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Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard

dassault-breguet super étendard, dassault-breguet super étendards
The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard Étendard is French for "battle flag" is a French carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault-Breguet for service with the French Navy The aircraft is an advanced development of the Étendard IVM The Super Étendard first flew in October 1974 and entered French service in June 1978 French Super Étendards have served in several conflicts such as the Kosovo war, the war in Afghanistan and the military intervention in Libya

The Super Étendard was also operated by Iraq and Argentina, who both deployed the aircraft during wartime The Super Étendard was used by Iraq to attack oil tankers and merchant shipping in the Persian Gulf during the Iraq-Iran War Argentina's use of the Super Étendard and the Exocet missile during the 1982 Falklands War led to the aircraft gaining considerable popular recognition In French service, the Super Étendard was replaced by the Dassault Rafale in 20161

Contents

  • 1 Development
  • 2 Design
  • 3 Operational history
    • 31 Argentina
    • 32 France
    • 33 Iraq
  • 4 Current operators
  • 5 Former operators
  • 6 Accidents and incidents
    • 61 Argentina
    • 62 France
  • 7 Specifications
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links

Developmentedit

The Super Étendard is a development of the earlier Étendard IVM which had been developed in the 1950s The Étendard IVM was originally to have been replaced by a navalised version of the SEPECAT Jaguar, designated as the Jaguar M; however the Jaguar M project was stalled by a combination of political problems and issues experienced during trial deployments on board carriers Specifically, the Jaguar M had suffered handling problems when being flown on a single engine and a poor throttle response time that made landing back on a carrier after an engine failure difficult2 In 1973, all development work on the Jaguar M was formally cancelled by the French government3

There were several proposed aircraft to replace the Jaguar M, these included the LTV A-7 Corsair II and the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Dassault also had its own proposal to meet the requirement4 According to Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist, Dassault had played a significant role in the cancellation of the Jaguar M with the aim of creating a vacancy for their own proposal - the Super Étendard5 The Super Étendard was essentially an improved version of the existing Étendard IVM, outfitted with a more powerful engine, a new wing and improved avionics Dassault's Super Étendard proposal was accepted by the French Navy in 1973, leading to a series of prototypes being quickly assembled6

The first of three prototypes to be built, an Étendard IVM which had been modified with the new engine and some of the new avionics,6 made its maiden flight on 28 October 1974789 The original intention of the French Navy was to order a total of 100 Super Étendards, however the order placed was for 60 of the new model with options for a further 20; further budget cuts and an escalation in the aircraft's per unit price eventually led to only 71 Super Étendards being purchased9 Dassault began making deliveries of the type to the French Navy in June 1978710

In the first year of production, 15 Super Étendards were produced for the French Navy, allowing the formation of the first squadron in 1979 Dassault produced the aircraft at a rough rate of two per month11 The Argentinian Navy placed an order for 14 aircraft to meet their requirements for a capable new fighter that could operate from their sole aircraft carrier7 In 1983, all manufacturing activity was completed, the last delivery to the French Navy taking place that year912

Designedit

Underside of a Super Étendard in-flight The protruding tail hook is towards the rear of the fuselage

The Super Étendard is a small, single-engined, mid-winged aircraft with an all-metal structure Both the wings and tailplane are swept, with the folding wings having a sweepback of about 45 degrees, while the aircraft is powered by a non-afterburning SNECMA Atar 8K-50 turbojet with a rating of 49 kN 11,025 lbf The main new weapon of the Super Étendard was the French anti-shipping missile, the Aérospatiale AM 39 Exocet6 It featured a Thomson-CSF Agave radar which, amongst other functions, was essential to launch the Exocet missile6 One of the major technical advances of the Super Étendard was its onboard UAT-40 central computer; this managed most mission-critical systems, integrating navigational data and functions, radar information and display, and weapons targeting and controls13

In the 1990s, significant modifications and upgrades were made to the type, including an updated UAT-90 computer and a new Thomson-CSF Anemone radar; which provided nearly double the range of the previous Agave radar14 Other upgrades at this time included an extensively redesigned cockpit with HOTAS controls, and airframe life extension work was undertaken; a total of 48 aircraft received these upgrades, at a rate of 15 per year14 During the 2000s, further improvements included significantly improved self-defence ECM capability to better evade enemy detection and attacks,15 cockpit compatibility with night vision goggles, a new inertial data system partly integrating GPS, and compatibility with the Damocles Laser designator pod14

The Super Étendard could also deploy tactical nuclear weapons;16 initially these were unguided gravity bombs only, however, during the 1990s the Super Étendard was extensively upgraded, enabling the deployment of the Air-Sol Moyenne Portée, a ramjet-powered air-launched nuclear missile6 The aircraft was also refitted with the ability to operate a range of laser-guided bombs and, to enable the type to replace the retiring Étendard IV in the reconnaissance mission, the Super Étendard was fitted to carry a specialist reconnaissance pod as well15 However, the aircraft is unable to perform naval landings without jettisoning unexpended ordnance14

Operational historyedit

Argentinaedit

During the 1982 Falklands War, the Argentinian Super Étendards were used as a launch platform for Exocet anti-ship missiles

The Argentine Naval Aviation decided to buy 14 Super Étendards in 1979, after the United States put an arms embargo in place—due to the Dirty War—and refused to supply spare parts for its A-4Q Skyhawks Between August and November 1981, five Super Étendards and five anti-ship sea skimming Exocet missiles were shipped to Argentina17 The Super Étendards, armed with Exocet anti-ship missiles, would play a key role in the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 The squadron was stationed at an air base on the Rio Grande; during the conflict, the threat posed to British naval forces led to the planning of Operation Mikado and other proposed infiltration missions to raid the air base, aiming to destroy the Super Étendards to prevent their use1819 A total of four Super Étendards were operational during the conflict9

A first attempt to attack the British fleet was made on 2 May 1982, but this was abandoned due to flight-refuelling problems20 On 4 May, two Super Étendards, guided by a Lockheed P-2H Neptune, each launched one Exocet at the British destroyer HMS Sheffield, with one missile crippling Sheffield2021 On 25 May, another attack by two Super Étendards resulted in two missiles hitting the merchant ship Atlantic Conveyor, which was carrying several helicopters and various other supplies to the front line212223 The Exocets that struck Atlantic Conveyor had been inadvertently redirected by decoy chaff deployed as a defensive measure by other ships;24 Sheffield was scuttled and Atlantic Conveyor sunk as a result of the Exocet strikes25 Following the end of the conflict, by 1984 Argentina had been able to complete the delivery of the full 14 Super Étendards ordered as well as Exocets with which to arm them26 Super Étendards performed qualifications on aircraft carrier ARA 25 de Mayo until the ship's final retirement27 Since 1993, Argentinian pilots have practised on board the neighbouring Brazilian Navy's aircraft carrier São Paulo Touch-and-go landing exercises were also common on US Navy carriers during Gringo-Gaucho manoeuvres and joint exercises28

In 2009, an agreement was signed between Argentina and France to upgrade Argentina's remaining fleet of Super Étendards29 An earlier proposal to acquire former French Naval Super Étendards was rejected due to high levels of accumulated flight hours; instead equipment and hardware would be removed from retiring French airframes and installed into Argentinian aircraft, effectively upgrading them to the Super Étendard Modernisé SEM standard30 By March 2014, while the Argentine Navy continued to seek the upgrade kits for 10 of its 11 remaining Super Étendards; this ambition appears to have been complicated by several factors, France has been non-committal regarding the sought sale; critically, political developments between France and the UK may potentially allow the UK to obstruct the supply of military equipment to Argentina such as the upgrade kits and the Exocet missile31

In 2017 seven more of the "modernised" versions were purchased from France to bolster the fleet32

Franceedit

A formation of Super Étendards in flight, one of which is refueling another Super Étendard, through "buddy-to-buddy" refueling process

Deliveries of the Super Étendard to the French Navy started in 1978, with the first squadron, Flottille 11F becoming operational in February 1979 In total, three operational squadrons and a training unit were equipped with the Super Étendard6 The Super Étendards would operate from both of France's aircraft carriers at that time, Clemenceau and Foch; either carrier's air wing typically comprised 16 Super Étendards, 10 F-8 Crusaders, 3 Étendard IVPs, 7 Breguet Alizé anti-submarine aircraft, as well as numerous helicopters33

The first operational missions took place in Lebanon during Operation Olifant On 22 September 1983, French Navy Super Étendards operating from Foch bombed and destroyed Syrian forces positions after a few artillery rounds were fired at the French peace keepers34 On November 10, a Super Étendard escaped from being hit by a Syrian SA-7 shoulder-launched missile near Bourj el-Barajneh while flying over Druze positions35 On 17 November 1983, the same airplanes attacked and destroyed an Islamic Amal training camp in Baalbeck after a terrorist attack on French paratroopers in Beirut36

From 1991, the original pure attack Étendard IVMs were withdrawn from French service;37 though the reconnaissance version of the Étendard IV, the IVP, remained in service until July 200038 In response, the Super Étendards underwent a series of upgrades throughout the 1990s to add new capabilities and update existing systems for use in the modern battlefield Designated Super Étendard Modernisé SEM, the first combat missions for the type came during NATO's Allied Force operations over Serbia in 1999; it was reported that over 400 combat missions were flown with 73% of the assigned objectives destroyed, the best performance of all the air forces involved in the missions over Serbiacitation needed

Launch from Charles de Gaulle

The SEM also flew strike missions in Operation Enduring Freedom Mission Héraclès starting 21 November 2001 saw the deployment of the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and its Super Étendards in Afghanistan Operation Anaconda, starting on 2 March 2002 saw extensive use of the Super Étendard in support of French and allied ground troops Super Étendards returned to operations over Afghanistan in 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010-2011 One of their main roles was to carry laser designation pods to illuminate targets for Dassault Rafales39

In March 2011, Étendards were deployed as a part of Task Force 473, during France's Opération Harmattan in support of UN resolution 1973 during the Libyan conflict40 They were paired again with Dassault Rafales on interdiction missions41 The final Super Étendards in French naval aviation were in one "flottille" squadron called flottille 17F All Super Étendards were retired from French service on 12 July 2016 to be replaced by the Dassault Rafale M, 42 years after the subsonic attack jet performed its first flight1 The Super Étendard's last operational deployment from Charles de Gaulle was in support of Opération Chammal against Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria, which began in late 201542 On 16 March 2016, the aircraft undertook its final launch from Charles de Gaulle ahead of its final withdrawal from service in July

Dassault Super Étendard, Iraqi Air Force, 1983

Iraqedit

A total of five Super Étendards were loaned to Iraq in 1983 while the country was waiting for deliveries of Agave-equipped Dassault Mirage F1s capable of launching Exocet missiles that had been ordered; the first of these aircraft arrived in Iraq on 8 October 198343 The provision of Super Étendards to Iraq was politically controversial, the United States and Iraq's neighbour Iran were vocal in their opposition while Saudi Arabia supported the loan; the aircraft were seen as an influential factor in the 1980–88 Iraq-Iran War as they could launch Exocet strikes on Iranian merchant shipping traversing the Persian Gulf4445 The Super Étendards began maritime operations over Persian Gulf in March 1984; a total of 34 attacks were carried out on Iranian shipping through the rest of 198446 Tankers of any nationality that were carrying Iranian crude oil were also subject to Iraqi attacks47

Iraq typically deployed the Super Étendards in pairs, escorted by Mirage F1 fighters from bases in Southern Iraq; once inside the mission zone, the Super Étendards would search for targets using their onboard radar and engage suspected tankers at long range without visual identification48 While tankers would typically be struck by a launched Exocet, they were often only lightly damaged49 In April 1984, an Iraqi Super Étendard was claimed to have been shot down by an Iranian F-4 Phantom II over Kharg Island50 Separately, on 26 July and 7 August 1984, claims of Super Étendard losses to Iranian Grumman F-14 Tomcats were reported51 Iran claimed a total of three Super Étendards to have been shot down by Iranian interceptors; France stated that four of the five leased aircraft were returned to France in 198551

Current operatorsedit

Argentine Navy's Super Étendard  Argentina
  • Argentine Naval Aviation received 14 aircraft, 11 are partially operational

Former operatorsedit

 France
  • Aviation Navale received 71 aircraft; retired from active service on 12 July 20161
 Iraq
  • Iraqi Air Force was loaned five French aircraft between 1983 and 1985; one was lost during the Iran-Iraq War, the remainder returning to France in 1985

Accidents and incidentsedit

Argentinaedit

  • 1 August 1989, 0760 3-A-210, pilot died
  • 11 December 1989, 0762 3-A-212, engine stopped but the pilot ejected safely
  • 29 May 1993, 0754 3-A-203, pilot died

Franceedit

  • On 27 May 1982, a Super Étendard crashed off the coast of Toulon; the pilot was killed
  • In September 1986, a Super Étendard crashed into the Mediterranean Sea; the pilot ejected
  • During the night of 2 April 1987, a Super Étendard disappeared during a training flight north of the Île Vierge lighthouse off the northwestern coast of Brittany Neither the aircraft nor the pilot were found52
  • In July 1987, a Super Étendard crashed in a forest in Ille-et-Vilaine; the pilot ejected
  • During the night of 17 July 1988, a Super Étendard crashed during a landing on the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau; the pilot was killed
  • On 31 May 1990, a Super Étendard pilot ejected 110 km off the coast of Hyères He was rescued by a Dauphin helicopter from the French Navy's squadron 23S53
  • On 27 March 1994, Super Étendard 5 from the French Navy's flotilla 11F crashed in the Adriatic Sea; the pilot was rescued from the water by a helicopter from squadron 23S53
  • On 26 January 1996, a Super Étendard crashed off the coast of La Ciotat; the pilot ejected
  • On 14 April 2004, Super Étendard Modernisé 35 from the French Navy's flotilla 17F missed a landing on the French aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle, crashing on the runway; the pilot was unharmed54
  • On 7 December 2005, Super Étendard Modernisé 45 from the French Navy's flotilla 11F was lost at sea in the Gulf of Ajaccio after its engine ingested a bird The pilot ejected and was only mildly injured5556
  • On 21 March 2006, a bird shattered the canopy of Super Étendard Modernisé 3 from the French Navy's flotilla 11F, over Pontorson The pilot made a forced landing in a field in Dinard57
  • On August 24, 2006, around 18:30 local time, Super Étendard Modernisé 43 from the French Navy's flotilla 11F landed hard at BAN Landivisiau and was damaged; there were no injuries58
  • On 21 March 2008, a Super Étendard Modernisé from the French Navy's flotilla 17F was lost at sea south of Cavalaire-sur-Mer during a training flight The pilot ejected safely59
  • On 1 October 2008, at 17:10 local time, two Super Étendards Modernisés numbers 38 and 49 from the French Navy's flotilla 11F collided over the bay of Lannion, about 27 km north of Morlaix They were conducting a training flight originating from BAN Landivisiau Both pilots ejected, but only one was rescued alive60 The minesweeper Lyre M648 was not able to locate the wreckage in over 60 m of water, and the rescue attempts for the second downed pilot were called off the next day at noon61 On October 17, wreckage and the missing pilot's body were found 20 km north of Île de Batz with the assistance of robotic submersibles6263

Specificationsedit

DEFA 552 cannons on display External images
Numerous Super Étendards on Foch
Two Super Étendards being prepared
Super Étendard before takeoff
Moments before catapult is fired
Super Étendard landing
Super Étendard launching an Exocet
AM39 under a Super Étendard
Super Étendard prior to takeoff
Super Étendard with Exocet
Iraqi Air Force Super Étendard

Data from All The World's Aircraft 1982–83 ;16 Air Power Classics ,64 Jet Bombers47

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 1431 m 45 ft 11½ in
  • Wingspan: 960 m 31 ft 6 in
  • Height: 386 m 12 ft 8 in
  • Wing area: 284 m² 3067 ft²
  • Empty weight: 6,500 kg 14,330 lb
  • Max takeoff weight: 12,000 kg 26,455 lb
  • Powerplant: 1 × SNECMA Atar 8K-50 turbojet, 490 kN 11,025 lbf

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 1205 km/h65 651 knots, 749 mph
  • Range: 1,820 km66 983 nmi, 1,130 mi
  • Combat radius: 850 km 460 nmi, 530 mi with one AM39 Exocet missile one wing pylon and one drop tank on opposite pylon, hi-lo-hi profile
  • Service ceiling: 13,700 m 44,900 ft
  • Rate of climb: 100 m/s67 19,700 ft/min
  • Wing loading: 423 kg/m² 863 lb/ft²
  • Thrust/weight: 042

Armament

  • Guns: 2× 30 mm 118 in DEFA 552 cannons with 125 rounds per gun
  • Hardpoints: 4× underwing and 2× under-fuselage with a capacity of 2,100 kg 4,600 lb maximum
  • Rockets: 4× Matra rocket pods with 18× SNEB 68 mm rockets each
  • Missiles:
    • 1× AM-39 Exocet Anti-shipping missile or
    • 1× Air-Sol Moyenne Portée nuclear armed missile or
    • 2× AS-30L or
    • 2× Matra Magic Air-to-air missile
  • Bombs: Conventional unguided or laser-guided bombs, provision for 1 × AN-52 free-fall nuclear bomb, provision for "buddy" air refuelling pod68

See alsoedit

  • Aviation portal
Related development
  • Dassault Étendard II
  • Dassault Étendard IV
  • Dassault Étendard VI
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
  • Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
  • LTV A-7 Corsair II
Related lists
  • Iranian aerial victories during the Iran-Iraq war
  • List of fighter aircraft
  • List of military aircraft of France

Current squadrons

  • Flottille 17F
  • 2da Escuadrilla Aeronaval de Caza y Ataque

Referencesedit

Notes
  1. ^ a b c "Les Super Etendard français retirés du service" The French Super Etendard retires from service in French Mer et Marine 13 July 2016 
  2. ^ Jackson 1992, p 77
  3. ^ Bowman 2007, p 26
  4. ^ "An Embarrassment of Aeroplanes", New Scientist, 56 824, pp 660–61, 14 December 1972 
  5. ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p 169
  6. ^ a b c d e f Grolleau 2003, p 40
  7. ^ a b c Taylor 1982, p 65
  8. ^ Polmar 2006, p 330
  9. ^ a b c d Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p 170
  10. ^ Friedman 2006, p 159
  11. ^ "France's Aerospace Industry – Programme by Programme" Flight International, 4 November 1978 p 1647
  12. ^ Michell 1994, p 65
  13. ^ Friedman 2006, pp 159–60
  14. ^ a b c d Friedman 2006, p 160
  15. ^ a b Grolleau 2003, pp 40–41
  16. ^ a b Taylor 1982, pp 65–66
  17. ^ Burden et al 1986, p 34
  18. ^ Smith, Michael 8 March 2002, "SAS 'suicide mission' to wipe out Exocets", The Daily Telegraph, London, ENG, UK 
  19. ^ "Thatcher in the dark on sinking of Belgrano", The Times, London, ENG, UK, 27 June 2005 
  20. ^ a b Burden 1986, p 35
  21. ^ a b Huertas 1997, pp 22–29
  22. ^ Burden 1986, p 36
  23. ^ Burden 1986, pp 434, 438
  24. ^ Freedman 2005, p 482
  25. ^ Freedman 2005, pp 438, 482, 778
  26. ^ Freedman 2005, p 701
  27. ^ Qualification Ops on YouTube
  28. ^ Polmar 2006, pp 329–30
  29. ^ Cooperación argentino-francesa en defensa French-Argentinian defense cooperation news in Spanish, Argentine Ministry of Defence, 2 November 2011, archived from the original on 2011-07-18, retrieved 5 May 2012 
  30. ^ "Argentine Navy plans Super Étendard upgrade: Update" Jane's International Defence Review, 5 May 2009
  31. ^ Gonzalez, Diego 10 March 2014 "Argentine Super Etendard modernisation hits major snags" IHS Jane's Defence Weekly 
  32. ^
  33. ^ Jackson 2010, p 76
  34. ^ Jackson 1986, p66
  35. ^ Acig 
  36. ^ Koven, Ronald "France: Shiites Planned More Strikes" Boston Globe, 18 November 1983
  37. ^ Grolleau 2003, p39
  38. ^ Grolleau 2003, pp 39–40
  39. ^ Wall, Robert 9 June 2008 "Super Étendards in Afghanistan" Aviation Week 
  40. ^ "Libye : première mission aérienne pour la TF 473" Libya: first TF 473 aerial mission Opération Harmattan in French French Ministry of Defense Retrieved 2011-03-27 
  41. ^ "Libye : point de situation opération Harmattan n°6" Libya: status of operation Harmattan nº 6 in French French Ministry of Defense Archived from the original on 2011-05-05 Retrieved 2011-03-27 
  42. ^ French Carrier Strike Group to Deploy to Eastern Mediterranean with Largest Airwing Ever - Navyrecognitioncom, 16 November 2015
  43. ^ Jackson 1986, p69
  44. ^ "Étendards in Iraq since October 8" Flight International, 19 November 1983 p 1342
  45. ^ Raj, Christopher S "Shadow of Super Étendards over the Gulf" Strategic Analysis, 710 1984 pp 799–808
  46. ^ Kupersmith 1993, p 29
  47. ^ a b Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p 171
  48. ^ Kupersmith 1993, p 30
  49. ^ Kupersmith 1993, p 43
  50. ^ Cooper and Bishop 2003, pp 87—88
  51. ^ a b Cooper 2004, p 48
  52. ^ "Disparition d'un pilote aero en 1987" Disappearance of an aircraft pilot in 1987 in French Air defense 2007-03-30 Archived from the original on 2007 Retrieved 14 August 2011 
  53. ^ a b Histoire History in French, Net Marine 
  54. ^ Public report of the technical inquiry PDF in French M-2004-009-IA, Bureau d'enquêtes et d'analyses de la Défense, December 2004 
  55. ^ Accident aérien survenu à un Super Étendard Modernisé de la Marine Nationale, le 7 décembre 2005, dans le golfe d'Ajaccio Aerial accident of a modernised Super Étendard of the national Navy the 7 December 2007 at the Ajaccio gulf in French, FR: Défense 
  56. ^ Public report of the technical inquiry PDF in French M-2005-019-A, Bureau d'enquêtes et d'analyses de la Défense, June 22, 2006 
  57. ^ Public report of the technical inquiry PDF in French M-2006-007-I, Bureau d'enquêtes et d'analyses de la Défense, June 28, 2006 
  58. ^ Public report of the technical inquiry PDF in French M-2006-016, Bureau d'enquêtes et d'analyses de la Défense, April 25, 2007 
  59. ^ Un Super Étendard perdu en mer A Super Étendard lost at sea in French, Opex 360, 2008-03-25 
  60. ^ Accident aérien de 2 Super-Étendard de la Marine nationale Aerial accident with two Super Étendards of the national Navy in French, Ministère de la Défense français, 2008-10-01, retrieved 2008-10-01 dead link
  61. ^ Merchet, Jean-Dominique 2008-10-02, "Crash d'un Super-Étendard: plus d'espoir de retrouver le pilote vivant" Crash of a Super Étendard: no more hope of finding the pilot alive, Libération in French, ISSN 0335-1793, retrieved 2008-10-02 
  62. ^ "La Marine localise des débris de Super-Étendard au nord de l'île de Batz" The Navy finds the rests of an Super Étendard north of the Batz isle, Ouest-France in French, 2008-10-15, OCLC 405970499, retrieved 2008-10-16 
  63. ^ Recherche du pilote et des Super Étendards disparus en mer Search for the pilot and Super Étendards lost at sea in French, Ministère de la Défense français, 2008-10-17, retrieved 2008-10-18 dead link
  64. ^ "Super Étendard" PDF, Air Force Magazine, p 76, October 2012 
  65. ^ MilitaryFactory http://wwwmilitaryfactorycom/aircraft/detailaspaircraft_id=119 Retrieved 24 October 2016  Missing or empty |title= help
  66. ^ Flight International 25–31 May 2004, p 53
  67. ^ Donald and Lake 1996, p 142
  68. ^ Jackson 1986, p 62
Bibliography
  • Burden, Rodney A, Michael A Draper, Douglas A Rough, Colin A Smith and David Wilton Falklands: The Air War Twickenham, UK: British Air Review Group, 1986 ISBN 0-906339-05-7
  • Cooper, Tom Iranian F-14 Tomcat Units in Combat Osprey Publishing, 2004 ISBN 1-841767-87-5
  • Donald, David and Jon Lake Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft London, Aerospace Publishing, single volume ed, 1996 ISBN 1-874023-95-6
  • Freedman, Lawrence The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: The 1982 Falklands War and Its Aftermath Routledge, 2005 ISBN 0-714652-07-5
  • Friedman, Norman The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems, 5th ed Naval Institute Press, 2006 ISBN 1-557502-62-5
  • Grolleau, Henri-Paul "The Aéronavale Spearhead" Air International, January 2008, Vol 64 No 1 Stamford, UK: Key Publishing ISSN 0306-5634, pp 38–43
  • Gunston, Bill and Peter Gilchrist Jet Bombers: From the Messerschmitt Me 262 to the Stealth B-2 Osprey, 1993 ISBN 1-85532-258-7
  • Hoyle, Craig "World Air Forces Directory" Flight International, 13–19 December 2011, pp 26–52
  • Huertas, Salvador Mafé "Super Étendard in the Falklands: 2ª Escuadrilla Aeronaval de Caza y Ataque" Wings of Fame Volume 8, 1997 London: Aerospace Publishing ISBN 1-86184-008-X
  • Jackson, Paul February 1986, "France's Superior Standard", Air International, Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll, 30 2, pp 49–69, ISSN 0306-5634 
  • ——— Winter 1992, "SEPECAT Jaguar", World Air Power Journal, London: Aerospace Publishing, 11, pp 52–111, ISBN 1-874023-96-4, ISSN 0959-7050 
  • Jackson, Robert 2010, 101 Great Warships, Rosen, ISBN 1-4358-3596-4 
  • Kupersmith, Douglas A June 1993, The Failure of Third World Air Power PDF, Air University Press 
  • Michell, Simon 1994, Civil and Military Aircraft Upgrades 1994–95, Coulsdon, UK: Jane's, ISBN 0-7106-1208-7 
  • Polmar, Norman 2006, Aircraft Carriers: A History of Carrier Aviation and Its Influence on World Events, I: 1909–1945, Potomac, ISBN 1-574886-63-0 
  • Ripley, Tim "Directory: Military Aircraft" Flight International, 25–31 May 2004 Sutton, UK: Reed Business Press, pp 38–73
  • Taylor, John WR ed Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982–83 London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1982 ISBN 0-7106-0748-2

Further readingedit

  • Lert, Frederic 2011 DASSAULT SUPER ETENDARD: De l'Etendard IV au Standard Modernise Les Materiels de L'Armee De L'Air et de L'Aeronavale in French 10 Histoire and Collections ISBN 978-2-35250-175-6 Retrieved 2014-08-23 
  • Núñez Padin, Jorge Felix 2012 Núñez Padin, Jorge Felix, ed Dassault Super Etendard Serie Aeronaval in Spanish 30 Bahía Blanca, Argentina: Fuerzas Aeronavales ISBN 978-987-1682-12-6 Retrieved 2014-08-23 

External linksedit

  • Super Étendard on Federation of American Scientist FAS
  • Super Étendard on Global Aircraft
  • Super Étendard on Global Security

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