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Dál nAraidi

dál naraidi
Dál nAraidi sometimes Latinised as Dalaradia was a Cruthin kingdom, or possibly a confederation of Cruthin tribes,1 in north-eastern Ireland during the early-mid Middle Ages It was part of the over-kingdom of Ulaid The lands of the Dál nAraidi appear to correspond with those of the Robogdii in Ptolemy's Geography, a region shared with Dál Riata Their eponymous ancestor is claimed as being Fiachu Araide


  • 1 Territory
  • 2 Branches
    • 21 In Tuaiscirt
    • 22 Magh Line
    • 23 Magh Cobo Uí Echach Cobo
    • 24 Uí Erca Céin
  • 3 History
  • 4 Tribes and relations
  • 5 Locations
    • 51 Tuatha
    • 52 Religious foundations
    • 53 Forts and symbolic places
    • 54 Other places
    • 55 Geographical features
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Bibliography


Dál nAraidi was centered on the northern shores of Lough Neagh in southern County Antrim, Northern Ireland Dál nAraidi was one of the more prominent sub-kingdoms of Ulaid, with its kings contending with the Dál Fiatach for the over-kingship of the province for some centuries

To the north of Dál nAraidi in County Antrim lay the Dál Riata, the boundary between which was marked out by the River Bush river to Dál Riata's west, and the southern boundary running from Ravel Water to just north of Glynn on the east Antrim coast234


In Tuaiscirtedit

In the mid-7th century the Dál nAraidi of Magh Line, ruled by the Uí Chóelbad dynasty, conquered Eilne alias Mag Eilne to their north-west and a branch of their dynasty seems to have settled there5 This branch of the Uí Chóelbad descended from Fiachra Cáech d 608, brother of Fiachnae Lurgan, king of Dál nAraidi and over-king of Ulaid6

Dungal Eilni, great-grandson of Fiachra Cáech and king of Dál nAraidi, was possibly the first of this branch to be based in Eilne,6 however in 681 was killed at Dún Ceithern modern-day Giant's Sconce in parish of Dunboe, west of River Bann78 This branch of the Magh Line Dál nAraidi eventually became known as the Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt Dál nAraidi of the North and Dál nAraidi Mag nEilne9 The first reference to Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt can be found in the Annals of Ulster under the year 82456

Between 646 and 792, the Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt held the overkingship of Dál nAraidi seven times, with two of that number becoming overkings of Ulaid6 Cathussach mac Ailello, king of Eilne and Dál nAraidi, and claimed as having ruled the over-kingdom of Ulaid for sixteen years, was killed at Ráith Beithech Rathveagh, County Antrim in 74910 Eochaid mac Bressal, who died in 832, was the last known king of the Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt to hold the over-kingship of the Dál nAraidi5 The last known king of Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt is recorded in 8836

The church or monastery of Cuil Raithin on the shore of the River Bann lay in Eilne and was said to have been founded by Cairbre, who subsequently became its bishop11 According to the Tripartite Life of St Patrick, written in the 9th century, the Dál nAraidi had granted this church to Saint Patrick11

The Airgíallan dynasty of Uí Tuirtrí that lay west of the River Bann had been active east of it from as early as 776,6 and by the 10th century had taken control of Eilne12

Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt is said to have corresponded to the later baronies of Dunluce Lower and North East Liberties of Coleraine,26 and appears to correspond to the trícha cét of An Tuaiscert6 It also became an Anglo-Norman cantred called Twescard, which later would absorb the cantred of Dalrede based on Dál Riata, with these two combined cantreds forming the basis for the rural deanery of Twescard6 A sub-division of in Tuaiscirt called Cuil an Tuaiscirt, meaning the "nook/corner" of Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt, was located in the north-west of the petty-kingdom near Coleraine It's territory would form the basis of the later barony of North East Liberties of Coleraine

Magh Lineedit

The Dál nAraidi Magh Line, or the Dál nAraidi of Moylinny modern-Irish Maigh Line, meaning "plain of Line"13 was the predominant dynasty of the Dál nAraidi It was centered in southern County Antrim, with Ráith Mór its royal seat14 In the 10th century they are counted as one of twelve tuatha of Ulaid15 Line may represent the name of an original population grouping It was also known as Mocu Aridi16

Their territory at its height spanned southern County Antrim and northern County Down17 containing the tuatha of Magh Line, Dál mBuinne, and Dál Sailni1819 It was later known as Trian Congaill, meaning the "third of Congal Claen" Caech, and became an alias for the territory of Clandeboye, named as such after the Clandeboye O'Neill's who conquered the area in the late 14th century1720 By the 10th century Dál mBuinne was counted amongst the twelve tuatha of Ulaid15 After the Viking era, Dál Sailni and its church at Connor, the principle church of Dál nAraidi was lost to the encroaching Uí Tuirtri19

The royal seat of the Dál nAraidi Magh Line was Ráith Mór meaning "great fort", Anglicised as Rathmore, located near Lough Neagh in the civil parish of Donegore142122 It is first recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters under the date 680 as Ratha moiré Maighe Line21 Neighbouring Ráith Mór was Ráith Beag meaning "little fort", Anglicised as Rathbeg, and is attested location where Áed Dub mac Suibni, king of Dál nAraidi and Ulaid, killed High King Diarmait mac Cerbaill in 5651423 By the 16th century Ráith Mór became known as Ráth Mór Mag Ullin, meaning "great fort of the MacQuillans", and was burnt to the ground by Art mac Hugh O'Neill in 1513 after which it was never restored22

Cráeb Telcha, usually linked to modern-day Crew Hill near Glenavy,24 was the inauguration site of the Dál Fiatach kings of Ulaid, however it appears to have also been the same for the Dál nAraidi prior to the 9th-century contraction of their territory2425

Magh Cobo Uí Echach Coboedit

By the late 8th century, Dál Fiatach expansion had cut off the County Antrim and Down branches of the Cruthin from each other1 As a result, the County Down branch consolidated into the kingdom of the Uí Echach Cobo, based at Magh Cobo, "the plain of Cobo"1526 They were styled as kings of Cuib According to the medieval genealogies they are descended from the Dál nAraidi, though this link is tenuous27 By the 10th century Uí Echach Cobo was counted amongst the twelve tuatha of Ulaid15

Uí Echach Cobo's territory formed the basis of the medieval deanery and Norman cantred of Oveh, as well as the diocese of Dromore10 Their territory was later Anglicised as Iveagh Their 14th-century expansion formed the basis for the later barony of Iveagh

Uí Erca Céinedit

Also spelt as Uí Dercco Céin and Uí Dearca Chein,15 the Uí Erca Céin where a branch of the Dál nAraidi, and according to the 10th-century Lebor na Cert, one of the twelve minor principalities under the king of Ulaid1528 They appear to have been based near Semne in Latharna, with their base possibly being Carrickfergus, and a list of Uí Erca Céin kings are given as having ruled Latharna until the mid-7th century, though there are records of kings down to around 900 AD29 A branch of the Uí Erca Céin line of kings, the Síl Fingín, also twice held the overkingship of Dál nAraidi2829 After 750, the Uí Erca Céin became associated with the church of Bangor

At some point they disappear from Latharna and by the 14th century are found in the territory of Leath Cathail in central County Down2829

The Uí Erca Céin had five vassal tribes all of different origins: the Cenél Talain and Dál Fhocha nUchtar, both of whom appear to also have been of the Cruthin, and possibly refugees driven from their home that went to "Dercco Chen"30 A tradition of the Cenél Talain mentions that they had an ancestor who fought alongside Fiacha Araide, the eponymous ancestor of the Dál nAraidi;30 the Crothraidi, who according to tradition descended from Connacht, however migrated to Ulaid and after 600AD had joined the Uí Erca Céin;30 Crothraidi Buaingine, who are said to descend from Munster;30 and the Dál Coirb Fobair, a portion of whom where located in the south Antrim territory of Dál mBuinne, and are claimed to have descended from a Leinster prince called Cú Corb30


By the start of the historic period in Ireland in the 6th century, the over-kingdom of Ulaid was largely confined to east of the River Bann in north-eastern Ireland7 The Cruthin however still held territory west of the Bann in County Londonderry, and their emergence may have concealed the dominance of earlier tribal groupings7

In 563, according to the Annals of Ulster, an apparent internal struggle amongst the Cruthin resulted in Báetán mac Cinn making a deal with the Northern Uí Néill, promising them the territories of Ard Eólairg Magilligan peninsula and the Lee, both west of the River Bann7 As a result, the battle of Móin Daire Lothair modern-day Moneymore took place between them and an alliance of Cruthin kings, in which the Cruthin suffered a devastating defeat7 Afterwards the Northern Uí Néill settled their Airgíalla allies in the Cruthin territory of Eilne, which lay between the River Bann and the River Bush7 The defeated Cruthin alliance meanwhile consolidated itself within the Dál nAraidi dynasty7

In 565, Áed Dub mac Suibni, king of Dál nAraidi and Ulaid, killed High King Diarmait mac Cerbaill at Raith Bec Rathbeg, County Antrim14

The Dál nAraidi king Congal Cáech took possession of the over-kingship of Ulaid in 626, and in 628 killed the High King of Ireland, Suibne Menn of the Northern Uí Néill in battle31 In 629, Congal led the Dál nAraidi to defeat against the same foes7 In an attempt to have himself installed as High King of Ireland, Congal made alliances with Dál Riata and Strathclyde, which resulted in the disastrous Battle of Moira in 637, in modern-day County Antrim, which saw Congal slain by High King Domnall mac Áedo of the Northern Uí Néill and severely weakened both Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata1231

The Annals of Ulster record that in 668, the battle of Bellum Fertsi modern-day Belfast took place between the Ulaid and Cruthin, both terms which then referred to the Dál Fiatach and Dál nAraide respectively7 Meanwhile, the Dál nAraidi where still resisting the encroaching Northern Uí Néill In 681, the Dál nAraidi led by Dúngal Eilni of the In Tuasicirt branch, along with their allies, the Cianachta Glenn Geimin of northern County Londonderry led by Cenn Fáelad, were killed at Dún Cethirinn by Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich of the Cenél Meic Ercae of Cenél nEógain7832

Some form of combination of the Dál nAraidi, the Cianachta Glenn Geimin and the Cenél Feradaig was suspected of involvement in the death of Eochaid mac Domangairt, king of the Cenél nGabráin of Scottish Dál Riata in 69733

Throughout the 7th century, the Cruthin had gradually lost their lands west of the River Bann, allowing Dál nAraidi to become the sole Cruthin dynastic grouping in County Antrim1 After 776, the annals no longer refer to the Dál nAraidi as being of Cruthin stock, but to be of the Ulaid population-grouping instead, being called the fir-Ulaid, the "men of Ulster"1

In the 8th century the kingdom of Dál Riata was overrun by the Dál nAraidi34 Concurrently the Dál Fiatach extended their territory cutting off the Dál nAraidi from the Uí Echach Cobo1 By the end of the 9th century the Dál nAraidi had taken control of Ulaid from the Dál Fiatach This however only lasted until 972, when Eochaid mac Ardgail restored Dál Fiatach's dominance35

In 1005, Brian Boru, marched north to accept submissions from the Ulaid, which including marching upon the Dál nAraidi capital Ráith Mór where he received only the submissions of their king36

By the beginning of the 12th century the Dál nAraidi, ruled by the Ó Loingsigh O'Lynch, had lost control of most of Antrim to the Uí Fhloinn O'Lynn and became restricted to the territory of Magh Line The Uí Fhloinn were the ruling sept of the Airgíallan Uí Tuirtri as well as rulers of Fir Lí, and in a process of gradual infiltration by marital and military alliances as well as growing pressure from the encroaching Cenél nEógain, they moved their power east of the Bann Once they had come to prominence in Antrim the Ua Flainn styled themselves as king of Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt, Dál Riata, and Fir Lí, alongside their own Uí Tuirtri34

Tribes and relationsedit

Main article: List of clans and septs in Ulaid

Tribes and septs of the Dál nAraidi include amongst others:

  • Cenél Caeilbaidh37
  • Cenél Maelche37
  • Clann Aodha
  • Clanna Conaill Chernaig37
  • Clann Luirgine37
  • Corcraige Chaelraidi37
  • Corcraige Sogain37
  • Mac Aodh
  • Mag Aonghusa38
  • Mac Artáin39
  • Síl Ciarain37
  • Síl Fingín29
  • Uí Choelbad
  • Uí Coltarain
  • Uí Erca Céin29
  • Uí Fiachrach40
  • Uí Gairbhith41
  • Uí hAidith42
  • Uí hAinbheith43
  • Uí Labhradha44
  • Uí Leathlobhair45
  • Uí Loingsigh



  • Latharna, alias Latharne, meaning the "descendants of Lathar", present-day Larne46 Lathar, alias Lath, is claimed as being the son of Ugaine Mór47 Semne,2 modern-Irish Seimhne, now known as Island Magee, is located within Latharna and was the name of an early tribal grouping, which became the name of a petty-kingdom48
  • Maige Damoerna, alias Mag Damairne216 Modern-Irish Machaire Morna, meaning "plain of Morna", and Anglicised as Magheramorne49 Located west of Larne Lough16
  • Dál mBuinne, alias Dál Buain Also known as Mic Ui Buan, Maccu Boin, and Tuath Búain, an aithechthúatha client-people of Dál nAraidi Magh Line1650
  • Dál Sailni, alias Dál Selle, Dál Sailne, and Tuath Selle50 They descended from Fedhlim Sailne,50 and were possibly a former sóerthúatha free-people, however became an aithechthúatha of Dál nAraidi Magh Line Whilst the ruling dynasty of the Dál nAraidi Magh Line, the Uí Choelbad, supplied the principle kings, Dál Sailni held the principle church of Connor19 In the post-Viking era, Dál Sailni and its church was taken over by the encroaching Uí Tuirtri19
  • Tuath Sine, cited as a aithechthúatha of Dál nAraidi Magh Line50

Religious foundationsedit

  • Cell Glass, alias Cell Glas237 A church said to have been founded by St Patrick Located in Eilne, east of Domnach Mór37
  • Lathrach Pátraic, also spelt as Leitir2 Meaning "St Patrick's site", the place is now known as Glenavy, modern-Irish Lann Abhaigh, meaning "church of the dwarf"4751 Called "Lathrach Pátraic" in the Tripartite Life of Saint Patrick, the church referenced was said to have been founded by St Patrick who left his disciple Daniel, who was a of diminutive size, in charge51
  • Domnach Combair2 Possibly Comber in County Down, modern-Irish An Comar, meaning "the confluence"52 Domnach means "church/monastery", and refers to a monastery said to have been built by Conla who had encountered St Patrick52
  • Domnach mór Maige Damoerna2 Domnach mór means "great church", and was located in the petty-kingdom of Maige Damoerna49
  • Telach or Cell Conadain2 Possibly Saint Cunning, parish of Carncastle, barony of Glenarm Upper
  • Gluare2 Modern-Irish Gluaire, meaning "brightness, purity", and Anglicised as Glore53 Located in the petty-kingdom of Latharna, it was a church founded by St Patrick53
  • Cell Boetáin, alias Cell Baedáin and Cell Scoba237 Said to be within the territory of the Cland Sogain mic Fiachrach Araidi37
  • Cell Fhindsiche, alias Cell Finnische2 Possibly modern Killinchy in barony of Dufferin in County Down37
  • Cell Ruad2 Modern-Irish Cill Ruaidh, meaning "church of the red land", Anglicised as Kilroot54 Located on the banks of Loch Laigh, it is associated with St Colmán37
  • Luidh Pátraic2
  • Cell Ciannáin, located in Semne37
  • Domnach Cainri, a church located in Cothraighe2

Forts and symbolic placesedit

  • Raith Sithe2 Modern-Irish Ráth Sí, meaning "fairy fort", modern-day Rashee, a church alleged to have been founded by St Patrick55 Its earliest mention is in the Annals of Ulster, which mentions the death of Bishop Eoghan of "Ratha Sithe" in 618AD55
  • Raith Epscuip Fhindich in Húi Darca-chein2
  • Rath Aidhne, located in Semne256
  • Ráith Cimaeith, located in Semne56
  • Ráith Cind Con56
  • Ráith Line, located in Magh Line, poissbly an alternate name for Ráith Mór56
  • Ráith Bacain, located in Latharna47
  • Ráith Bachall, located in Latharna47
  • Dún Daen Hi Fidbaid and Dún dá Én i fFiodhbhaidh2 Modern-Irish Dún Dá Éan, meaning "fort of the two birds", present day Duneane5758 Hi Fidbaid may represent Uí Fidbaid, a possible tribe Otherwise Fiodhbhaidh means "forest"59

Other placesedit

The following locations have all been cited to have been within Dál nAraidi:2

  • Imlech Cluane Located in Semne2
  • Cúil Raithin Meaning "corner/nook of ferns"60 Modern-day Coleraine Located in Eilne, it was once an episcopal see237 A church had been founded here by St Patrick37 It has been suggested that it lost its status after the Ui Choelbad ruling dynasty of the Dál nAraidi of Magh Line conquered Eilne in the mid-7th century, and a prince of theirs settled there Their own church in Magh Line, at Domnach Combair, was also an episcopal see and they may have been content to see Cúil Raithin lose its status61
  • Ross Torathair, also spelt as Ros/Rois Torothair256 Situated near Cúil Raithin, a battle for this place between St Columba and St Comgall is referenced to in the Amra Choluim Chille, the Elegy of St Columba5662
  • Druim Dáganda2
  • Echdruim Brecain2 Modern-Irish Eachdhroim, meaning "horse ridge", Anglicised Aughrim63 It was situated according to O'Donovan along the border of Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata64
  • Airther Maigi Cobhai265 Modern-Irish Oirthear Maí, meaning "the east of the plain", and Anglicised as Armoy6566 St Patrick is alleged to have baptised St Olcan here and installed him as bishop of its church66 It was located in the kingdom of Dál Riata66
  • Scirit, also known as Scirec Archaile, meaning Arcail: great valley40 Now known as Skerry Located near Slemish in Dál nAraidi in Tuaiscirt, it was an ancient burial place40
  • Inber Olarba, also spelt Inver Olarba, the estuary of the river Olarba, present-day Larne67
  • Laethet47 The site of a battle between the Dál nAraidi and Dál Fiatach, possibly modern-day Knocklayd, in the north of County Antrim47 Knocklayd derives from Cnoc Leithid, meaning "hill of the slope"68
  • Linn Dóe, alias Linn Uachaill, which formed part of the boundary of Dál nAraidi47 Said to belong to the Clanna Conall Cearnach47
  • Linn in Goban, alias Linn na nGobann, Cenn Guba, and Cnoc Glinne Said to have been where the legendary figure Tuathal Techtmar was slain3747 Stated as being a hill at Móin an Chatha in Magh Line37
  • Fan in tsamaisci69
  • Fid átha luain, alias Fedha baile atha luain Linked with Dún Daen Hi Fidbaid69
  • Cairloegh, alias Carrlóig Claimed as being located near Na Lee in what became the barony of Coleraine Said to have been granted to Fiachra for defeating Ailill in the battle of Ocha37
  • Cothraighe, alias Cothrugi237 Located in Dál Riata, the name preserved in the barony of Cary237
  • Cúl Cáel, alias Cúl Cóil Where Fiacha mac Baetain, king of Dál nAraidi killed Fiacha mac Demain, king of Dál Fiatach Possibly Kilkeel in County Down, which derives from Cill Chaoil, meaning "Caol's church" or "church of the narrow place"3770
  • Cúl Fothirbi, alias Cell Fuithirbi37
  • Alt na n-Ingen, located in Crích Dalaraide65

Geographical featuresedit

  • Buas2 Modern-Irish An Bhuais, meaning "the cow-like one", modern-day River Bush71 A river in north-western County Antrim that was the boundary between west of Dál Riata and the east of Eilne2
  • Fregabhail2 Modern-Irish Freabhal, meaning "towards the fork", modern-day Glenravel River4 Formed the northern border between Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata4 It also formed part of the boundary between the medieval deanerys of Tuaisceart and Ui Tuirtre69
  • hi nDíthruib Slébi Mis2 Modern-Irish Sliabh Mis, meaning "Mis's mountain", modern-day Slemish72
  • Fertais Tuama2 Modern-Irish Fearsaid Thuama, meaning the "ford of Toome", present-day Toome73 The ford referenced crossed the River Bann near Lough Neagh
  • Conaire, also spelt as Condaire and Connere274 Modern-Irish Coinnire, meaning "wild-dog oak-wood", and Anglicised as Conner It is the location of the medieval cathedral for the diocese of Connor Its patron is stated as being St Mac Nissi75
  • Glenn Indechta2 Modern-Irish Gleann Fhinneachta, meaning "Finneacht's glen", Anglicised as Glynn3 St Patrick is said to have founded a church here Glenn Indechta also marked the southern boundary of the kingdom of Dál Riata3
  • Magh Latrainn, alias Lathraind, Latharrne, and Latharna, the plain of Latharna running from the hills to the sea16
  • Ollarba, alias Olarba267 Modern-day River Larne, which empties into Larne Lough76 Some claim it is instead the Six Mile Water, which starts near Larne and empties into Lough Neagh77 It was located to the south-east of Magh Line, running past Ráith Mór67
  • Olar A river that like the Olarba starts at Móin an Chatha but instead flows into Lough Neagh16
  • Móin an Chatha, the bog of which the rivers Olar and Ollarba start16
  • Sliab Cáin, located at "Glenn in Scáil"40
  • Glenn in Scáil, alias Muintir Diugna16 Near Slemish, it is where Milchú kept St Patrick as a slave78
  • Magh Monaich16
  • Magh Séle, located in Semne16
  • Men, alias Mena, Main, Myn, modern-Irish An Mhin, meaning "the river/water", now known as the River Maine This river flowed into "Rubha Mena", now known as Mainwater Foot, at Lough Neagh1679
  • Monai, a bog located somewhere in Dál nAraidi16
  • Loch Daim Deircc A lake located west of Tráig Fhirgrinne Mic Dheagaid and of Uisce Labrainde, both west of Slemish4780
  • Inber n-Ailinne81
  • Loch Laigh, alias Loch Lóig and Loch Láig3747 Modern-Irish Loch Lao, meaning "sea-inlet of the calf", now known as Belfast Lough82
  • Cluain Beoan and Cluain Fiachna37
  • Cnoc Cennghaba, alias Cnoc Glinne-an-Gabhann and Cnoc Glindi Ui Gaband, located in Magh Line37 A prince of Fremand Fini was also slain here37
  • Crich Araide Adruiad37 One of the mountains of Ulaid, seen from County Louth37
  • Slebe Ulad Mountains of Ulaid, containing Crích Araide Adruaid, Sliab Mis magnech, Monor nGand, and Sliab Caín Comramach Calland83
  • Arcail, a great glen located to the north of Sliabh Mis Now known as the Braid Valley65
  • Arda Corrain A battle occurred here between the Dál nAraidi and Dál Riata Fiachna mac Demmain, king of Dál nAraidi and Ulaid was slain here Possibly the hill above "the Corran of Larne"65

See alsoedit

  • Dál Fiatach
  • Dál Riata
  • Iveagh
  • Kings of Dál nAraidi
  • List of kings of Ulster
  • Red Branch
  • Ulaid


  1. ^ a b c d e Byrne 1971, pp 154-155
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Onomasticon Goedelicum - D
  3. ^ a b c Place Names NI - Glynn
  4. ^ a b c Place Names NI - Glenravel Water
  5. ^ a b c "Fir-na-craibhe in Dal Araide of the North" Retrieved 3 August 2016 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i MacCotter, p 231
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j A New History of Ireland, p 212
  8. ^ a b Charles-Edwards 2006, p 68
  9. ^ Charles-Edwards 2006, p 165
  10. ^ a b Byrne 1964, p 85
  11. ^ a b McCone, p 308-309
  12. ^ a b McSparron, p 109
  13. ^ Place Names NI - Moylinny
  14. ^ a b c d Flanagan, pp 98-99
  15. ^ a b c d e f Dobbs 1945, p 78
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Onomasticon Goedelicum - M
  17. ^ a b Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland - County Antrim
  18. ^ Berry, p 9
  19. ^ a b c d Charles-Edwards 2000, p 63
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Swanston was invoked but never defined see the help page
  21. ^ a b Place Names NI - Rathmore
  22. ^ a b Berry, p 19
  23. ^ Place Names NI - Rathbeg
  24. ^ a b MacDonald, p 84
  25. ^ � Centre for Archaeological Fieldwork School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology Queen’s University Belfast - Data Structure Report: No 056 Site Evaluation and Excavation at Crew Hill Cráeb Telcha, near Glenavy, County Antrim 2007
  26. ^ Byrne 1964, p 58
  27. ^ Byrne 1971, p 165
  28. ^ a b c Dobbs 1939, pp 116-117
  29. ^ a b c d e MacCotter, p 230
  30. ^ a b c d e Dobbs 1939, pp 118-119
  31. ^ a b Bardon, pp 20-21
  32. ^ Maney 2002, p 67
  33. ^ Maney 2004, p 265
  34. ^ a b A New History of Ireland, p 17
  35. ^ Duffy 2005, p 493
  36. ^ Duffy 2014, pp 138-139
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Onomasticon Goedelicum - C
  38. ^ Bell, p 163
  39. ^ Bell, p 137
  40. ^ a b c d Onomasticon Goedelicum - S
  41. ^ Woulfe, Rev Patrick 1923 "Ó Gairbheith" Irish Names and Surnames Retrieved 15 September 2015 
  42. ^ Woulfe, Rev Patrick 1923 "Ó Haidith" Irish Names and Surnames Retrieved 15 September 2015 
  43. ^ Woulfe, Rev Patrick 1923 "Ó hAinbheith" Irish Names and Surnames Retrieved 15 September 2015 
  44. ^ Woulfe, Rev Patrick 1923 "Ó Labhradha" Irish Names and Surnames Retrieved 15 September 2015 
  45. ^ Woulfe, Rev Patrick 1923 "Ó Leathlobhair" Irish Names and Surnames Retrieved 15 September 2015 
  46. ^ Place Names NI - Larne
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Onomasticon Goedelicum - L
  48. ^ Place Names NI - Island Magee
  49. ^ a b Place Names NI - Magheramorne
  50. ^ a b c d Onomasticon Goedelicum - T
  51. ^ a b Place Names NI - Glenavy
  52. ^ a b Place Names NI - Comber
  53. ^ a b Place Names NI - Glore
  54. ^ Place Names NI - Kilroot
  55. ^ a b Place Names NI - Rashee
  56. ^ a b c d e f Onomasticon Goedelicum - R
  57. ^ Place Names NI - Duneane Parish
  58. ^ Place Names NI - Duneane Manse
  59. ^ Irish Language Dictionary - Fiodhba
  60. ^ Place Names NI - Coleraine Parish
  61. ^ Charles-Edwards 2000, p 59
  62. ^ Amra of St Columba
  63. ^ Place Names NI - Aughrim, County Down
  64. ^ O'Donovan, p 121
  65. ^ a b c d e Onomasticon Goedelicum - A
  66. ^ a b c Place Names NI - Armoy
  67. ^ a b c Onomasticon Goedelicum - O
  68. ^ Place Names NI - Knocklayd
  69. ^ a b c Onomasticon Goedelicum - F
  70. ^ Place Names NI - Kilkeel
  71. ^ Place Names NI - Bush
  72. ^ Place Names NI - Slemish
  73. ^ Place Names NI - Toome
  74. ^ Place Names NI - Connor Parish
  75. ^ Place Names NI - Connor
  76. ^ Place Names NI - Larne River
  77. ^ Place Names NI - Six Mile Water
  78. ^ Onomasticon Goedelicum - G
  79. ^ Place Names NI - Main
  80. ^ Onomasticon Goedelicum - U
  81. ^ Onomasticon Goedelicum - I
  82. ^ Place Names NI - Belfast Lough
  83. ^ The Metrical Dindshenchas


  • Bardon, Jonathan 2005 A History of Ulster The Black Staff Press ISBN 0-85640-764-X 
  • Bell, Robert 2003 The book of Ulster Surnames The Blackstaff Press p 180 ISBN 0-85640-602-3 
  • Berry, RJ The Royal Residence of Rathmore of Moy-Linne With Notes on Other Early Earthworks in Ulster Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, Vol 5, No 1 Oct, 1898, pp 9-19 Ulster Archaeological Society 
  • Byrne, FJ Clann Ollaman Uaisle Emna Studia Hibernica, No 4 1964, pp 54-94 Liverpool University Press 
  • Byrne, FJ Tribes and tribalism in Early Ireland Ériu, Vol 22 1971, pp 128-166 Royal Irish Academy 
  • Charles Edwards, TM 2000 Early Christian Ireland Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521363952 
  • Charles Edwards, TM 2006 The Chronicle of Ireland, Volume 1 Liverpool University Press ISBN 9780853239598 
  • Cormac McSparron; Brian Williams; Cormac Bourke 2009 The excavation of an Early Christian rath with later medieval occupation at Drumadoon, Co Antrim Royal Irish Academy 
  • Cosgrove, Art, ed 2008 A New History of Ireland, II Medieval Ireland 1169-1534 Oxford University Press ISBN 978-019-953970-3 
  • Cynthia Warhurst; Deirdre Flanagan; J R Pilcher Excavations at Rathbeg, Co Antrim Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, Vol 32 1969, pp 93-100 
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  • Dobbs, Margaret The Ui Dercco Céin Ulster Journal of Archaeology, Third Series, Vol 2 1939, pp 112-119 Ulster Archaeological Society 
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