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E. O. Wilson

e. o. wilson meaning of human existence, e. o. wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson born June 10, 1929, usually cited as E O Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher sociobiology, biodiversity, island biogeography, theorist consilience, biophilia, naturalist conservationist and author His biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he is considered to be the world's leading expert

Wilson is known for his scientific career, his role as "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity", his environmental advocacy, and his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography, which he developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur, which is seen as the foundation of the development of conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity of Stephen Hubbell

Wilson is 2014 the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, a lecturer at Duke University, and a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry He is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction for On Human Nature in 1979, and The Ants in 1991 and a New York Times bestseller for The Social Conquest of Earth, Letters to a Young Scientist, and The Meaning of Human Existence


  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Education
  • 3 Career
  • 4 Retirement
  • 5 Work
    • 51 Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 1975
      • 511 Reception
    • 52 On Human Nature, 1978
    • 53 The Ants, 1990
    • 54 Consilience, 1998
  • 6 Spiritual and political beliefs
    • 61 Scientific humanism
    • 62 God and religion
    • 63 Ecology
  • 7 Awards and honors
  • 8 Main works
    • 81 Edited works
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Early life

Wilson was born in Birmingham, Alabama According to his autobiography Naturalist, he grew up mostly around Washington, DC and in the countryside around Mobile, Alabama From an early age, he was interested in natural history His parents, Edward and Inez Wilson, divorced when he was seven The young naturalist grew up in several cities and towns, moving around with his father and his stepmother

In the same year that his parents divorced, Wilson blinded himself in one eye in a fishing accident He suffered for hours, but he continued fishing He did not complain because he was anxious to stay outdoors He did not seek medical treatment Several months later, his right pupil clouded over with a cataract He was admitted to Pensacola Hospital to have the lens removed Wilson writes, in his autobiography, that the "surgery was a terrifying century ordeal" Wilson was left with full sight in his left eye, with a vision of 20/10 The 20/10 vision prompted him to focus on "little things": "I noticed butterflies and ants more than other kids did, and took an interest in them automatically"

Although he had lost his stereoscopy, he could still see fine print and the hairs on the bodies of small insects His reduced ability to observe mammals and birds led him to concentrate on insects

At nine, Wilson undertook his first expeditions at the Rock Creek Park in Washington, DC He began to collect insects and he gained a passion for butterflies He would capture them using nets made with brooms, coat hangers, and cheesecloth bags Going on these expeditions led to Wilson's fascination with ants He describes in his autobiography how one day he pulled the bark of a rotting tree away and discovered citronella ants underneath The worker ants he found were "short, fat, brilliant yellow, and emitted a strong lemony odor" Wilson said the event left a "vivid and lasting impression on " He also earned the Eagle Scout award and served as Nature Director of his Boy Scout summer camp At the age of 18, intent on becoming an entomologist, he began by collecting flies, but the shortage of insect pins caused by World War II caused him to switch to ants, which could be stored in vials With the encouragement of Marion R Smith, a myrmecologist from the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, Wilson began a survey of all the ants of Alabama This study led him to report the first colony of fire ants in the US, near the port of Mobile


Concerned that he might not be able to afford to go to a university, Wilson tried to enlist in the United States Army He planned to earn US government financial support for his education, but failed the Army medical examination due to his impaired eyesight Wilson was able to afford to enroll in the University of Alabama after all There, he earned his BS and MS degrees in biology in 1950 In 1952 he transferred to Harvard University

Appointed to the Harvard Society of Fellows, he could travel on overseas expeditions, collecting ant species of Cuba and Mexico and travel the South Pacific, including Australia, New Guinea, Fiji, New Caledonia and Sri Lanka In 1955, he received his PhD and married Irene Kelley


From 1956 until 1996 Wilson was part of the faculty of Harvard He began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats He developed a theory of the "taxon cycle"

He collaborated with mathematician William Bossert, and discovered the chemical nature of ant communication, via pheromones In the 1960s he collaborated with mathematician and ecologist Robert MacArthur Together, they tested the theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys He eradicated all insect species and observed the re-population by new species A book The Theory of Island Biogeography about this experiment became a standard ecology text

In 1971, he published the book The Insect Societies about the biology of social insects like ants, bees, wasps and termites In 1973, Wilson was appointed 'Curator of Insects' at the Museum of Comparative Zoology In 1975, he published the book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis applying his theories of insect behavior to vertebrates, and in the last chapter, humans He speculated that evolved and inherited tendencies were responsible for hierarchical social organisation among humans In 1978 he published On Human Nature, which dealt with the role of biology in the evolution of human culture and won a Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction

In 1981 after collaborating with Charles Lumsden, he published Genes, Mind and Culture, a theory of gene-culture coevolution In 1990 he published The Ants, co-written with Bert Hölldobler, his second Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction

In the 1990s, he published The Diversity of Life 1992 an autobiography, Naturalist 1994, and Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge 1998 about the unity of the natural and social sciences


In 1996, Wilson officially retired from Harvard University, where he continues to hold the positions of Professor Emeritus and Honorary Curator in Entomology He founded the EO Wilson Biodiversity Foundation, which finances the PEN/E O Wilson Literary Science Writing Award and is an "independent foundation" at the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University Wilson became a special lecturer at Duke University as part of the agreement

Wilson has published 14 books during the new millennium: The Future of Life, 2002, Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Genus, 2003, From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin's Four Great Books, 2005, The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth, September 2006, Nature Revealed: Selected Writings 1949–2006, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies, 2009, Anthill: A Novel April 2010, Kingdom of Ants: Jose Celestino Mutis and the Dawn of Natural History in the New World, 2010, The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct, 2011, The Social Conquest of Earth, 2012, Half-Earth: Our Planet's Fight for Life, 2016

He published 3 books in 2014 alone: Letters to a Young Scientist, A Window on Eternity: A Biologist's Walk Through Gorongosa National Park, and The Meaning of Human Existence

He and his wife Irene reside in Lexington, Massachusetts His daughter, Catherine, and her husband Jonathan, reside in nearby Stow, Massachusetts


Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 1975

Wilson used sociobiology and evolutionary principles to explain the behavior of social insects and then to understand the social behavior of other animals, including humans, thus established sociobiology as a new scientific field He argued that all animal behavior, including that of humans, is the product of heredity, environmental stimuli, and past experiences, and that free will is an illusion He has referred to the biological basis of behaviour as the "genetic leash":127–128 The sociobiological view is that all animal social behavior is governed by epigenetic rules worked out by the laws of evolution This theory and research proved to be seminal, controversial, and influential:210ff

Wilson has argued that the unit of selection is a gene, the basic element of heredity The target of selection is normally the individual who carries an ensemble of genes of certain kinds With regard to the use of kin selection in explaining the behavior of eusocial insects, the "new view that I'm proposing is that it was group selection all along, an idea first roughly formulated by Darwin"

Sociobiological research is particularly controversial with regard to its application to humans The theory established a scientific argument for rejecting the common doctrine of tabula rasa, which holds that human beings are born without any innate mental content and that culture functions to increase human knowledge and aid in survival and successIn the final chapter of the book Sociobiology and in the full text of his Pulitzer Prize-winning On Human Nature, Wilson argues, that the human mind is shaped as much by genetic inheritance as it is by culture if not more There are limits on just how much influence social and environmental factors can have in altering human behavior


Sociobiology was initially met with substantial criticism Several of Wilson's colleagues at Harvard, such as Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould, were strongly opposed to his ideas regarding sociobiology Gould, Lewontin, and others from the Sociobiology Study Group from the Boston area wrote "Against 'Sociobiology'" in an open letter criticizing Wilson's "deterministic view of human society and human action" Although attributed to members of the Sociobiology Study Group, it seems that Lewontin was the main author In a 2011 interview, Wilson said, "I believe Gould was a charlatan I believe that he was seeking reputation and credibility as a scientist and writer, and he did it consistently by distorting what other scientists were saying and devising arguments based upon that distortion"

Marshall Sahlins's 1976 work The Use and Abuse of Biology was a direct criticism of Wilson's theories

There was also political opposition Sociobiology re-ignited the nature and nurture debate Wilson was accused of racism, misogyny, and sympathy to eugenics In one incident in November 1978, his lecture was attacked by the International Committee Against Racism, a front group of the Marxist Progressive Labor Party, where one member poured a pitcher of water on Wilson's head and chanted "Wilson, you're all wet" at an AAAS conference Wilson later spoke of the incident as a source of pride: "I believeI was the only scientist in modern times to be physically attacked for an idea"

Objections from evangelical Christians included those of Paul E Rothrock in 1987: " sociobiology has the potential of becoming a religion of scientific materialism" Philosopher Mary Midgley encountered Sociobiology in the process of writing Beast and Man 1996 and significantly rewrote the book to offer a critique of Wilson's views Midgley praised the book for the study of animal behavior, clarity, scholarship, and encyclopedic scope, but extensively critiqued Wilson for conceptual confusion, scientism, and anthropomorphism of genetics

Michael McGoodwin paraphrased and quoted Wilson pp 16 and 222 on sociobiology: "Sociobiology is defined as the scientific or systematic study of the biological basis of all forms of social behavior, in all kinds of organisms including man, and incorporating knowledge from ethology, ecology, and genetics, in order to derive general principles concerning the biological properties of entire societies "If humankind evolved by Darwinian natural selection, genetic chance and environmental necessity, not God, made the species" "The brain exists because it promotes the survival and multiplication of the genes that direct its assembly" The two apparent dilemmas we face therefore are: 1 We lack any goal external to our biological nature for even religions evolve to enhance the persistence and influence of their practitioners Will the transcendental goals of societies dissolve, and will our post-ideological societies regress steadily toward self-indulgence 2 Morality evolved as instinct "Which of the censors and motivators should be obeyed and which ones might better be curtailed or sublimated" Although much human diversity in behavior is culturally influenced, some has been shown to be genetic – rapid acquisition of language, human unpredictability, hypertrophy extreme growth of pre-existing social structures, altruism and religions "Religious practices that consistently enhance survival and procreation of the practitioners will propagate the physiological controls that favor the acquisition of the practices during single lifetimes" Unthinking submission to the communal will promotes the fitness of the members of the tribe Even submission to secular religions and cults involve willing subordination of the individual to the group Religious practices confer biological advantages"

On Human Nature, 1978

Wilson wrote in his 1978 book On Human Nature, "The evolutionary epic is probably the best myth we will ever have" Wilson's use of the word "myth" provides people with meaningful placement in time celebrating shared heritage Wilson's fame prompted use of the morphed phrase epic of evolution In 1999, he explained its need:

Human beings must have an epic, a sublime account of how the world was created and how humanity became part of it Religious epics satisfy another primal need They confirm we are part of something greater than ourselves The way to achieve our epic that unites human spirituality, instead of cleave it, is to compose it from the best empirical knowledge that science and history can provide

He said that "he true evolutionary epic retold as poetry, is as intrinsically ennobling as any religious epic" He pointed to several scientists who had contributed to building this epic, particularly Robert Ardrey who "continues as the lyric poet of human evolution, capturing the Homeric quality of the subject that so many scientists by and large feel, but are unable to put into words"

Naturalistic and liberal religious writers have picked up on the term epic of evolution and used it in a number of texts or used other terms to refer to the idea: Universe Story Brian Swimme, John F Haught, Great Story Connie Barlow, Michael Dowd, Everybody's Story Loyal Rue, New Story Thomas Berry, Al Gore, Brian Swimme and Cosmic Evolution Eric Chaisson Cosmologist Brian Swimme said in a 1997 interview: "I think that what E O Wilson is trying to suggest is that to be fully human, a person has to see that life has a heroic dimension I think for the scientist, and for other people, it's a question of, "Is the universe valuable Is it sacred Is it holy Or is the human agenda all that matters" I just don't think we're that stupid to continue in a way that continues to destroy I'm hopeful that the Epic of Evolution will be yet another strategy in our culture that will lead our consciousness out of a very tight, human-centered materialism"

The Ants, 1990

Wilson, along with Bert Hölldobler, carried out a systematic study of ants and ant behavior, culminating in the 1990 encyclopedic work The Ants Because much self-sacrificing behavior on the part of individual ants can be explained on the basis of their genetic interests in the survival of the sisters, with whom they share 75% of their genes though the actual case is some species' queens mate with multiple males and therefore some workers in a colony would only be 25% related, Wilson argued for a sociobiological explanation for all social behavior on the model of the behavior of the social insects In his more recent work, he has sought to defend his views against the criticism of younger scientists such as Deborah Gordon, whose results challenge the idea that ant behavior is as rigidly predictable as Wilson's explanations make it

Wilson has said in reference to ants "Karl Marx was right, socialism works, it is just that he had the wrong species" He meant that while ants and other eusocial species appear to live in communist-like societies, they only do so because they are forced to do so from their basic biology, as they lack reproductive independence: worker ants, being sterile, need their ant-queen in order to survive as a colony and a species, and individual ants cannot reproduce without a queen and are thus forced to live in centralised societies Humans, however, do possess reproductive independence so they can give birth to offspring without the need of a "queen", and in fact humans enjoy their maximum level of Darwinian fitness only when they look after themselves and their offspring, while finding innovative ways to use the societies they live in for their own benefit

Consilience, 1998

In his 1998 book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, Wilson discussed methods that have been used to unite the sciences, and might be able to unite the sciences with the humanities Wilson used the term "consilience" to describe the synthesis of knowledge from different specialized fields of human endeavor He defined human nature as a collection of epigenetic rules, the genetic patterns of mental development He argued that culture and rituals are products, not parts, of human nature He said art is not part of human nature, but our appreciation of art is He suggested that concepts such as art appreciation, fear of snakes, or the incest taboo Westermarck effect could be studied by scientific methods of the natural sciences and be part of interdisciplinary research Previously, these phenomena were only part of psychological, sociological, or anthropological studies

Spiritual and political beliefs

Scientific humanism

Wilson coined the phrase scientific humanism as "the only worldview compatible with science's growing knowledge of the real world and the laws of nature" Wilson argued that it is best suited to improve the human condition In 2003, he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto

God and religion

In a New Scientist interview published on 21 January 2015, Wilson said that "Religion 'is dragging us down' and must be eliminated 'for the sake of human progress'", and "So I would say that for the sake of human progress, the best thing we could possibly do would be to diminish, to the point of eliminating, religious faiths" On the question of God, Wilson has described his position as provisional deism and explicitly denied the label of "atheist", preferring "agnostic" He has explained his faith as a trajectory away from traditional beliefs: "I drifted away from the church, not definitively agnostic or atheistic, just Baptist & Christian no more" Wilson argues that the belief in God and rituals of religion are products of evolution He argues that they should not be rejected or dismissed, but further investigated by science to better understand their significance to human nature In his book The Creation, Wilson suggests that scientists ought to "offer the hand of friendship" to religious leaders and build an alliance with them, stating that "Science and religion are two of the most potent forces on Earth and they should come together to save the creation"

Wilson made an appeal to the religious community on the lecture circuit at Midland College, Texas, for example, and that "the appeal received a 'massive reply'", that a covenant had been written and that a "partnership will work to a substantial degree as time goes on"


Wilson has said that, if he could start his life over he would work in microbial ecology, when discussing the reinvigoration of his original fields of study since the 1960s He studied the mass extinctions of the 20th century and their relationship to modern society, and in 1998 argued for an ecological approach at the Capitol:

Now when you cut a forest, an ancient forest in particular, you are not just removing a lot of big trees and a few birds fluttering around in the canopy You are drastically imperiling a vast array of species within a few square miles of you The number of these species may go to tens of thousands Many of them are still unknown to science, and science has not yet discovered the key role undoubtedly played in the maintenance of that ecosystem, as in the case of fungi, microorganisms, and many of the insects

Wilson has been part of the international conservation movement, as a consultant to Columbia University's Earth Institute, as a director of the American Museum of Natural History, Conservation International, The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund

Understanding the scale of the extinction crisis has led him to advocate for forest protection, including the "Act to Save America's Forests", first introduced in 1998, until 2008, but never passed, Forests Now Declaration, which calls for new markets-based mechanisms to protect tropical forests In 2014, Wilson called for setting aside 50% of the earth's surface for other species to thrive in as the only possible strategy to solve the extinction crisis

Awards and honors

Wilson at a "fireside chat" during which he received the Addison Emery Verrill Medal in 2007 Dr EO Wilson addresses the audience at the dedication of the EO Wilson Biophilia Center at Nokuse Plantation in Walton County, Florida

Wilson's scientific and conservation honors include:

  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, 1969
  • US National Medal of Science, 1976
  • Leidy Award, 1979, from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
  • Pulitzer Prize for On Human Nature, 1979
  • Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement, 1984
  • ECI Prize, International Ecology Institute, terrestrial ecology, 1987
  • Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Mathematics and Science at Uppsala University, Sweden, 1987
  • Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award, 1988
  • Crafoord Prize, 1990, a prize awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  • Pulitzer Prize for The Ants with Bert Hölldobler, 1991
  • International Prize for Biology, 1993
  • Carl Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science, 1994
  • The National Audubon Society's Audubon Medal, 1995
  • Time Magazine's 25 Most Influential People in America, 1995
  • Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences of the American Philosophical Society, 1998
  • American Humanist Association's 1999 Humanist of the Year
  • Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science, 2000
  • Nierenberg Prize, 2001
  • Distinguished Eagle Scout Award 2004
  • Dauphin Island Sea Lab christened its newest research vessel the R/V EO Wilson in 2005
  • Linnean Tercentenary Silver Medal, 2006
  • Addison Emery Verrill Medal from the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 2007
  • TED Prize 2007 given yearly to honor a maximum of three individuals who have shown that they can, in some way, positively impact life on this planet
  • XIX Premi Internacional Catalunya 2007
  • Member of the World Knowledge Dialogue Honorary Board, and Scientist in Residence for the 2008 symposium organized in Crans-Montana Switzerland
  • Distinguished Lecturer, University of Iowa, 2008–2009
  • EO Wilson Biophilia Center on Nokuse Plantation in Walton County, Florida 2009 video
  • Explorers Club Medal, 2009
  • 2010 BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Ecology and Conservation Biology Category
  • Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture, 2010
  • 2010 Heartland Prize for fiction for his first novel Anthill: A Novel
  • EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year, 2010

Main works

  • "Character displacement" Systematic Zoology 5 2: 49–64 1956 doi:102307/2411924 JSTOR 2411924 , coauthored with William Brown Jr; paper honored in 1986 as a Science Citation Classic, ie, as one of the most frequently cited scientific papers of all time
  • The Theory of Island Biogeography, 1967, Princeton University Press 2001 reprint, ISBN 0-691-08836-5, with Robert H MacArthur
  • The Insect Societies, 1971, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-45490-1
  • Sociobiology: The New Synthesis 1975, Harvard University Press, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Edition, 2000 ISBN 0-674-00089-7
  • On Human Nature, 1979, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01638-6, winner of the 1979 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction
  • Genes, Mind and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process, 1981, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-34475-8
  • Promethean Fire: Reflections on the Origin of Mind, 1983, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-71445-8
  • Biophilia, 1984, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-07441-6
  • Success and Dominance in Ecosystems: The Case of the Social Insects, 1990, Inter-Research, ISSN 0932-2205
  • The Ants, 1990, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-04075-9, Winner of the 1991 Pulitzer Prize, with Bert Hölldobler
  • The Diversity of Life, 1992, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-21298-3, The Diversity of Life: Special Edition, ISBN 0-674-21299-1
  • The Biophilia Hypothesis, 1993, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-148-1, with Stephen R Kellert
  • Journey to the Ants: A Story of Scientific Exploration, 1994, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-48525-4, with Bert Hölldobler
  • Naturalist, 1994, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-288-7
  • In Search of Nature, 1996, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-215-1, with Laura Simonds Southworth
  • Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, 1998, Knopf, ISBN 0-679-45077-7
  • The Future of Life, 2002, Knopf, ISBN 0-679-45078-5
  • Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Genus, 2003, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-00293-8
  • From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin's Four Great Books 2005, W W Norton
  • The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth, September 2006, W W Norton & Company, Inc ISBN 978-0-393-06217-5
  • Nature Revealed: Selected Writings 1949–2006, ISBN 0-8018-8329-6
  • The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies, 2009, WW Norton & Company, Inc ISBN 978-0-393-06704-0, with Bert Hölldobler
  • Anthill: A Novel, April 2010, W W Norton & Company, Inc ISBN 978-0-393-07119-1
  • Kingdom of Ants: Jose Celestino Mutis and the Dawn of Natural History in the New World, 2010, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, with José María Gómez Durán
  • The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct, 2011, WW Norton & Company, Inc ISBN 978-0-393-33868-3, with Bert Hölldobler
  • The Social Conquest of Earth, 2012, Liveright Publishing Corporation, New York, ISBN 0871403633
  • Letters to a Young Scientist, 2014, Liveright, ISBN 0871403854
  • A Window on Eternity: A Biologist's Walk Through Gorongosa National Park, 2014, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 1476747415
  • The Meaning of Human Existence, 2014, Liveright, ISBN 0871401002
  • Half Earth, 2016

Edited works

  • From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin's Four Great Books, edited with introductions by Edward O Wilson 2010 WW Norton


  1. ^ Lenfield, Spencer "Ants through the Ages" Harvard Magazine Wheeler’s work strongly influenced the teenage Wilson, who recalls, “When I was 16 and decided I wanted to become a myrmecologist, I memorized his book” 
  2. ^ Thorpe, Vanessa June 24, 2012 "Richard Dawkins in furious row with EO Wilson over theory of evolution" The Guardian London 
  3. ^ "Lord of the Ants documentary" VICE 2009 Retrieved 18 February 2013 
  4. ^ Becker, Michael 2009-04-09 "MSU presents Presidential Medal to famed scientist Edward O Wilson" MSU News Retrieved 2014-05-09 
  5. ^ a b Novacek, Michael J 2001 "Lifetime achievement: EO Wilson" CNNcom Archived from the original on 2006-10-14 Retrieved 2006-11-08 
  6. ^ "EO Wilson advocates biodiversity preservation" Duke Chronicle February 12, 2014 Retrieved 2014-04-23 
  7. ^ "Natural Connections > EDWARD WILSON BIO" Webarchiveorg Archived from the original on October 2, 2008 Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  8. ^ "E O Wilson biography" AlabamaLiteraryMaporg Archived from the original on 2010-12-08 Retrieved 2014-04-23 
  9. ^ a b Cowles, Gregory "Print & E-Books" The New York Times 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Edward O Wilson – Naturalist, Island Press; April 24, 2006, ISBN 1-59726-088-6
  11. ^ Powell, Alvin April 15, 2014 "'Search until you find a passion and go all out to excel in its expression'" Harvard Gazette Harvard Public Affairs & Communications Retrieved 2014-04-23 I have only one functional eye, my left eye, but it's very sharp And I somehow focused on little things I noticed butterflies and ants more than other kids did, and took an interest in them automatically 
  12. ^ first-hand account, Smithsonian Institution talk, April 22, 2010
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "Edward O Wilson PhD Biography" Academy of Achievement 3 June 2013 Retrieved 3 October 2015 
  14. ^ "'Father of sociobiology' to teach at Nicholas School" Post Retirement Duke University December 2013 
  15. ^ a b E O Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, New York, Knopf, 1998
  16. ^ Wolfe, Tom 1996 Sorry, But Your Soul Just Died Vol 158, Issue 13, Forbes
  17. ^ "Discover Interview: EO Wilson" DiscoverMagazinecom Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  18. ^ Grafen, Alan; Ridley, Mark 2006 Richard Dawkins: How A Scientist Changed the Way We Think New York, New York: Oxford University Press p 75 ISBN 0-19-929116-0 
  19. ^ Allen, Elizabeth, et al 1975 "Against 'Sociobiology'" New York Review of Books 22 Nov 13: 182, 184–186
  20. ^ French, Howard November 2011 "E O Wilson's Theory of Everything" The Atlantic Magazine Retrieved 13 October 2011 
  21. ^ Sahlins, Marshall David 1976 The Use and Abuse of Biology ISBN 0-472-08777-0 
  22. ^ Douglas, Ed 17 February 2001 "Darwin's natural heir" The Guardian London 
  23. ^ Wilson, Edward O 1995 Naturalist ISBN 0-446-67199-1 
  24. ^ David Dugan writer, producer, director May 2008 Lord of the Ants Documentary NOVA Retrieved 2008-01-25 
  25. ^ Mythology of Scientific Materialism Paul E Rothrock and Mary Ellen Rothrock,PSCF 39 June 1987: 87-93
  26. ^ Midgley, Mary 1995 Beast and man : the roots of human nature Rev ed London : Routledge p xli ISBN 0-415-12740-8 
  27. ^ Midgley, Mary 1995 Beast and man: the roots of human nature Rev ed London : Routledge p xl ISBN 0-415-12740-8 
  28. ^ a b "Wilson Edward On Human Nature Summary" Mcgoodwinnet 2009-09-10 Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  29. ^ Connie Barlow "The Epic of Evolution: Religious and cultural interpretations of modern scientific cosmology" Science & Spirit Magazine Archived from the original on 2006-05-23 
  30. ^ Edward O Wilson, Foreword of Everybody's Story: Wising Up to the Epic of Evolution By Loyal D Rue, SUNY Press, 1999, page ix and x,ISBN 0-7914-4392-2,
  31. ^ "Edward O Wilson, Consilience 1998" PDF thegreatstoryorg Retrieved 2014-04-23 
  32. ^ Wilson, Edward O Quoted in "Professional Comments on Robert Ardrey's The Hunting Hypothesis" Available through Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University
  33. ^ Rue, Loyal 1999 Everybody's Story: Wising Up to the Epic of Evolution SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-4392-2 
  34. ^ Chaisson, Eric 2006 Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-13560-2 
  35. ^ Thomas, Alfred K 1989 The Epic of Evolution, Its Etiology and Art: A Study of Vardis Fisher's Testament of Man University Microfilms International 
  36. ^ Miller, James B 2003 The Epic of Evolution: Science and Religion in Dialogue Pearson/Prentice Hall ISBN 0-13-093318-X 
  37. ^ Kaufman, Gordon The Epic of Evolution as a Framework for Human Orientation, 1997
  38. ^ "Brian Swimme interview" Earthlightorg Retrieved 2014-04-23 
  39. ^ Nicholas Wade July 15, 2008 "Taking a Cue From Ants on Evolution of Humans" The New York Times 
  40. ^ Wade, Nicholas May 12, 1998 "Scientist at Work: Edward O Wilson; From Ants to Ethics: A Biologist Dreams Of Unity of Knowledge" The New York Times Retrieved May 1, 2010 
  41. ^ Wilson, Edward O March 27, 1997 "Karl Marx was right, socialism works" Interview Harvard University 
  42. ^ in Harvard Magazine December 2005 p 33
  43. ^ "Notable Signers" Humanism and Its Aspirations American Humanist Association Retrieved October 6, 2012 
  44. ^ "Famed biologist: Religion 'is dragging us down' and must be eliminated 'for the sake of human progress'" Rawstorycom 2015-01-28 Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  45. ^ Penny Sarchet 2015-01-21 "E O Wilson: Religious faith is dragging us down" New Scientist Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  46. ^ The Creation
  47. ^ Sarchet, Penny 2015-02-01 "Why Do We Ignore Warnings About Earth's Future" Slate In fact, I’m not an atheistI would even say I'm agnostic 
  48. ^ Human Nature
  49. ^ Naturalist EO Wilson is optimistic Harvard Gazette June 15, 2006
  50. ^ Scientist says there is hope to save planet mywesttexascom, September 18, 2009
  51. ^ Edward O Wilson 2008 Lord of the Ants documentary film television NOVA/WGBH Retrieved 2009-03-01 
  52. ^ a b Wilson, Edward Osborne 28 April 1998 "Slide show" saveamericasforestsorg p 2 Retrieved 13 November 2008 
  53. ^ "Congress - The Act to Save America's Forests" Saveamericasforestsorg Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  54. ^ "Can the World Really Set Aside Half of the Planet for Wildlife | Science | Smithsonian" Smithsonianmagcom Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  55. ^ "The Four Awards Bestowed by The Academy of Natural Sciences and Their Recipients" Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 156 1: 403–404 June 2007 doi:101635/0097-3157200715620CO;2 
  56. ^ http://wwwuuse/en/about-uu/traditions/prizes/honorary-doctorates/
  57. ^ "Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences Recipients" American Philosophical Society Retrieved November 27, 2011 
  58. ^ Archived November 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  59. ^ "Guardonats anteriors Premi Internacional Catalunya Generalitat de Catalunya" gencatcat 
  60. ^ "World Knowledge Dialogue" wkdialoguech 
  61. ^ "biophilia-center" Eowilsoncenterorg Retrieved 2015-12-06 
  62. ^ "EO Wilson Biophilia Center" Vimeo 
  63. ^ "BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards" fbbvaes 
  64. ^ "Chicago Humanities Festival" chicagohumanitiesorg 
  65. ^ "William L Brown, Jr Obituary" Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History 
  66. ^ "Character displacement" Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias 

External links

  • Curriculum vitae
  • EO Wilson Foundation
  • Dawkins, Richard 24 May 2012 "The Descent of Edward Wilson" Prospect Archived from the original on October 19, 2012  Review of The Social Conquest of Earth
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • E O Wilson at TED

e. o. wilson, e. o. wilson biography, e. o. wilson biophilia center, e. o. wilson consilience, e. o. wilson contact information, e. o. wilson meaning of human existence, e. o. wilson nature adventure park, e. o. wilson quotes, e. o. wilson social conquest of earth, e. o. wilson sociobiology

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