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Django Reinhardt

django reinhardt, django reinhardt youtube
Jean "Django" Reinhardt French: dʒãŋɡo ʁɛjnaʁt or dʒɑ̃ɡo ʁenɑʁt; 23 January 1910 – 16 May 1953 was a Belgian-born, Romani French jazz guitarist and composer, regarded as one of the greatest musicians of the twentieth century He was the first jazz talent to emerge from Europe and remains the most significant by far2:cover 3

After losing most of the control in two of his fingers in a fire in his youth, he modified his technique to overcome his disability and went on to forge an entirely new 'hot' jazz guitar style, now known as gypsy jazz or jazz manouche and still a vibrant living musical tradition within gypsy culture in France and neighbouring countries Reinhardt's innovations on the guitar completely revolutionised the instrument's potential, particularly within jazz, in which he elevated it far above its prior position as a simple, often superfluous rhythm instrument

With violinist Stéphane Grappelli,1 Reinhardt formed the Paris-based Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934 The group is one of the most original in recorded jazz due to its then unique foregrounding of the guitar4 Reinhardt recorded in France with many visiting American musicians, including Coleman Hawkins and Benny Carter, and briefly toured the United States with Duke Ellington's orchestra in 1946 He died suddenly of a stroke at the age of 43

Reinhardt's most popular compositions have become standards within gypsy jazz, including "Minor Swing",5 "Daphne", "Belleville", "Djangology", "Swing '42", and "Nuages" According to jazz guitarist Frank Vignola, nearly every major popular-music guitarist in the world has been influenced by Django, including Paul McCartney, Keith Richards, Willie Nelson, and Les Paul6 Over the last few decades, annual Django festivals have been held throughout Europe and the US, and a biography has been written about his life2 In February 2017, the Berlin International Film Festival held the world premiere of the French film, Django

Contents

  • 1 Biography
    • 11 Early life
    • 12 Marriage and injury
    • 13 Discovery of jazz
    • 14 Formation of the quintet
    • 15 World War II
    • 16 United States tour
    • 17 After the quintet
    • 18 Final years
  • 2 Family
  • 3 Legacy
    • 31 Tributes
  • 4 Influence
  • 5 Reinhardt in popular culture
  • 6 Discography
    • 61 Releases in his lifetime
    • 62 Posthumous compilations LP, cassette and CD
    • 63 Unrecorded compositions
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References

Biographyedit

Early lifeedit

Reinhardt2 was born on 23 January 1910 in Liberchies, Pont-à-Celles, Belgium,7 into a Belgian family3 of Manouche Romani descent7 His father was Jean Eugene Weiss, but domiciled in Paris with his wife, he went by Jean-Baptiste Reinhardt, his wife's surname, to avoid French military conscription8 His mother, Laurence Reinhardt, was a dancer8 The birth certificate refers to "Jean Reinhart, son of Jean Baptiste Reinhart, artist, and Laurence Reinhart, housewife, domiciled in Paris"9

Reinhardt's nickname, Django, is Romani for "I awake"2:4–5 Reinhardt spent most of his youth in Romani encampments close to Paris, where he started playing the violin, banjo, and guitar He became adept at stealing chickens, which was viewed as a noble skill by the Romani, because part of their means of survival on the road was to steal from the non-Gypsy world around them2:5 His family made cane furniture for a living Several members of the family were keen amateur musicians10:14

Reinhardt was attracted to music at an early age, first playing the violin At the age of 12 he received a banjo-guitar as a gift He quickly learned to play, mimicking the fingerings of musicians he watched Reinhardt was able to make a living playing music by the time he was 15 He received little formal education and acquired the rudiments of literacy only in adult life10:13

Marriage and injuryedit

At the age of 17 Reinhardt married Florine "Bella" Mayer, a girl from the same gypsy settlement11:9 The following year he recorded for the first time11:9 On these recordings, made in 1928, Reinhardt plays the "banjo" actually the banjo-guitar accompanying the accordionists Maurice Alexander, Jean Vaissade and Victor Marceau, and the singer Maurice Chaumel His name was now drawing international attention, such as from British bandleader Jack Hylton, who came to France just to hear him play11:10 He offered him a job on the spot, and Reinhardt accepted11:10

Before he had a chance to start with the band, however, he nearly lost his life when the caravan he and his wife lived in caught fire when he knocked over a candle on his way to bed His wife made artificial flowers from extremely flammable celluloid They caught fire, engulfing the wagon in flames almost immediately Django dragged himself and his wife through the fire to safety, but suffered extensive burns all over his left hand and other areas12 He received first- and second-degree burns over half his body His right leg was paralyzed, and the fourth and fifth fingers of his left hand were badly burned Doctors believed that he would never play guitar again, and they intended to amputate one of his legs10:43–44 Reinhardt refused to have the surgery and left the hospital after a short time; he was able to walk within a year with the aid of a cane11:10

But two of his fingers remained paralyzed By sheer will, he taught himself to overcome his now permanent handicap by using only his thumb and two fingers11:1013 In 1929, his wife gave birth to a son, Henri "Lousson" Reinhardt But partly as a result of the trauma and injuries, he and his wife divorced soon after His son later took the surname of his mother's new husband, Baumgartner He later recorded with Django14

His brother, Joseph Reinhardt, also an accomplished guitarist, bought Django a new guitar With rehabilitation and practice, he re-learned his craft in a completely new way He played all his guitar solos with only the index and middle fingers and used the two injured fingers only for chord work10:31–35

Discovery of jazzedit

The years between 1925 and 1933 were formative for Reinhardt, personally and musically He had divorced his wife and had formed a relationship with one of his distant cousins, Sophie Ziegler, nicknamed "Naguine"11:11 They traveled throughout France with Reinhardt getting occasional jobs playing at small clubs He had no definite goals, living a hand-to-mouth existence11:11 The concept of money and saving was foreign to him, and he spent his earnings as quickly as he made them11:11

One change during this period was his abandonment of the banjo in favor of the guitar He was playing all types of music previously but began to appreciate American jazz a little during this period, when an acquaintance, Émile Savitry, played him a number of records from his collection11:12 It was the first time Reinhardt heard leading American jazz musicians, such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington The new sounds gave Reinhardt a vision and goal of becoming a jazz professional11:12

He later met Stéphane Grappelli, a young violinist with similar musical interests In the absence of paid work in their radical new music, the two would jam together, along with a loose circle of other musicians10:26 Finally, Reinhardt acquired his first Selmer guitar in the mid-1930s He used the volume and expressiveness of the instrument as integral elements of his style

Formation of the quintetedit

Reinhardt and Grappelli

From 1934 until the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Reinhardt and Grappelli worked together as the principal soloists of their newly formed Hot Club, in Paris It became the most accomplished and innovative European jazz group of the period15

Reinhardt's brother Joseph and Roger Chaput also played on guitar, and Louis Vola was on bass16:45–49 The Quintette was one of the few well-known jazz ensembles composed only of stringed instruments10:64–66

In Paris on 14 March 1933, Reinhardt recorded two takes each of "Parce-que je vous aime" and "Si, j'aime Suzy", vocal numbers with lots of guitar fills and guitar support He used three guitarists along with an accordion lead, violin, and bass In August 1934, he made other recordings with more than one guitar Joseph Reinhardt, Roger Chaput, and Django, including the first recording by the Quintette In both years the great majority of their recordings featured a wide variety of horns, often in multiples, piano, and other instruments,17 but the all-string instrumentation is the one most often adopted by emulators of the Hot Club sound

Decca Records in the United States released three records of Quintette songs with Reinhardt on guitar, and one other, credited to "Stephane Grappelli & His Hot 4 with Django Reinhardt", in 193518

Reinhardt also played and recorded with many American jazz musicians, such as Adelaide Hall, Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, and Rex Stewart who later stayed in Paris He participated in a jam session and radio performance with Louis Armstrong Later in his career, Reinhardt played with Dizzy Gillespie in France Also in the neighborhood was the artistic salon R-26, at which Reinhardt and Grappelli performed regularly as they developed their unique musical style19

In 1938 Reinhardt's quintet played to thousands at an all-star show held in London's Kilburn State auditorium10:92 While playing, he noticed American film actor Eddie Cantor in the front row When their set ended, Cantor rose to his feet, then went up on stage and kissed Reinhardt's hand, paying no concern to the audience10:93 A few weeks later the quintet played at the London Palladium10:93

World War IIedit

When World War II broke out, the original quintet was on tour in the United Kingdom Reinhardt returned to Paris at once,10:98–99 leaving his wife in the UK Grappelli remained in the United Kingdom for the duration of the war Reinhardt re-formed the quintet, with Hubert Rostaing on clarinet replacing Grappelli20

In 1943, Reinhardt married Sophie "Naguine" Ziegler in Salbris They had a son, Babik Reinhardt, who later became a respected guitarist in his own right20 Thanks to his superior music talent, Reinhardt would survive the war unscathed, unlike many Gypsies who were interned and killed in the Porajmos, the Nazi regime's systematic murder of several hundred thousand European Gypsies

In addition, the German attitude toward jazz from the time of World War I had been one of general hostility21:82 Between 1916 and 1920 all jazz was banned in Germany From 1922 on, jazz was mostly suppressed, and after 1933 Hitler banned most jazz, which he and his minister, Goebbels, felt was part of an international conspiracy to undermine Germany's greatness2:15422 It would not be until the mid-1950s that Germany reopened itself to European jazz21:82

But beginning in 1933, all German Gypsies were doomed, states Dregni2:168 They were barred from living in cities and were herded into settlement camps Nazi doctors began sterilizing them, and like the yellow Stars of David that Jews had to subsequently wear,23 Gypsies were required to wear a brown Gypsy ID triangle sewn on their chest2:168 By 1942, Gypsies and Jews were systematically being killed at new camps such as Auschwitz2:169 Other Gypsies, such as those in France, were used as slave labor on farms and factories2:169 Some 600,000 Gypsies throughout Europe were eventually killed2:154

Because Reinhardt and his family were Gypsies, and he was also a jazz musician, he tried to escape from occupied France with his family After his first attempt, he survived when a secretly jazz-loving German, Luftwaffe officer Dietrich Schulz-Köhn, let him go back to France after he was captured24 But still desperate to get out of France, knowing that Gypsies were being rounded up and killed in concentration camps, he tried again to cross into Switzerland a few days later, this time in the dead of night But he was stopped by Swiss border guards who forced him to return to Paris25

In this "Nuages" graceful and eloquent melody, Django evoked the woes of the war that weighed on people's souls—and then transcended it all biographer Michael Dregni16:93

During the occupation of France, Reinhardt continued playing and composing One of his songs, "Nuages,"26 became an unofficial anthem in Paris to signify hope for liberation16:93 During a concert at the Salle Pleyel, the popularity of the song was such that the crowd made him replay the song three times in a row16:93 The 78 of the song sold over 100,000 copies16:93

Since the Nazis officially disapproved of jazz,27 Reinhardt tried to develop other musical directions He tried to write a Mass for the Gypsies and a symphony he worked with an assistant to notate what he was improvising His modernist piece Rhythm Futur was intended to be acceptable

United States touredit

Reinhardt and Duke Ellington at the Aquarium in New York, c November 1946

After the war, Reinhardt rejoined Grappelli in the UK In the autumn of 1946, he made his first tour in the United States, debuting at Cleveland Music Hall28 as a special guest soloist with Duke Ellington and His Orchestra He played with many notable musicians and composers, such as Maury Deutsch At the end of the tour, Reinhardt played two nights at Carnegie Hall in New York City; he received a great ovation and took six curtain calls on the first night

Despite his pride in touring with Ellington one of his two letters to Grappelli relates his excitement, he was not fully integrated into the band He played a few tunes at the end of the show, backed by Ellington, with no special arrangements written for him After the tour, Reinhardt secured an engagement at Café Society Uptown, where he played four solos a day, backed by the resident band These performances drew large audiences10:138–139 Having failed to take along a Selmer Modèle Jazz, which he had made famous, he had to play on a borrowed electric guitar, with which he was unable to express the delicacy of his style10:138 He had been promised some jobs in California, but they failed to develop Tired of waiting, Reinhardt returned to France in February 194710:141

After the quintetedit

After his return, Reinhardt became re-immersed in Gypsy life, finding it difficult to adjust to the postwar world He sometimes showed up for scheduled concerts without a guitar or amplifier, or wandered off to the park or beach On a few occasions he refused to get out of bed Reinhardt developed a reputation among his band, fans, and managers as being extremely unreliable He skipped sold-out concerts to "walk to the beach" or "smell the dew"10:145 During this period he continued to attend the R-26 artistic salon in Montmartre, improvising with his devoted collaborator, Stéphane Grappelli2930

In Rome in 1949, Reinhardt recruited three Italian jazz players on bass, piano, and snare drum and recorded over 60 tunes in an Italian studio He was united with Grappelli, and used his acoustic Selmer-Maccaferri The recording was discovered in the late 1950s, when it was issued for the first time31

Back in Paris in June 1950, Reinhardt was invited to join an entourage to welcome the return of Benny Goodman He also attended a reception for Goodman, who after the war ended had asked Reinhardt to join him in the US He asked him again, and out of politeness, Reinhardt agreed But he later had second thoughts about what role he could play alongside Goodman, who was the King of Swing, and instead remained in France2:251

In 1973 Stéphane Grappelli formed a successful Quintette-style band with the British guitarists Diz Disley and Denny Wright Grappelli formed many other musical partnerships, including collaborations with John Etheridge, Nigel Kennedy and David Grisman, and became very popular He influenced other musicians, such as the Dutch violinist Tim Kliphuis

Final yearsedit

Plaque commemorating Reinhardt at Samois-sur-Seine

In 1951, Reinhardt retired to Samois-sur-Seine, near Fontainebleau, where he lived until his death He continued to play in Paris jazz clubs and began playing electric guitar He often used a Selmer fitted with an electric pickup, despite his initial hesitation about the instrument In his final recordings, made with his Nouvelle Quintette in the last few months of his life, he had begun moving in a new musical direction, in which he assimilated the vocabulary of bebop and fused it with his own melodic style32

While walking from the Avon railway station after playing in a Paris club, he collapsed outside his house from a brain hemorrhage10:160 It was a Saturday and it took a full day for a doctor to arrive10:161 Reinhardt was declared dead on arrival at the hospital in Fontainebleau, at the age of 43

Familyedit

Reinhardt's second son, Babik, became a guitarist in the contemporary jazz style His first son, Lousson, was more of a traditionalist He followed the Romani lifestyle and rarely performed in public After Django died, his brother Joseph at first swore to abandon music, but he was persuaded to perform and record again Joseph's son Markus Reinhardt is a violinist in the Romani style

A third generation of direct descendants has developed as musicians: David Reinhardt, Reinhardt's grandson by his son Babik, leads his own trio Dallas Baumgartner, a great-grandson by Lousson, is a guitarist who travels with the Romani and keeps a low public profile

Django had a distant relative, Schnuckenack Reinhardt,33 who was a violinist Schnuckenack lived in Germany, and the two never met Many of his descendants, such as his grandson Lulo Reinhardt, are also involved in gypsy music

Legacyedit

Main article: Gypsy jazz

Django Reinhardt, born in a trailer and part of a gypsy nomadic culture, is regarded as one of the greatest guitar players of all time, and the first important European jazz musician to make a major contribution with jazz guitar34a During his career he wrote nearly 100 songs, according to jazz guitarist Frank Vignola6

Using a Selmer Guitar in the mid-1930s, his style took on new volume and expressiveness34 Despite his handicap after a fire which paralyzed two fingers, he played using mainly his index and middle fingers, and was able to invent a new style of jazz guitar now called "hot jazz"34

For about a decade after Reinhardt's death, interest in his musical style was minimal In the fifties, bebop superseded swing in jazz, rock and roll took off, and electric instruments became dominant in popular music Since the mid-sixties, there has been a revival of interest in Reinhardt's music, a revival that has extended into the 21st century, with annual festivals and periodic tribute concerts His devotees included classical guitarist Julian Bream and country guitarist Chet Atkins, who considered him one of the ten greatest guitarists of the twentieth century342:coverb

The Allman Brothers Band song "Jessica" was written by Dickey Betts in tribute to Reinhardt34 Woody Allen's 1999 film Sweet and Lowdown, the story of a Django-like character, mentions Django Reinhardt and includes actual recordings during the film3738 "Django was the definitive genius on the guitar, and the depth of his gift was so spectacular," says Allen38

Among the reasons for the delayed recognition of Reinhardt in the US was because until recently the guitar was not considered a jazz instrument, unlike the piano or horn Recording artist David Grisman states that there was a "prejudice against anything that's different in jazz, and playing jazz on stringed instruments is just too different"38 Reinhardt's five-piece band initially played only strings, with three guitarists, a violinist and a bass player1 Guitarist Mike Peters notes that "the word 'genius' is bantered about too much But in jazz, Louis Armstrong was a genius, Duke Ellington was another one, and Reinhardt was also"38 Grisman adds, "As far as I'm concerned, no one since has come anywhere close to Django Reinhardt as an improviser or technician"38

Festival Django Reinhardt in France

The popularity of gypsy jazz has generated an increasing number of festivals, such as the Festival Django Reinhardt held every last weekend of June since 1983 in Samois-sur-Seine France,3940 the various DjangoFests held throughout Europe41 and the USA, and Django in June, an annual camp for Gypsy jazz musicians and aficionados4243

Tributesedit

In February 2017, the Berlin International Film Festival would hold the world premiere of Django 2017, a French film directed by Etienne Comar The movie covers Django's escape from Nazi-occupied Paris in 1943 and the fact that even under "constant danger, flight and the atrocities committed against his family," he continued composing and performing44 Django's music was re-recorded for the film by the Dutch jazz band Rosenberg Trio with lead guitarist Stochelo Rosenberg4546

The documentary film, Djangomania! was released in 2005 The hour-long film was directed and written by Jamie Kastner, who traveled throughout the world to show the influence of Django's music in various countries47

In 1984 the Kool Jazz Festival, held in Carnegie Hall and Avery Fisher Hall, was dedicated entirely to Django Performers included Grappelli, Benny Carter, and Mike Peters with his group of seven musicians The festival was organized by George Wein48

Jazz guitarist Bucky Pizzarelli from New Jersey performed a tribute concert in 200149

In 2010, to celebrate Django's 100th birthday, guitarist Frank Vignola and his Hot Club paid tribute with a concert in Rock Hall, Maryland6

In 2011 French jazz guitarist and violinist Dorado Schmitt and an all-star ensemble held concerts named "The Spirit of Django," at Segerstrom Center for the Arts near Los Angeles50

Influenceedit

The instant I heard Django, I flipped I chose his style because it spoke to me He was too far ahead of his time He was something else French recording artist, Serge Krief51

Many guitar players and other musicians have expressed admiration for Reinhardt or have cited him as a major influence Jeff Beck described Reinhardt as "by far the most astonishing guitar player ever" and "quite superhuman"52 Beck recalls that he once came across a rare black-and-white film of Django playing:

"It's the most glorious, but tantalizing short footage, but he is playing like crazy I've been studying it in slow motion, and all you can see are these two grubby fingers going like lightning up and down the fretboard"525354

Grateful Dead's Jerry Garcia and Black Sabbath's Tony Iommi, both of whom lost fingers in accidents, were inspired by Reinhardt's example of becoming an accomplished guitar player despite his injuries Garcia was quoted in June 1985 in Frets Magazine:

His technique is awesome! Even today, nobody has really come to the state that he was playing at As good as players are, they haven’t gotten to where he is There's a lot of guys that play fast and a lot of guys that play clean, and the guitar has come a long way as far as speed and clarity go, but nobody plays with the whole fullness of expression that Django has I mean, the combination of incredible speed – all the speed you could possibly want – but also the thing of every note have a specific personality You don’t hear it I really haven’t heard it anywhere but with Django

  • Denny Laine and Jimmy McCulloch, members of Paul McCartney's band Wings, have mentioned him as an inspiration
Django is still one of my main influences, I think, for lyricism He can make me cry when I hear him Toots Thielemans55
  • "Django", an instrumental guitar piece by the blues-rock guitarist Joe Bonamassa, is in his honour
  • "Django," composed by John Lewis, has become a jazz standard, performed by Miles Davis, among others The Modern Jazz Quartet titled one of their albums Django in his honour
  • The Allman Brothers Band song "Jessica" was written by Dickey Betts in tribute to Reinhardt
  • Andrew Latimer, of the band Camel, has stated that he was influenced by Reinhardt56
  • The composer Jon Larsen has composed several crossover concerts featuring Reinhardt-inspired music together with symphonic arrangements, the most famous being "White Night Stories" 2002 and "Vertavo" 1996
  • The Cuban composer and guitarist Leo Brouwer wrote "Variations on a Theme of Django Reinhardt" for solo guitar 1984, based on Reinhardt's "Nuages"
  • In 2005, Reinhardt was ranked 66th in the list of "The Greatest Belgian" De Grootste Belg in Flanders and 76th in Le plus grand Belge, the Walloon version of the same competition
  • Reinhardt is celebrated annually in the village of Liberchies, his birthplace57
  • Willie Nelson and Merle Haggard released the album Django and Jimmie in 2015 the title refers to Reinhardt and the country singer Jimmie Rodgers
  • The Lost Fingers, a French Canadian gypsy jazz band, owe their name to Reinhardt

Reinhardt in popular cultureedit

  • Reinhardt's style of playing is discussed by characters in the novel From Here to Eternity
  • Reinhardt is referred to in the opening sequence of the 2003 animated film Les Triplettes de Belleville
  • His legacy is referred to in Woody Allen's 1999 Sweet and Lowdown This spoof biopic features a fictional American guitarist, Emmet Ray, who is obsessed with Reinhardt, with a soundtrack featuring Howard Alden58
  • Reinhardt is portrayed by the guitarist John Jorgenson in the movie Head in the Clouds
  • In the movie Swing Kids, the character Arvid has his hand damaged by a member of the Hitler Jugend but is inspired by Reinhardt's example to keep playing
  • Noddy Holder of the glam rock band Slade and his wife, Suzan Price, named their son Django in honour of Reinhardt
  • Black Sabbath guitarist Tony Iommi recounted that he suffered an industrial accident at 17 and lost the tips of two fingers His boss played a Reinhardt record to inspire him to pursue his dream of being a guitarist59
  • Reinhardt's music has been used in the soundtrack of many films, including in The Matrix, Rhythm Futur, Daltry Calhoun, Metroland, Chocolat, The Aviator, Alex and the Gypsy, Kate and Leopold and Gattaca; the score for Louis Malle's 1974 movie, Lacombe Lucien; the background for the Steve Martin movie LA Story; and the background for a number of Woody Allen movies, including Stardust Memories
  • Reinhardt's music has been featured in the soundtracks of several video games, such as the 2002 game Mafia: The City of Lost Heaven, Mafia II60 and in the 2007, 2010, and 2013 games BioShock, BioShock 2, and BioShock Infinite
  • Reinhardt's music is used in the 1978 film King of the Gypsies film His long-time friend Stéphane Grappelli appeared in the film in a cameo, performing as a violinist in a gypsy band
  • In the Martin Scorsese film Hugo 2011, a character who is credited as Reinhardt plays guitar in a combo in the station café The character identified as Django is played by Emil Lager
  • "Django" 1954 is a gypsy-flavoured piece written by the jazz pianist John Lewis, of the Modern Jazz Quartet, in honour of Reinhardt Numerous versions of the song have been recorded, including one on the 1973 album Buckingham Nicks, by Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks
  • Saxophonist James Carter released Chasin' the Gypsy Atlantic, 2000 in tribute to Reinhardt
  • "Tango for Django", a track on Robbie Robertson's 2011 album How to Become Clairvoyant, is a tribute
  • Reinhardt inspired Harlan Ellison's short story "Django", published in the collections Shatterday and Dreams with Sharp Teeth
  • On January 23, 2010, the French and Belgian Google home pages displayed a logo commemorating the centenary of Reinhardt's birth
  • The Django web framework is named after Reinhardt, as is version 31 of the blog software WordPress61
  • The Belgian government issued a commemorative coin in 925% sterling silver in 2010 coinciding with the 100th anniversary of his birth It is a silver 10-Euro coin with a color image of Reinhardt on the reverse side62
  • Reinhardt is mentioned in the opening line of The Statler Brothers' song "Chet Atkins' Hand" The opening line is "Thank you Les Paul, thank you Django, thank you Merle"
  • Reinhardt appears as a character in the fiction novel The Magic Strings of Frankie Presto 201563
  • The film Django, by the French filmmaker Étienne Comar, depicting Reinhardt's life during wartime will be released in 2017, with the French actor Reda Kateb performing the role of Reinhardt64 It will open the 67th Berlin International Film Festival65

Discographyedit

Releases in his lifetimeedit

Reinhardt recorded over 900 sides in his recording career, from 1928 to 1953, the majority as sides of the then-prevalent 78-RPM records, with the remainder as acetates, transcription discs, private and off-air recordings of radio broadcasts, and part of a film soundtrack Only one session eight tracks from March 1953 was ever recorded specifically for album release by Norman Granz in the then-new LP format, but Reinhardt died before the album could be released In his earliest recordings Reinhardt played banjo or, more accurately, banjo-guitar accompanying accordionists and singers on dances and popular tunes of the day, with no jazz content, whereas in the last recordings before his death he played amplified guitar in the bebop idiom with a pool of younger, more modern French musicians A full chronological listing of his lifetime recorded output is available from the source cited here,66 and an index of individual tunes is available from the source cited here67 A few fragments of film performance without original sound also survive, as does one complete performance with sound, of the tune "J'Attendrai" performed with the Quintet in 1938 for the short film Le Jazz Hot6869

Posthumous compilations LP, cassette and CDedit

Reinhardt's recorded output has been re-released on a large number of LPs, cassettes and CDs since his death and also the start of the LP era Of particular mention is Intégrale Django Reinhardt, volumes 1–20 40 CDs, released by the French company Frémeaux from 2002 to 2005, which attempted to include every known track on which he played70

The following list of reissues is only a selection; as at December 2015, wwwdiscogscom listed more than 560 such albums; a full listing is available from the source cited here71

  • 1953 Django Reinhardt et Ses Rythmes
  • 1954 The Great Artistry of Django Reinhardt
  • 1954 Le Jazz Hot
  • 1955 Django's Guitar
  • 1959 Django Reinhardt and His Rhythm
  • 1963 The Immortal Django Reinhardt Guitar
  • 1980 Routes to Django Reinhardt
  • 1991 Django Reinhardt – Pêche à la Mouche: The Great Blue Star Sessions 1947/1953
  • 1995 Jazz & Blues Collection, Editions Atlas, 1937–1940
  • 1996 Imagine
  • 1997 Django Reinhardt: Nuages, with Coleman Hawkins
  • 1998 The Complete Django Reinhardt HMV Sessions
  • 2000 The Classic Early Recordings in Chronological Order five-CD boxed set
  • 2001 All Star Sessions
  • 2001 Jazz in Paris: Swing 39
  • 2002 Djangology, recorded in 1948 and remastered and released by Bluebird Records
  • 2002-2005 Intégrale Django Reinhardt, vols 1–20, Frémeaux et Associés, 20 two-CD volumes
  • 2003 Jazz in Paris: Nuages
  • 2003 Jazz in Paris: Nuits de Saint-Germain des-Prés
  • 2004 Le Génie Vagabond
  • 2005 Djangology, rereleased by Bluebird
  • 2008 Django on the Radio, radio broadcasts, 1945–1953

Unrecorded compositionsedit

A small number of waltzes composed by Reinhardt in his youth were never recorded by the composer, but were retained in the repertoire of his associates and several are still played today They came to light via recordings by Matelo Ferret in 1960 the waltzes "Montagne Sainte-Genevieve", "Gagoug", "Chez Jazquet" and "Choti"; Disques Vogue FEPL7740 and 1961 "Djalamichto" and "En Verdine"; Disques Vogue FEPL7829 The first four are now available on Matelo's CD Tziganskaïa and Other Rare Recordings, released by Hot Club Records subsequently reissued as Tziganskaïa: The Django Reinhardt Waltzes

See alsoedit

  • Biography portal
  • Music portal
  • Jazz portal
  • Oscar Alemán
  • Django à Liberchies festival
  • DjangodOr Golden Django
  • Festival Django Reinhardt
  • Festivals de jazz Django Reinhardt, a French list of worldwide festivals dedicated to the guitarist
  • Gypsy jazz
  • List of Belgian bands and artists
  • List of Belgian musicians and singers
  • List of compositions by Django Reinhardt
  • List of Romani people
  • R-26 salon
  • Jean Sablon
  • Sinti
  • Vernon Story
  • Gábor Szabó

Notesedit

  1. ^ Professor of music and guitarist, Mark White, of Berklee College, writes: "Django Reinhardt with his Hot Club of France group was a hotbed of great guitar playing Eventually, Django would play electric guitar, and become one of the greatest guitar stylists of all time"35
  2. ^ Jimmy Page said "Django Reinhardt was fantastic he must have been playing all the time to be that good"36

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c "Django Reinhardt Jattendrai Swing 1939 live" YouTube 2015-11-23 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Dregni, Michael 2004 Django: The Life and Music of a Gypsy Legend Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-516752-X 
  3. ^ a b Jean-Baptiste BARONIAN 2015-10-08 Dictionnaire amoureux de la Belgique Booksgooglebe p 376 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  4. ^ Jurek, Thom "The Hot Jazz: Le Hot Club de France, Vols 1–4" Allmusic Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  5. ^ "Django Reinhardt - Minor Swing - HD 1080p" YouTube 2013-03-28 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  6. ^ a b c "Mainstay presents Frank Vignola," Record Observer Easton, Maryland, March 18, 2010
  7. ^ a b Balen, Noël 2003 Django Reinhart: Le Génie vagabond ISBN 978-2268045610 
  8. ^ a b "Django Reinhardt and the Illustrated History of Gypsy Jazz" All About Jazz Retrieved 3 February 2013 
  9. ^ "Official birth certificate of Jean Reinhardt" Django Station Retrieved 3 February 2013 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Delaunay, Charles 1961 Django Reinhardt Da Capo Press ISBN 0-306-80171-X 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Fogg, Rod Django Reinhardt: Know the Man, Play the Music, Hal Leonard Corp 2005
  12. ^ "Gypsy Jazz and Django Reinhardt" Flatpickcom 1928-11-02 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  13. ^ Marty, Pierre 2005 Django ressuscité: contribution à l'étude d'une auto-rééducation fonctionnelle en 1925 Copédit ISBN 2906030910 
  14. ^ "Lousson Reinhardt" Gypsy Jazz Encyclopedia Retrieved 7 April 2010 
  15. ^ "Stephane Grappelli is Europe's gift to jazz", The Ottawa Journal, June 9, 1980
  16. ^ a b c d e Dregni, Michael 2006 Django Reinhardt and the Illustrated History of Gypsy Jazz Speck Press ISBN 978-1-933108-10-0 
  17. ^ Rousseau, François "Welcome" Django Montreal Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  18. ^ "DECCA USA 78rpm numerical listing discographyL 23000 - 23500" 78discographycom 2015-09-26 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  19. ^ Tranchant, Jean 1969 La Grande Roue Paris: Éditions de la Table Ronde
  20. ^ a b Sharp, Fred "Babik Reinhardt" The Django Reinhardt Swing Page Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  21. ^ a b Budds, Michael J Jazz & the Germans: Essays on the Influence of "hot" American Idioms on 20th Century German Music, Pendragon Press 2002
  22. ^ "Nazi poster illustrating the negative aspects of jazz" JPG 65mediatumblrcom Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  23. ^ "Jews wearing Star of David" JPG S-media-cache-ak0pinimgcom Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  24. ^ Kington, Miles "Playing a Dangerous Game: Django, Jazz and the Nazis" BBC Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  25. ^ Kater, Michael H Different Drummers: Jazz in the Culture of Nazi Germany, Oxford Univ Press 1992 p 178
  26. ^ "Django Reinhardt - Nuages - Paris, 13121940" YouTube 1940-12-13 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  27. ^ Fackler, Guido "Jazz Under the Nazis" Music and the Holocaust Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  28. ^ Meiksins, Robin "Django Reinhardt at the Music Hall" Cleveland Historical Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  29. ^ Tranchant, Jean: pg 116, La Grande Roue; Éditions de la Table Ronde, Paris, 1969
  30. ^ De Visscher, Éric R vingt-six Django Reinhardt - Swing De Paris Musée de la musique Cité de la musique, Paris 6 October 2012
  31. ^ Chester, Paul Vernon "Django in Rome: The 1949-50 Sessions" Manouche Maestro Retrieved 30 November 2011 
  32. ^ Givan, Benjamin 2010 The Music of Django Reinhardt University of Michigan Press pp 158–94 ISBN 978-0-472-03408-6 
  33. ^ Schnuckenack Reinhardt German language
  34. ^ a b c d e Fetherolf, Bob The Guitar Story: From Ancient to Modern Times, BookBaby 2014 e-book
  35. ^ White, Mark The Practical Jazz Guitarist: Essential Tools for Soloing, Comping and Performing, Hal Leonard Corp 2012 p 9
  36. ^ Kitts, Jeff; Tolinski, Brad Guitar World Presents the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time!, Hal Leonard Corp 2002 p 60
  37. ^ "Sweet and Lowdown scene" YouTube 2012-12-16 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  38. ^ a b c d e "Woody Allen movie resurrects music of jazz great Reinhardt", Courier-Post, Camden, New Jersey, Jan 18, 2000
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  41. ^ "Poster of Django Reinhardt Fest in Athens" JPG Gypsyjazzgr Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  42. ^ "Django Reinhardt New York City Festival - Dark Eyes" YouTube 2010-11-21 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  43. ^ "Poster of DjangoFest in Washington state" PNG Djangofestcom Retrieved 2017-05-30 
  44. ^ "French film Django to open Berlin Film Festival, USNews, January 4, 2017
  45. ^ "World Premiere of Django to Open the Berlinale, 2017, Press Release, Berlinale, January 4, 2017
  46. ^ "Django Reinhardt documentary" YouTube 2016-01-09 Retrieved 2017-05-30 
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  48. ^ Asbury Park Press, Asbury Park, New Jersey, June 27, 1984
  49. ^ The Courier-News, Bridgewater, New Jersey, May 31, 2001
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  55. ^ Field, Kim Harmonicas, Harps, and Heavy Breathers: the Evolution of the People's Instrument, Rowman & Littlefield 1993 pp 253-255
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  71. ^ "Django Reinhardt" Discogs Retrieved 10 December 2015 

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