink, curling rink, public golf course, swimming pool, and park Emerson is also served by a local RCMP detachment and volunteer fire department

Climate

Emerson experiences a humid continental climate Dfb, and a Plant Hardiness of zone 3b Along with St Albans, Emerson holds the record for Manitoba's highest temperature of 444 °C 112 °F on 12 July 1936 The coldest temperature ever recorded was −467 °C −52 °F on 9 February 1899

Climate data for Emerson, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1877–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C °F 111
52
156
601
233
739
372
99
411
106
400
104
444
1119
395
1031
385
1013
330
914
222
72
94
489
444
1119
Average high °C °F −115
113
−76
183
−03
315
134
561
203
685
239
75
256
781
260
788
191
664
112
522
−14
295
−82
172
90
482
Daily mean °C °F −163
27
−126
93
−52
226
49
408
131
556
175
635
195
671
192
666
129
552
57
423
−53
225
−125
95
26
367
Average low °C °F −211
−6
−175
05
−100
14
−15
293
58
424
111
52
133
559
124
543
67
441
02
324
−93
153
−168
18
−22
28
Record low °C °F −444
−479
−467
−521
−389
−38
−261
−15
−106
129
−33
261
11
34
−11
30
−122
10
−211
−6
−400
−40
−406
−411
−467
−521
Average precipitation mm inches 269
1059
212
0835
247
0972
285
1122
584
2299
902
3551
941
3705
741
2917
575
2264
467
1839
367
1445
328
1291
5916
23291
Average rainfall mm inches 06
0024
07
0028
104
0409
203
0799
582
2291
902
3551
941
3705
741
2917
574
226
404
1591
115
0453
31
0122
4609
18146
Average snowfall cm inches 262
1031
205
807
143
563
89
35
03
012
00
0
00
0
00
0
01
004
63
248
253
996
297
1169
1316
5181
Average precipitation days ≥ 02 mm 114 90 89 59 96 116 114 92 92 96 97 110 1165
Average rainy days ≥ 02 mm 05 08 37 51 95 116 114 92 92 83 32 08 733
Average snowy days ≥ 02 cm 111 85 68 23 031 00 00 00 006 17 79 105 492
Source: Environment Canada

Local media

Television

  • KGFE Channel 2 PBS Grand Forks, North Dakota
  • CBWT Channel 6 CBC Winnipeg
  • CKY Channel 7 CTV Winnipeg
  • WDAZ Channel 8 ABC Grand Forks, North Dakota
  • CKND Channel 9 Global Winnipeg
  • KNRR Channel 12 FOX Pembina, North Dakota
  • CIIT Channel 35 Hope TV, religious Winnipeg

See also

  • Emerson electoral district
  • Noyes, Minnesota
  • Pembina, North Dakota
  • List of Canada–United States border crossings

References

  1. ^ "Local Urban Districts Regulation" Government of Manitoba April 23, 2016 Retrieved April 24, 2016 
  2. ^ Manitoba Government - Current Transportation Planning Studies
  3. ^ Highway 75 at Canhighwayscom
  4. ^ "Border Highway Redesign Displayed At Emerson Open House" PembinaValleyOnlinecom 6 March 2015 
  5. ^ a b c d e Ewens, Sharon 1995 "Historical Tour - Emerson: Gateway to the West" Manitoba History Winnipeg, Manitoba: The Manitoba Historical Society 30 Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  6. ^ a b c Forrestor, Marjorie 1957 "The Rise and Fall of Emerson" Manitoba Pagaent Winnipeg, Manitoba: The Manitoba Historical Society Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  7. ^ a b Lyon, DM "Emerson" The Canadian Encyclopedia Historica-Dominion Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  8. ^ a b "Postal History of West Lynne, Manitoba" Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  9. ^ "WinnipegREALTORS®" winnipegrealestatenewscom 
  10. ^ "Fort Dufferin National Historic Site of Canada" Parks Canada Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  11. ^ "Dufferin: Then and Now" Manitoba History Winnipeg, Manitoba: The Manitoba Historical Society 23 Spring 1992 Retrieved 22 August 2012 
  12. ^ "PembinaValleyOnlinecom" pembinavalleyonlinecom 
  13. ^ "Emerson and Franklin plan merger" thecarilloncom 
  14. ^ "Interactive Map" usdagov 
  15. ^ a b "Emerson" 1981–2010 Canadian Climate Normals Environment Canada Retrieved 28 May 2016 
  16. ^ "Emerson Auto" Canadian Climate Data Environment Canada Retrieved 28 May 2016 

External links

  • Official website
  • Town of Emerson Community Profile
  • Map of Emerson at Statcan
  • History of Emerson - Manitoba Historical Society
  •  "Emerson" New International Encyclopedia 1905 

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