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darwin-op humanoid research robot, darwin-op playing in robocup
DARWIN-OP which stands for Dynamic Anthropomorphic Robot with Intelligence–Open Platform is a miniature-humanoid robot platform with advanced computational power, sophisticated sensors, high payload capacity, and dynamic motion ability developed and manufactured by Korean robot manufacturer Robotis in collaboration with Virginia Tech, Purdue University,and University of Pennsylvania DARWIN-OP has twenty degrees of freedom each controlled by a DYNAMIXEL MX-28T servo motor The MX-28T has a stall torque of 24 kgf·cm at 12 V, 15 A and a 360 degree range of motion

With the release of the ROBOTIS OP2, the name of DARwIn-OP has also changed

DARWIN-OP's main purpose is for research and programmers in the fields of humanoid, artificial intelligence, gait algorithm, vision, inverse kinematics, linguistics, etc It is also supported by $12 million NSF grant and has been distributed to over 14 institutions already

DARWIN-OP is also the winner of the Kid Size League in the RoboCup 2011 2012 League, and 2013 League


  • 1 Specifications
    • 11 DARwIn-OP
    • 12 ROBOTIS OP2
  • 2 Different Applications
  • 3 Competitions
    • 31 ICRA Humanoid Application Challenge
    • 32 RoboCup
    • 33 FIRA
    • 34 Robotbenchmark
  • 4 Community
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links



  • Discontinued and replaced with ROBOTIS OP2 - new specs below
  • Height: 4545 mm 1789 in
  • Weight: 29 kg 64 lb
  • Default walking speed: 240 cm/s 95 in/s 025 s/step – user modifiable gait
  • Default standing up time from ground : 28 s facing down and 39 s facing up – user modifiable speed
  • Built-in PC: 16 GHz Intel Atom Z530 32 bit on-board 4 GB flash SSD
  • Management controller CM-730: ARM CortexM3 STM32F103RE 72 MHz
  • 20 MX-28T actuators 6 DOF leg × 2 + 3 DOF arm × 2 + 2 DOF neck with metallic gears
  • 3 Mbit/s high-speed Dynamixel bus for joint control
  • 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, button × 3, detection microphone × 2
  • Versatile functionality can accept legacy, current, and future peripherals
  • Price: $12,000


  • Height: 4545 mm 1789 in
  • Weight: 29 kg 64 lb
  • Default walking speed: 240 cm/s 95 in/s 025 s/step – user modifiable gait
  • Default standing up time from ground : 28 s facing down and 39 s facing up – user modifiable speed
  • 20 MX-28T actuators 6 DOF leg × 2 + 3 DOF arm × 2 + 2 DOF neck with metallic gears
  • CPU : Intel Atom Processor N2600 dual core, 16 GHz
  • RAM : 4GB DDR3 204-pin SO-DIMM module, user-replaceable
  • SSD : SSD / mSATA module unlimited space, user-replaceable
  • OS : Linux and Windows
  • User-accessible ports : 2 x USB20, mini HDMI, LAN gigabit, mic/audio line in,out
  • Price: $9,600

A 3D visualization of the robot including all the DOFs and LEDs is available here

Different Applications

Country Application University Video
USA Theraptist for Cerebral Palsy GATECH
USA DDR Motions Purdue University
USA Roller Skating Virginia Tech
USA Ladder Climbing UNLV-DASL
Canada Skiing University of Manitoba
USA Driving Drexel University
USA Carrying water UNLV
USA 3D Printing Michael Overstreet
USA Play Golf Purdue University
Canada Ice Hockey University of Manitoba
Canada Bicycle University of Manitoba
Unknown Kinect Unknown
Unknown Weight Lifting Unknown

Many source codes are being shared and are open in English


This platform is currently used in the ICRA, RoboCup, FIRA, and Humabot competition Links below

  • IEEE ICRA Robot Challenge
  • RoboCup
  • FIRA
  • IEEE Humanoids

ICRA Humanoid Application Challenge

Beginning in 2012 ROBOTIS and IEEE ICRA has sponsored the DARWIN-OP Humanoid Application Challenge, held at the ICRA conference The competition encourages participants to solve novel problems using DARWIN-OP and present their findings at the conference Winners are selected by a panel of experts as well as popular vote amongst the participants The winning team has been awarded the DARWIN-OP Deluxe Edition for two consecutive years along with softwares All finalists are also rewarded As of 2015, the challenge name has changed to Humanoid Application Challenge and is now open to all applications

Year Winning Team Project Description Competition Location
2012 University of Manitoba Ice skating/Ice hockey Minneapolis-St Paul
2013 Georgia Tech Case-based reasoning, learning from demonstration Karlsruhe, Germany
2014 Cancelled Cancelled Hong Kong
2015 University of Manitoba Alpine and cross-country skiing Seattle, WA - USA
2016 Cancelled Cancelled Stockholm, Sweden


The DARWIN-OP robot is currently used by several teams in the RoboCup kids-size competition humanoid robots 40–60 cm tall and have shown excellent performance by the teams using this platform

Kid-Size League Winners
Year Rank Team Name Country University
2011 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn
2012 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn
2013 1st Place Team DARwIn USA Virginia Tech and UPenn


DARWIN-OP robots are used by some teams in the kids-size HuroCup competition at FIRA A team from the University of Manitoba won best overall at the 2013 competition using a DARwIn-OP By 2017, team ICHIRO won 10 medals and broke two world records in sprint and marathon using Darwin-Op


Since August 2017, the ROBOTIS OP2 is used in an online contest called Humanoid Marathon on robotbenchmark In this contest it is possible to program a simulated robot in Python using a web interface


Due to its openness and easy maintenance, many researchers favor and hope to create a clone version of their own DARWIN-OP is currently being used at the labs/universities below :

  • RoMeLa UCLA Website
  • GRASP University of Pennsylvania Website
  • ARTLAB Purdue University Website
  • Bold Hearts University of Hertfordshire Website
  • Hamburg Bit-Bots Hamburg University Website
  • NUBots University of Newcastle Australia Website
  • UKM Soccer Robotic Laboratory Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Website
  • University of Manitoba Autonomous Agents Laboratory Website
  • Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives- Marcoule - Website
  • École normale supérieure de Rennes Website
  • Virginia Tech
  • DASL University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • ICHIRO Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Website

See also

  • Robotics portal
  • Robotis Bioloid


  1. ^ ::: ROBOTIS :::
  2. ^ AX-12A, AX-18A, RX-24F, RX-28, RX-64, EX-106+, MX-28
  3. ^ Sandeep Rai / Jun 22 2011 2011-06-22 "DARWiN robot to assist disabled by tracking their eye movement" Gizmowatchcom Archived from the original on 2012-04-26 Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  4. ^ "Darwin-OP Learns To Play Dance Dance Revolution - IEEE Spectrum" Spectrumieeeorg Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  5. ^ a b "Me And My Robot Page 2 of 2" Forbescom 2011-05-23 Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  6. ^ a b Author Name:  Dennis Hong 2011-05-12 "Robotis DARwIn-OP Raises The Bar | Robot Magazine - The latest hobby, science and consumer robotics, artificial intelligence" Findbotmagcom Archived from the original on 2012-01-01 Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  7. ^ "RoboCup 2011 Kid Size: USA / Japan Final" YouTube 2011-07-10 Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  8. ^ "Robot Soccer Stars Win World Cup Trophy for US - Video" Bloomberg 2011-09-09 Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  9. ^ http://wwwcscolumbiaedu/~allen/F11/NOTES/RoboCuppdf
  10. ^ Hornyak, Tim 2011-07-12 "US droids carry the day at 2011 RoboCup finals | Crave - CNET" Newscnetcom Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  11. ^ RoMeLa RoboCup 2012: Team DARwIn repeats win at RoboCup in Kid-Size division
  12. ^ https://wwwtechnologyreviewcom/s/603614/a-robot-physical-therapist-helps-kids-with-cerebral-palsy/
  13. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=M4DvlAb4eA4
  14. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=0k-PaTPVIAQ
  15. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=F3sllTrCV4Q
  16. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=3jesBT-xp1A
  17. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=L-jm3Pn9GVg
  18. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=7MM_pvcmK4M
  19. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=Svq302_Vyjk
  20. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=D4xaaJNBhlk
  21. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=u7Tc3-4oZG0
  22. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=ZQIE2V47Pi8
  23. ^ https://wwwyoutubecom/watchv=NOywcPyozRs
  24. ^ "ICRA 2012 Home Page" Icra2012org Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  25. ^ Guillermo Cornejo L - Grupo Fidalex "RoboCup Mexico 2012" Robocup2012org Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  26. ^ FIRA 2011-11-22 "FIRA News - Special offer for FIRA teams" Firanet Retrieved 2011-12-27 
  27. ^ Robotis "Winner 2012 DARwIn-OP Humanoid Application Challenge" 
  28. ^ http://roboticsgatechedu/hg/item/215691
  29. ^ http://aalabcsumanitobaca/
  30. ^ http://wwwseasupennedu/media/feature-darwinphp
  31. ^ http://wwwvtnewsvtedu/articles/2012/06/062812-engineering-robocuphtml
  32. ^ https://booksgooglecom/booksid=aJgrBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=team+darwin+robocup+2013&source=bl&ots=lEYkpoWFv2&sig=fmlbwu6rbRxaV3mvH3v-ItCCc78&hl=ko&sa=X&ei=XNZeVY-VIYOB8gWBlYHQDA&ved=0CFYQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=team%20darwin%20robocup%202013&f=false
  33. ^ University of Manitoba "SnoBots win at international robotics competition in Kuala Lumpur" 
  34. ^ Republika "Robot ITS Raih Juara Umum di Beijing" 

External links

  • Official website in English in Japanese in Korean
  • GitHub in English

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DARwIn-OP Information about


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