Doukas


Doukas, Latinized as Ducas Greek: Δούκας; feminine: Doukaina/Ducaena, Δούκαινα; plural: Doukai/Ducae, Δοῦκαι, from the Latin tile dux "leader", "general", Hellenized as δοὺξ ðoux, is the name of a Byzantine Greek noble family, whose branches provided several notable generals and rulers to the Byzantine Empire in the 9th–11th centuries A maternally-descended line, the Komnenodoukai, founded the Despotate of Epirus in the 13th century, with another branch ruling over Thessaly After the 12th century, the name "Doukas" and other variants proliferated across the Byzantine world, and were sometimes presented as signifying a direct genealogical relationship with the original family or the later branch based in the Despotate of Epirus

The continuity of descent amongst the various branches of the original, middle Byzantine family is not clear, and historians generally recognize several distinct groups of Doukai based on their occurrence in the contemporary sources According to Demetrios I Polemis, who compiled the only overview work on the bearers of the Doukas name, in view of this lack of genealogical continuity "it would be a mistake to view the groups of people designated by the cognomen of Doukas as forming one large family"1

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Origins
    • 12 Doukai of the early 10th century
    • 13 Lydoi-Doukai under Basil II
    • 14 Doukas imperial dynasty
    • 15 Under the Komnenoi
    • 16 Later branches
  • 2 References
  • 3 Sources
  • 4 External links

Historyedit

Originsedit

Nothing is known for certain about the family's origin Later tradition, mentioned by the historian Nikephoros Bryennios, held that they descended from a cousin of the Roman emperor Constantine I who had migrated to Constantinople in the 4th century and allegedly became the city's governor with the title of doux This tradition is, however, evidently an invention meant to glorify the family, at the time the Empire's ruling dynasty, by 11th-century court chroniclers23 In fact, it is more likely that the surname derives from the relatively common military rank of doux4 Nothing is known about the family's origin Several authors have raised the possibility of an Armenian descent, but it is almost certain that the Doukai were in fact native-born Greek-speakers, probably from Paphlagonia in north-central Anatolia, where their estates were located35

Doukai of the early 10th centuryedit

Constantine Doukas escapes from Arab captivity, throwing gold coins behind him to delay his pursuers Miniature from the Madrid Skylitzes chronicle

The first representative of the family appears in the mid-9th century, during the regency of Empress Theodora r 842–855, when he was sent to forcibly convert the Paulicians to Orthodoxy He is only known as "the son of Doux", although Skylitzes interpolates the name of Andronikos, probably in confusion with Andronikos Doukas see next This name is also used by some modern sources, eg in the Prosopographie der mittelbyzantinischen Zeit Andronikos #43367

The first branch of the family to achieve prominence was in the early 10th century they are usually referred to with the archaic form Doux rather than Doukas in the sources, with Andronikos Doukas and his son Constantine Doukas Both were senior generals during the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise r 886–912 In circa 904, Andronikos engaged in an unsuccessful rebellion and was forced to flee to Baghdad where he was killed in circa 910 Constantine managed to escape and was restored to high office, becoming Domestic of the Schools He was killed, however, along with his son Gregory and nephew Michael, in an unsuccessful coup in June 91389 These deaths, along with the castration and exile of Constantine's younger son Stephen and the death of a Nicholas Doukas of uncertain relation to the others at the Battle of Katasyrtai in 917, mark the end of the first group of Doukai recorded in Byzantine sources It is likely, as the 12th-century historian Zonaras records, that the Doukai line died out, and that the later bearers of the name were descendants through the female line only6810

Lydoi-Doukai under Basil IIedit

Towards the end of the 10th century, there appeared a second family, sometimes known as Lydoi "the Lydians", likely indicating their origin Its members were Andronikos Doux Lydos and his sons, Christopher and Bardas, the latter known with the sobriquet Mongos "hoarse" It is unclear whether the doux in Andronikos's name is a surname or a military rank; some scholars consider them as belonging to the Doukas clan, although the exact relation, if any, with the earlier Doukai, is impossible to ascertain The family was involved in the 976–979 rebellion of Bardas Skleros against Emperor Basil II r 976–1025, but the sons were later pardoned and resumed their careers Bardas the Mongos is attested as late as 1017, when he led a military expedition against the Khazars61112

Doukas imperial dynastyedit

Further information: Byzantium under the Doukids Gold histamenon of Emperor Constantine X Doukas r 1059–1067

The third group of the family, the Doukai of the 11th century, was the more numerous and distinguished one, providing several generals, governors, and founding the Doukid dynasty which ruled Byzantium from 1059 to 1081 These Doukai seem to have come from Paphlagonia, and were exceedingly wealthy, possessing extensive estates in Anatolia Again, the relationship of this group with the Doukai of the 9th and 10th centuries is unclear; the contemporary writers Michael Psellos and Nicholas Kallikles affirm such a relationship, but Zonaras openly questioned it61314

The most famous members of this group were the dynasty's founder, Emperor Constantine X Doukas r 1059–1067, his brother John Doukas, katepano and later Caesar, Constantine's son Michael VII Doukas r 1071–1078, Michael's younger brothers, Konstantios and Andronikos Doukas, Michael's son and co-emperor Constantine Doukas and John's son, the general Andronikos Doukas613

During this period, the family intermarried with other aristocratic clans: before becoming emperor, Constantine X had married into the powerful Dalassenoi family, and took as a second wife Eudokia Makrembolitissa, niece of the Patriarch Michael Keroularios Further dynastic matches were made with the clans of the Anatolian military aristocracy, including the Palaiologoi and the Pegonitai15 The most important connection, however, was to the Komnenoi: in 1077, Alexios Komnenos, then a general and later emperor r 1081–1118, married Irene Doukaina, the great-niece of Constantine X; thereafter, the family name Komnenodoukas was often used6 This marriage alliance crucial for Alexios's own rise to the purple: his marriage to a Doukaina made him senior to his elder brother Isaac, and it was Doukai financial and political support that largely facilitated the successful and bloodless coup that brought him to the throne16

Under the Komnenoiedit

Their association with the Komnenoi helped ensure the continued prominence and prestige of the Doukas name at the apex of the Byzantine aristocracy into the Komnenian period, and the presence of the family's members amongst the higher officials of the Byzantine state17 During the reign of Alexios I, the Doukai continued to play an important role: Constantine Doukas was recognized as heir-apparent and affianced to Anna Komnene although he lost his title when the future John II Komnenos was born; and Irene Doukaina's brothers, the protostrator Michael Doukas and the megas doux John Doukas were among the most prominent military leaders of the late 11th century18

During the 12th century, the prestige of the Doukas name meant that it was often taken as a second surname by members of other families, even if remotely and usually matrilineally linked to the actual Doukai, who become relatively obscure after the turn of the century It is hence impossible to clearly distinguish the numerous holders of the name or to discern their exact relationship with the 11th-century Doukid dynasty The actual bloodline of Constantine X died out probably before 1100, and the last known descendants of his brother, the Caesar John, lived in the first half of the 12th century The majority of the 12th-century bearers of the name were therefore most likely members of other families, linked through marriage with the Doukai, who chose to emphasize this relationship due to the prestige the name conferred61920

Later branchesedit

In this way, mingled with other noble families or adopted de novo even by humble families unrelated to the original lineage,21 the Doukas name survived into the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire22 A prominent example of the Late Byzantine period were the Komnenodoukai of the Despotate of Epirus in northwestern Greece, founded by Michael I Komnenos Doukas and other descendants of John Doukas, a grandson of Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina From them the surname "Doukas" was used by the Greek, and later Serbian, rulers of Epirus and Thessaly until the 15th century23 Other examples include John III Doukas Vatatzes, Nicaean emperor r 1221–1254 and his relatives,24 the late Byzantine historian Doukas,25 and the megas papias Demetrios Doukas Kabasilas in the mid-14th century26

The name spread far and wide across the Greek-speaking world as well as in Albania, and remains fairly common to this day Among the more notable bearers of the Doukas name in the post-Byzantine period were the 16th-century Cretan scholar Demetrius Ducas, the 17th-century rulers of Moldavia George Ducas and Constantine Ducas their descent is variously given as Greek, Vlach or Albanian or the 19th-century scholar and educationalist Neophytos Doukas27 Several variations also developed, such as Doukakes Δουκάκης cf former Massachusetts state governor Michael Dukakis, Doukopoulos Δουκόπουλος, Doukatos Δουκάτος, Makrodoukas or Makrydoukas Μακροδούκας/Μακρυδούκας, etc Other variants like Doukaites Δουκαΐτης or Doukides Δουκίδης seem to derive not from the surname, but from a locality and a first name "Doukas" respectively28

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 1–2
  2. ^ Polemis 1968, p 3
  3. ^ a b Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 2 Archived February 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Polemis 1968, p 4
  5. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 5–6
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Kazhdan 1991, p 655
  7. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 2, 16
  8. ^ a b Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 3
  9. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 2, 6–7, 16–25; Kazhdan 1991, pp 655, 657
  10. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 2, 6–8, 25–26
  11. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 2, 8, 26–27
  12. ^ Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 4permanent dead link
  13. ^ a b Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 51
  14. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 8–11
  15. ^ Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 52
  16. ^ Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 54
  17. ^ Polemis 1968, p 10
  18. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp 655, 657–658
  19. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 10–11, 189
  20. ^ Krsmanović 2003, Chapter 6 Archived February 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Polemis 1968, p 189
  22. ^ cf Polemis 1968, pp 80–199
  23. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 85–100
  24. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 107ff
  25. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 198–199
  26. ^ Polemis 1968, p 123
  27. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 202–203
  28. ^ Polemis 1968, pp 202–211

Sourcesedit

  • Cheynet, Jean-Claude 1996 Pouvoir et Contestations à Byzance 963–1210 in French Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne ISBN 978-2-85944-168-5 
  • Kazhdan, Alexander, ed 1991 The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 
  • Krsmanović, Bojana 11 September 2003 "Doukas family" Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor Athens: Foundation of the Hellenic World Archived from the original on 21 July 2011 Retrieved 17 April 2012 
  • Polemis, Demetrios I 1968 The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography London: The Athlone Press 

External linksedit



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