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Egg allergy

egg allergy symptoms, egg allergy
Egg allergy is a type of food allergy It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from the yolk or whites of eggs, causing an overreaction of the immune system1

Prevention may be partly achieved through early introduction of the eggs to the diet of babies2 It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that may be contaminated with egg The most severe allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis3 and is an emergency requiring immediate attention and treatment with epinephrine

Egg allergy appears mainly in children and are the second most common food allergy in children in the United States4 Most children outgrow egg allergy by the age of five, but some people remain allergic for a lifetime5

Contents

  • 1 Cause
  • 2 Mechanism
    • 21 Egg white intolerance
  • 3 Diagnosis
  • 4 Treatment
    • 41 Cooking without eggs
  • 5 Prognosis
  • 6 Vaccine hazard
  • 7 Notable cases
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Causeedit

Giving eggs to babies early in life appears to decrease the risk of later allergies6

Mechanismedit

Most people who are allergic to hen's eggs have antibodies which react to one of four proteins in the egg white:7 ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme; ovomucoid, also called Gal d 1, is the most common target of immune system attack7 The egg yolk contains several potential antigens: livetin, apovitillin, and phosvitin

A person who reacts only to a protein in the egg yolk may be able to easily tolerate egg whites, and vice versa Some people will be allergic to proteins in both the egg white and the egg yolk Egg yolk allergies may be somewhat more common in adults7 A small number of people who are allergic to eggs will develop an allergy to chicken or other poultry meats7

Egg white intoleranceedit

Egg whites, which are potent histamine liberators, also provoke a nonallergic response in some people In this situation, proteins in egg white directly trigger the release of histamine from mast cells on contact89 Because this mechanism is classified as a pharmacological reaction, or "pseudoallergy",8 the condition is considered a food intolerance instead of a true IgE-based allergic reaction

The response is usually localized, typically in the gastrointestinal tract8 Symptoms may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, or any symptoms of histamine release If sufficiently strong, it can result in an anaphylactoid reaction, which is clinically indistinguishable from true anaphylaxis9

Some people with this condition tolerate small quantities of egg whites10 They are more often able to tolerate well-cooked eggs, such as found in cake or dried egg-based pasta, than loosely cooked eggs, such as fried eggs or meringues, or uncooked eggs10

Diagnosisedit

Diagnosis is generally made through a combination of skin prick testing or blood testing and detailed records of all foods and drink the person regularly ingests

Treatmentedit

There is currently no cure for egg allergy Most people who are allergic to eggs avoid eating any form of egg or egg component For people with more serious allergic reactions to eggs, such as urticaria hives, inflammation, and/or anaphylaxis, doctors suggest carrying an EpiPen for use in emergency Certain food companies also produce egg substitutes, artificial brands of egg mix or batter, which have the same cooking properties of natural eggs but are free of allergens, allowing safe consumption by those whom are allergic

Cooking without eggsedit

In cooking, eggs are multifunctional: they may act as an emulsifier to reduce oil/water separation mayonnaise, a binder water binding and particle adhesion, as in meatloaf, or an aerator cakes, especially angel food Some commercial egg replacers can substitute for particular functions potato starch and tapioca for water binding, whey protein for aeration or particle binding, or soy lecithin for emulsification For use on the skin, one-half cup of applesauce can replace one egg in some baking recipescitation needed

Most people find it necessary to strictly avoid any item containing eggs, including:11

  • Albumin
  • Apovitellin
  • Cholesterol-free egg substitute eg Eggbeaters
  • Dried egg solids, dried egg
  • Egg, egg white, egg yolk
  • Egg wash
  • Eggnog
  • Fat substitutes some
  • Globulin
  • Livetin
  • Lysozyme
  • Mayonnaise
  • Meringue or meringue powder
  • Ovalbumin
  • Ovoglobulin
  • Ovomucin
  • Ovomucoid
  • Ovotransferrin
  • Ovovitelia
  • Ovovitellin
  • Powdered eggs
  • Silici albuminate
  • Simplesse
  • Trailblazer
  • Vitellin
  • Whole egg

Ingredients that sometimes include egg are:

  • Artificial flavoring
  • Lecithin
  • Natural flavoring
  • Nougat

Prognosisedit

In a study presented at the 2007 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology AAAAI meeting, 50% of people outgrew egg allergy by age 17 Of those patients who outgrew it, 45% did so by age 5 Children who outgrew the allergy tended to have peak IgE levels at around age one, which then decline12

Vaccine hazardedit

The flu vaccine is typically made using chicken embryo, and as a result the final vaccine does contain egg proteins Egg-allergic individuals may react to egg proteins in the vaccine or to gelatin or neomycin if they are allergic to that If an individual is unable to take the vaccine, vaccinating all other members of their family can help protect them from the flu see Herd immunity

Different brands and even individual batches of flu vaccine do vary in their egg protein content Allergists formerly used skin testing with flu vaccine to predict if receiving the flu shot might be safe, but the results of this type of testing are totally unpredictive and this type of testing should be abandoned Instead, the age-appropriate immunization material containing the lowest amount of egg proteins should be chosen, then a 1/10 dose should be given followed by a 30-minute observation period in a medical setting fully equipped to treat any possible reaction Ovalbumin is usually used as a marker for the egg proteins Vaccines available as recently as 2010 in the US contained up to 21 µg of ovalbumin per 05 mL dose In 2011 the ovalbumin content varies from less than 50 µg/dose down to less than 005 µg/dose, depending on the brand One study done on 83 egg allergic patients resulted in a lack of serious reactions at doses of ovalbumin ranging from 010 µg to 060 µg Thus so some brands available in the US in 2011 are probably safe for most egg allergic patients administered with caution, but others may not be For reference modern MMR vaccine which is generally accepted now to be well tolerated by egg allergic patients, but which is still given with caution was shown in a 2009 study reported in the BMJ to contain 00005 to 00010 µg/dose 05 to 10 ng/dose13full citation needed

Egg proteins can also be found in yellow fever vaccine and MMR vaccine14 The quantity of egg protein in a dose of MMR vaccine is approximately 40 picograms much lower than in influenza vaccine, which contains approximately 002-10 micrograms, and this is believed to be associated with a much lower risk15

Notable casesedit

Famous people allergic to eggs include:

  • Elizabeth Bird, wife of Alfred Bird, who invented egg-free Bird's Custard, the original version of what is known generically as custard powder today16
  • NFL player Drew Brees17
  • Zooey Deschanel18
  • Seal 19
  • Jason Mantzoukas 20
  • Former Serbian Prime Minister and war criminal Nikola Šainović21

Referencesedit

  1. ^ National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005 http://wwwniaidnihgov/factsheets/allergystathtm
  2. ^ Ierodiakonou, D; Garcia-Larsen, V; Logan, A; Groome, A; Cunha, S; Chivinge, J; Robinson, Z; Geoghegan, N; Jarrold, K; Reeves, T; Tagiyeva-Milne, N; Nurmatov, U; Trivella, M; Leonardi-Bee, J; Boyle, RJ 20 September 2016 "Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" JAMA 316 11: 1181–1192 PMID 27654604 doi:101001/jama201612623 
  3. ^ National Report of the Expert Panel on Food Allergy Research, NIH-NIAID 2003 http://www3niaidnihgov/about/organization/dait/PDF/june30_2003pdf
  4. ^ "Egg Allergy" Food Allergy Initiative 2008 Retrieved 12-11-2008  Check date values in: |access-date= help
  5. ^ "Egg Allergy Facts" Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America
  6. ^ Ierodiakonou, Despo; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa; Logan, Andrew; Groome, Annabel; Cunha, Sergio; Chivinge, Jennifer; Robinson, Zoe; Geoghegan, Natalie; Jarrold, Katharine; Reeves, Tim; Tagiyeva-Milne, Nara; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Trivella, Marialena; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Boyle, Robert J 20 September 2016 "Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease" JAMA 316 11: 1181 PMID 27654604 doi:101001/jama201612623 
  7. ^ a b c d Thomas Platts-Mills; Ring, Johannes 2005 Allergy in Practice Berlin: Springer p 106 ISBN 3-540-00219-7 
  8. ^ a b c Arnaldo Cantani 2008 Pediatric Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Berlin: Springer pp 710–713 ISBN 3-540-20768-6 
  9. ^ a b Joris, Isabelle; Majno, Guido 2004 Cells, tissues, and disease: principles of general pathology Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press p 538 ISBN 0-19-514090-7 
  10. ^ a b Carina Venter; Isabel Skypala 2009 Food Hypersensitivity: Diagnosing and Managing Food Allergies and Intolerance Wiley-Blackwell pp 129–131 ISBN 1-4051-7036-0 
  11. ^ "Egg Avoidance List" 
  12. ^ The Natural History of Egg Allergy by J H Rabe, E C Matsui, K E Mudd, J M Skripak, R A Wood; http://wwwabstractsonlinecom/viewer/viewAbstractaspCKey=&MKey=&AKey=&SKey=
  13. ^ June 2011 UPTODATEcom monograph on "influenza vaccine and egg allergy" and the NIH Expert Panel Report on Food Allergy, December 2010
  14. ^ Romero GL, Kumar S December 2006 "Case 1: The case of the cookie, the rash and the flu vaccine" Paediatr Child Health 11 10: 675–7 PMC 2528595  PMID 19030254 
  15. ^ "Egg Allergies : Vaccine Education Center - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia" Archived from the original on 2009-05-01 
  16. ^ Mann, M 1973 Workers on the Move: The Sociology of Relocation CUP Archive p 68 ISBN 9780521087018 
  17. ^ "NFL Workout: Strapped In A system designed by a Navy SEAL got the Saints' Drew Brees in shape to succeed" CNN 2007-01-09 Retrieved 2008-10-01 
  18. ^ "Zooey Deschanel" Time Out New York 
  19. ^ "Seal reveals major cause of break-up with Heidi Klum was diet" 
  20. ^ "Jimmy Kimmel Live! 5/30" ABC 2012-05-30 Retrieved 2012-06-04 permanent dead link
  21. ^ "War Crimes Investigator Confirms "Milosevic's right-hand man" has allergies to chicken egg-white ovomucin" permanent dead link

External linksedit

  • Food portal

egg allergy, egg allergy and flu shot, egg allergy in adults, egg allergy in babies, egg allergy in children, egg allergy rash, egg allergy reactions, egg allergy substitute, egg allergy symptoms, egg allergy symptoms in adults


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    Egg allergy beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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