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Dartmouth College

dartmouth college, dartmouth college athletics
Dartmouth College /ˈdɑːrtməθ/ DART-məth is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, Dartmouth is one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution

Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering, and enables students to design specialized majors and minors or engage in dual degree programs Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, and the School of Graduate and Advanced Studies With an undergraduate enrollment of 4,307 and a total student enrollment of 6,350, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League

Dartmouth's 269-acre campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New Hampshire The university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms Dartmouth is known for its strong Greek culture and wide array of enduring campus traditions Its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I

Dartmouth has produced many prominent alumni, including 62 Rhodes Scholars, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 164 members of the US Senate and the US House of Representatives, 22 US Governors, 10 billionaire graduates, 8 US Cabinet officials, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 US Supreme Court justices, and a US Vice President Other notable alumni include numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright and Marshall scholarship recipients, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high-ranking US diplomats, scholars in academia, literary and media figures, professional athletes, and Olympic medalists

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Academics
    • 21 Rankings
    • 22 Admissions
    • 23 Financial aid
    • 24 The Dartmouth Plan
    • 25 Board of Trustees
  • 3 Campus
    • 31 Academic facilities
    • 32 Athletic facilities
    • 33 Housing and student life facilities
  • 4 Student life
    • 41 Student safety
    • 42 Student groups
    • 43 Athletics
    • 44 Native Americans at Dartmouth
    • 45 Traditions
  • 5 Insignia and other representations
    • 51 Motto and song
    • 52 Seal
    • 53 Shield
    • 54 Nickname, symbol, and mascot
  • 6 Alumni
  • 7 In popular culture
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

History

See also: List of presidents of Dartmouth College

Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, Connecticut, who had previously sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, and later moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks

Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755 The Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, and Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock The head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth

The Charter of Dartmouth College on display in Baker Memorial Library The charter was signed on December 13, 1769, on behalf of King George III of Great Britain

Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock initially had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution, primarily because its location was far from tribal territories In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter The Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued the charter in the name of King George III establishing the College That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and also of English Youth and any others" The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule The College granted its first degrees in 1771

Given the limited success of the Charity School, however, Wheelock intended his new college as one primarily for whites Occom, disappointed with Wheelock's departure from the school's original goal of Indian Christianization, went on to form his own community of New England Indians called Brothertown Indians in New York

The earliest known image of Dartmouth appeared in the February 1793 issue of Massachusetts Magazine The engraving may also be the first visual proof of cricket being played in the United States

In 1819, Dartmouth College was the subject of the historic Dartmouth College case, which challenged New Hampshire's 1816 attempt to amend the college's royal charter to make the school a public university An institution called Dartmouth University occupied the college buildings and began operating in Hanover in 1817, though the college continued teaching classes in rented rooms nearby Daniel Webster, an alumnus of the class of 1801, presented the College's case to the Supreme Court, which found the amendment of Dartmouth's charter to be an illegal impairment of a contract by the state and reversed New Hampshire's takeover of the college Webster concluded his peroration with the famous words: "It is, Sir, as I have said, a small college And yet there are those who love it"

In 1866, the New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts was incorporated in Hanover, in connection with Dartmouth College The institution was officially associated with Dartmouth and was directed by Dartmouth's president The new college was moved to Durham, New Hampshire, in 1891, and later became known as the University of New Hampshire

Dartmouth emerged onto the national academic stage at the turn of the 20th century Prior to this period, the college had clung to traditional methods of instruction and was relatively poorly funded Under President William Jewett Tucker 1893–1909, Dartmouth underwent a major revitalization of facilities, faculty, and the student body, following large endowments such as the $10,000 given by Dartmouth alumnus and law professor John Ordronaux 20 new structures replaced antiquated buildings, while the student body and faculty both expanded threefold Tucker is often credited for having "refounded Dartmouth" and bringing it into national prestige

Lithograph of the President's House, Thornton Hall, Dartmouth Hall, and Wentworth Hall, designed by Boston architect Gridley JF Bryant circa 1834

Presidents Ernest Fox Nichols 1909–16 and Ernest Martin Hopkins 1916–45 continued Tucker's trend of modernization, further improving campus facilities and introducing selective admissions in the 1920s John Sloan Dickey, serving as president from 1945 until 1970, strongly emphasized the liberal arts, particularly public policy and international relations During World War II, Dartmouth was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission

In 1970, longtime professor of mathematics and computer science John George Kemeny became president of Dartmouth Kemeny oversaw several major changes at the college Dartmouth, previously serving as a men's institution, began admitting women as full-time students and undergraduate degree candidates in 1972 amid much controversy At about the same time, the college adopted its "Dartmouth Plan" of academic scheduling, permitting the student body to increase in size within the existing facilities In 1988, Dartmouth's alma mater song's lyrics changed from "Men of Dartmouth" to "Dear old Dartmouth"

During the 1990s, the college saw a major academic overhaul under President James O Freedman and a controversial and ultimately unsuccessful 1999 initiative to encourage the school's single-sex Greek houses to go coed The first decade of the 21st century saw the commencement of the $13 billion Campaign for the Dartmouth Experience, the largest capital fundraising campaign in the college's history, which surpassed $1 billion in 2008 The mid- and late first decade of the 21st century have also seen extensive campus construction, with the erection of two new housing complexes, full renovation of two dormitories, and a forthcoming dining hall, life sciences center, and visual arts center In 2004, Booz Allen Hamilton selected Dartmouth College as a model of institutional endurance "whose record of endurance has had implications and benefits for all American organizations, both academic and commercial," citing Trustees of Dartmouth College v Woodward and Dartmouth's successful self-reinvention in the late 19th century

Since the election of a number of petition-nominated trustees to the Board of Trustees starting in 2004, the role of alumni in Dartmouth governance has been the subject of ongoing conflict President James Wright announced his retirement in February 2008 and was replaced by Harvard University professor and physician Jim Yong Kim on July 1, 2009

In May 2010 Dartmouth joined the Matariki Network of Universities MNU together with Durham University UK, Queen's University Canada, University of Otago New Zealand, University of Tübingen Germany, University of Western Australia Australia and Uppsala University Sweden

Dartmouth's close association and involvement in the development of the downhill skiing industry is featured in the 2010 book Passion for Skiing as well as the 2013 documentary based on the book Passion for Snow

Academics

2016 USNWR graduate school rankings

Business 8
Engineering 57
Medicine Primary Care 45
Medicine Research 40

Dartmouth, a liberal arts institution, offers a four-year Bachelor of Arts and ABET-accredited Bachelor of Engineering degree to undergraduate students The college has 39 academic departments offering 56 major programs, while students are free to design special majors or engage in dual majors In 2008, the most popular majors were economics, government, history, psychological and brain sciences, English, biology, and engineering sciences The Government Department, whose prominent professors include Stephen Brooks, Richard Ned Lebow, and William Wohlforth, was ranked the top solely undergraduate political science program in the world by researchers at the London School of Economics in 2003 The Economics Department, whose prominent professors include David Blanchflower and Andrew Samwick, also holds the distinction as the top-ranked bachelor's-only economics program in the world

In order to graduate, a student must complete 35 total courses, eight to ten of which are typically part of a chosen major program Other requirements for graduation include the completion of ten "distributive requirements" in a variety of academic fields, proficiency in a foreign language, and completion of a writing class and first-year seminar in writing Many departments offer honors programs requiring students seeking that distinction to engage in "independent, sustained work," culminating in the production of a thesis In addition to the courses offered in Hanover, Dartmouth offers 57 different off-campus programs, including Foreign Study Programs, Language Study Abroad programs, and Exchange Programs

Through the Graduate Studies program, Dartmouth grants doctorate and master's degrees in 19 Arts & Sciences graduate programs Although the first graduate degree, a PhD in classics, was awarded in 1885, many of the current PhD programs have only existed since the 1960s Furthermore, Dartmouth is home to three professional schools: the Geisel School of Medicine established 1797, Thayer School of Engineering 1867 — which also serves as the undergraduate department of engineering sciences — and Tuck School of Business 1900 With these professional schools and graduate programs, conventional American usage would accord Dartmouth the label of "Dartmouth University"; however, because of historical and nostalgic reasons such as Dartmouth College v Woodward, the school uses the name "Dartmouth College" to refer to the entire institution

Dartmouth employs a total of 607 tenured or tenure-track faculty members, including the highest proportion of female tenured professors among the Ivy League universities Faculty members have been at the forefront of such major academic developments as the Dartmouth Conferences, the Dartmouth Time Sharing System, Dartmouth BASIC, and Dartmouth ALGOL 30 In 2005, sponsored project awards to Dartmouth faculty research amounted to $169 million

Dartmouth serves as the host institution of the University Press of New England, a university press founded in 1970 that is supported by a consortium of schools that also includes Brandeis University, the University of New Hampshire, Northeastern University, Tufts University and the University of Vermont

Further information: List of Dartmouth College faculty

Rankings

National
ARWU 72-98
Forbes 17
US News & World Report 11
Washington Monthly 29
Global
ARWU 201-300
QS 158
Times 82
US News & World Report 198

Dartmouth was ranked 11th among undergraduate programs at national universities by US News & World Report in its 2017 rankings Dartmouth's strength in undergraduate education is highlighted by US News when in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 it ranked Dartmouth first in undergraduate teaching at national universities It was ranked 7th in this area in the 2017 rankings The institution also ranked 5th in High School Counselor Rankings in 2017 The college ranks 7th in The Wall Street Journal's ranking of top feeder schools

In Forbes' 2016 rankings of colleges, Dartmouth ranked 17th overall in the combined liberal arts college and national universities ranking and 2nd in "grateful graduates", with a financial grade of A+

The 2006 Carnegie Foundation classification listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate", "arts-and-sciences focus", "research university" in the country that also had "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity"

For its graduate programs, US News ranks Dartmouth's MBA program 9th overall and 6th for management Among its other highly ranked graduate offerings, the school is ranked 40th in computer science, 29th in medicine for primary care, and 37th in medicine for research Its global ranking places is at 242nd

Admissions

Fall admission statistics
  2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
Applicants 20,675 20,504 19,296 22,428 23,110
Admits 2,176 2,120 2,220 2,337 2,260
Admit rate 105% 103% 115% 104% 98%
Enrolled N/A 1,116 1,152 1,117 1,098
SAT range N/A 2000-2340 2050-2340 2040-2340 2030-2350
SAT mean 2219 2216 2219 2219 2200
ACT range N/A 30-34 30-34 30-34 30-34
ACT mean 328 328 326 325 325

Undergraduate admission to Dartmouth College is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation and US News & World Report as "most selective" The Princeton Review, in its 2016 edition, gave the university an admissions selectivity rating of 99 out of 99

In the 2015-2016 cycle, 20,675 applied and 2,176 were accepted for a 105% admissions rate Of those who reported class rank, 371% were valedictorians, with 946% ranking in the top decile of their class The admitted students’ academic profile showed average SAT scores of 737 in critical reading, 741 in math, and 741 in writing The average composite ACT score was around 33 More than 51% identified as being students of color, 147% are among the first generation in their families to matriculate to college, 82% are international students, and 81% are legacies

Dartmouth meets 100% of students' demonstrated financial need in order to attend the College, and currently admits all students, with the exception of internationals, on a need-blind basis

Financial aid

Dartmouth guarantees to meet 100% of the demonstrated need of every admitted student who applies for financial aid at the time of admission Dartmouth practices need-blind admissions for all applicants who are US citizens, permanent residents, and undocumented students in the US These applicants are admitted to the college without regard to their financial circumstances For international students, financial need is taken into consideration as one of many factors at the time of admission At Dartmouth, free tuition is provided for students from families with total incomes of $100,000 or less and possessing typical assets In 2015, $888 million in need-based scholarships were awarded to Dartmouth students

The Dartmouth Plan

Baker Memorial Library at Dartmouth College

Dartmouth functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms The Dartmouth Plan or simply "D-Plan" is an academic scheduling system that permits the customization of each student's academic year All undergraduates are required to be in residence for the fall, winter, and spring terms of their freshman and senior years, as well as the summer term of their sophomore year However, students may petition to alter this plan so that they may be off during their freshman, senior, or sophomore summer terms During all terms, students are permitted to choose between studying on-campus, studying at an off-campus program, or taking a term off for vacation, outside internships, or research projects The typical course load is three classes per term, and students will generally enroll in classes for 12 total terms over the course of their academic career

The D-Plan was instituted in the early 1970s at the same time that Dartmouth began accepting female undergraduates It was initially devised as a plan to increase the enrollment without enlarging campus accommodations, and has been described as "a way to put 4,000 students into 3,000 beds" Although new dormitories have been built since, the number of students has also increased and the D-Plan remains in effect It was modified in the 1980s in an attempt to reduce the problems of lack of social and academic continuity

Board of Trustees

Dartmouth Hall, by Gridley JF Bryant was reconstructed in 1906 Main article: Board of Trustees of Dartmouth College

Dartmouth is governed by a Board of Trustees comprising the college president ex officio, the state governor ex officio, 13 trustees nominated and elected by the board called "charter trustees", and eight trustees nominated by alumni and elected by the board "alumni trustees" The nominees for alumni trustee are determined by a poll of the members of the Association of Alumni of Dartmouth College, selecting from among names put forward by the Alumni Council or by alumni petition

Although the board elected its members from the two sources of nominees in equal proportions between 1891 and 2007, the board decided in 2007 to add several new members, all charter trustees In the controversy that followed the decision, the Association of Alumni filed a lawsuit, although it later withdrew the action In 2008, the Board added five new charter trustees

Campus

Main article: List of Dartmouth College buildings

"This is what a college is supposed to look like"

 — Dwight D Eisenhower, 1953 Drawing of Wilson Hall, Dartmouth's first library building, by the architect Samuel J F Thayer 1842–1893 which appeared in American Architect and Building News in March 1885

Dartmouth College is situated in the rural town of Hanover, New Hampshire, located in the Upper Valley along the Connecticut River in New England Its 269-acre 109 km2 campus is centered on a 5-acre 2 ha "Green", a former field of pine trees cleared in 1771 Dartmouth is the largest private landowner of the town of Hanover, and its total landholdings and facilities are worth an estimated $434 million In addition to its campus in Hanover, Dartmouth owns 4,500 acres 18 km2 of Mount Moosilauke in the White Mountains and a 27,000-acre 110 km2 tract of land in northern New Hampshire known as the Second College Grant

American Elm on Dartmouth College campus, June 2011

Dartmouth's campus buildings vary in age from Wentworth and Thornton Halls of the 1820s the oldest surviving buildings constructed by the college to new dormitories and mathematics facilities completed in 2006 Most of Dartmouth's buildings are designed in the Georgian American colonial style, a theme which has been preserved in recent architectural additions The College has actively sought to reduce carbon emissions and energy usage on campus, earning it the grade of A- from the Sustainable Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card 2008

A notable feature of the Dartmouth campus is its many trees which despite Dutch elm disease include some 200 American elms

Academic facilities

The Hopkins Center

The college's creative and performing arts facility is the Hopkins Center for the Arts "the Hop" Opened in 1962, the Hop houses the College's drama, music, film, and studio arts departments, as well as a woodshop, pottery studio, and jewelry studio which are open for use by students and faculty The building was designed by the famed architect Wallace Harrison, who would later design the similar-looking façade of Manhattan's Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center Its facilities include two theaters and one 900-seat auditorium The Hop is also the location of all student mailboxes "Hinman boxes" and the Courtyard Café dining facility The Hop is connected to the Hood Museum of Art, arguably North America's oldest museum in continuous operation, and the Loew Auditorium, where films are screened

A view of the Sherman Fairchild Physical Science Center and Wheeler Hall from the tower of Baker Memorial Library

In addition to its 19 graduate programs in the arts and sciences, Dartmouth is home to three separate graduate schools The Geisel School of Medicine is located in a complex on the north side of campus and includes laboratories, classrooms, offices, and a biomedical library The Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, located several miles to the south in Lebanon, New Hampshire, contains a 396-bed teaching hospital for the Medical School The Thayer School of Engineering and the Tuck School of Business are both located at the end of Tuck Mall, west of the center of campus and near the Connecticut River The Thayer School presently comprises two buildings; Tuck has seven academic and administrative buildings, as well as several common areas The two graduate schools share a library, the Feldberg Business & Engineering Library

Dartmouth's nine libraries are all part of the collective Dartmouth College Library, which comprises 248 million volumes and 6 million total resources, including videos, maps, sound recordings, and photographs Its specialized libraries include the Biomedical Libraries, Evans Map Room, Feldberg Business & Engineering Library, Jones Media Center, Kresge Physical Sciences Library, Paddock Music Library, Rauner Special Collections Library, and Sherman Art Library Baker-Berry Library is the main library at Dartmouth, comprising a merger of the Baker Memorial Library opened 1928 and the Berry Library completed 2002 Located on the northern side of the Green, Baker's 200-foot 61 m tower is an iconic symbol of the College

Athletic facilities

Memorial Field

Dartmouth's original sports field was the Green, where students played cricket and old division football during the 19th century Today, two of Dartmouth's athletic facilities are located in the southeast corner of campus The center of athletic life is the Alumni Gymnasium, which includes the Karl Michael Competition Pool and the Spaulding Pool, a state of the art fitness center, a weight room, and a 1/13th-mile 123 m indoor track Attached to Alumni Gymnasium is the Berry Sports Center, which contains basketball and volleyball courts Leede Arena, as well as the Kresge Fitness Center Behind the Alumni Gymnasium is Memorial Field, a 15,600-seat stadium overlooking Dartmouth's football field and track The nearby Thompson Arena, designed by Italian engineer Pier Luigi Nervi and constructed in 1975, houses Dartmouth's ice rink Also visible from Memorial Field is the 91,800-square-foot 8,530 m2 Nathaniel Leverone Fieldhouse, home to the indoor track The new softball field, Dartmouth Softball Park, was constructed in 2012, sharing parking facilities with Thompson arena and replacing Sachem Field, located over a mile from campus, as the primary softball facility

Dartmouth's other athletic facilities in Hanover include the Friends of Dartmouth Rowing Boathouse and the old rowing house storage facility both located along the Connecticut River, the Hanover Country Club, Dartmouth's oldest remaining athletic facility established in 1899, and the Corey Ford Rugby Clubhouse The college also maintains the Dartmouth Skiway, a 100-acre 040 km2 skiing facility located over two mountains near the Hanover campus in Lyme Center, New Hampshire, that serves as the winter practice grounds for the Dartmouth ski team, which is a perennial contender for the NCAA Division I championship

Housing and student life facilities

Lord Hall in the Gold Coast Cluster

Beginning in the fall term of 2016, Dartmouth will place all undergraduate students in one of six House communities, similar to residential colleges Dartmouth previously had nine residential communities located throughout campus, instead of ungrouped dormitories or residential colleges The dormitories varied in design from modern to traditional Georgian styles, and room arrangements range from singles to quads and apartment suites Since 2006, the College has guaranteed housing for students during their freshman and sophomore years More than 3,000 students elect to live in housing provided by College

Campus meals are served by Dartmouth Dining Services, which operates 11 dining establishments around campus Four of them are located at the center of campus in the Class of 1953 Commons, formerly Thayer Dining Hall

The Collis Center is the center of student life and programming, serving as what would be generically termed the "student union" or "campus center" It contains a café, study space, common areas, and a number of administrative departments, including the Academic Skills Centre Robinson Hall, next door to both Collis and Thayer, contains the offices of a number of student organizations including the Dartmouth Outing Club and The Dartmouth daily newspaper

Beginning in the fall term 2016, all undergraduate students of Dartmouth will be members of one of the following six House communities, similar to residential colleges:

  • Allen House
  • East Wheelock House
  • North Park House
  • School House
  • South House
  • West House
  • Living Learning Communities

Student life

In 2006, The Princeton Review ranked Dartmouth third in its "Quality of Life" category, and sixth for having the "Happiest Students" Athletics and participation in the Greek system are the most popular campus activities In all, Dartmouth offers more than 350 organizations, teams, and sports The school is also home to a variety of longstanding traditions and celebrations and has a loyal alumni network; Dartmouth ranked #2 in "The Princeton Review" in 2006 for Best Alumni Network

Student safety

In 2014, Dartmouth College was the second highest in the nation in "total of reports of rape" on their main campus, with 42 reports of rape

Dartmouth fraternities have an extensive history of hazing and alcohol abuse, leading to police raids and accusations of sexual harassment

Student groups

Main articles: Dartmouth College student groups, Dartmouth College publications, and Dartmouth College Greek organizations Robinson Hall houses many of the College's student-run organizations, including the Dartmouth Outing Club The building is a designated stop along the Appalachian Trail

Dartmouth's more than 200 student organizations and clubs cover a wide range of interests In 2007, the college hosted eight academic groups, 17 cultural groups, two honor societies, 30 "issue-oriented" groups, 25 performing groups, 12 pre-professional groups, 20 publications, and 11 recreational groups Notable student groups include the nation's largest and oldest collegiate outdoors club, the Dartmouth Outing Club, which includes the nationally recognized Big Green Bus; the campus's oldest a cappella group, The Dartmouth Aires; the controversial conservative newspaper The Dartmouth Review; and The Dartmouth, arguably the nation's oldest university newspaper The Dartmouth describes itself as "America's Oldest College Newspaper, Founded 1799"

Partially because of Dartmouth's rural, isolated location, the Greek system dating from the 1840s is one of the most popular social outlets for students Dartmouth is home to 32 recognized Greek houses: 17 fraternities, 12 sororities, and three coeducational organizations In 2007, roughly 70% of eligible students belonged to a Greek organization; since 1987, students have not been permitted to join Greek organizations until their sophomore year Dartmouth College was among the first institutions of higher education to desegregate fraternity houses in the 1950s, and was involved in the movement to create coeducational Greek houses in the 1970s In the early first decade of the 21st century, campus-wide debate focused on a Board of Trustees recommendation that Greek organizations become "substantially coeducational"; this attempt to change the Greek system eventually failed The fraternities have an extensive history of hazing and alcohol abuse, leading to police raids and accusations of sexual harassment

Dartmouth also has a number of secret societies, which are student- and alumni-led organizations often focused on preserving the history of the college and initiating service projects Most prominent among them is the Sphinx society, housed in a prominent Egyptian tomb-like building near the center of campus The Sphinx has been the subject of numerous rumors as to its facilities, practices, and membership

The college has an additional classification of social/residential organizations known as undergraduate societies

Athletics

Main article: Dartmouth Big Green A Dartmouth varsity hockey game against Princeton at Thompson Arena

Approximately 20% of students participate in a varsity sport, and nearly 80% participate in some form of club, varsity, intramural, or other athletics In 2007, Dartmouth College fielded 34 intercollegiate varsity teams: 16 for men, 16 for women, and coeducational sailing and equestrian programs Dartmouth's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA Division I eight-member Ivy League conference; some teams also participate in the Eastern College Athletic Conference ECAC As is mandatory for the members of the Ivy League, Dartmouth College does not offer athletic scholarships In addition to the traditional American team sports football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey, Dartmouth competes at the varsity level in many other sports including track and field, softball, squash, sailing, tennis, rowing, soccer, skiing, and lacrosse

The college also offers 26 club and intramural sports such as fencing, rugby, water polo, figure skating, boxing, volleyball, ultimate frisbee, and cricket, leading to a 75% participation rate in athletics among the undergraduate student body The Dartmouth Fencing Team, despite being entirely self-coached, won the USACFC club national championship in 2014 The Dartmouth Men's Rugby Team, founded in 1951, has been ranked among the best collegiate teams in that sport, winning for example the Ivy Rugby Conference every year between 2008 and 2015 The figure skating team won the national championship five straight times from 2004 through 2008 In addition to the academic requirements for graduation, Dartmouth requires every undergraduate to complete a 50-yard 46 m swim and three terms of physical education

Native Americans at Dartmouth

It is often pointed out that the charter of Dartmouth College, granted to Eleazar Wheelock in 1769, proclaims that the institution was created "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing and all parts of Learning as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences; and also of English Youth and any others" However, Wheelock primarily intended the college to educate White youth, and the few Native students that attended Dartmouth experienced much difficulty in an institution ostensibly dedicated to their education The funds for the Charity School for Native Americans that preceded Dartmouth College were raised primarily by the efforts of a Native American named Samson Occom, and at least some of those funds were used to help found the college

The college graduated only 19 Native Americans during its first two hundred years In 1970, the college established Native American academic and social programs as part of a "new dedication to increasing Native American enrollment" Since then, Dartmouth has graduated over 1,000 Native American students from over 200 different tribes, more than the other seven Ivy League universities combined

Traditions

Main article: Dartmouth College traditions Snow sculpture at the 2004 Dartmouth Winter Carnival

Dartmouth is well known for its fierce school spirit and many traditions The college functions on a quarter system, and one weekend each term is set aside as a traditional celebratory event, known on campus as "big weekends" or "party weekends" In the fall term, Homecoming officially called Dartmouth Night is marked by a bonfire on the Green constructed by the freshman class Winter term is celebrated by Winter Carnival, a tradition started in 1911 by the Dartmouth Outing Club to promote winter sports This tradition is the oldest in the United States, and subsequently went on to catch on at other New England colleges In the spring, Green Key is a weekend mostly devoted to campus parties and celebration

The summer term was formerly marked by Tubestock, an unofficial tradition in which the students used wooden rafts and inner tubes to float on the Connecticut River Begun in 1986, Tubestock was ended in 2006 by town ordinance The Class of 2008, during their summer term on campus in 2006, replaced the defunct Tubestock with Fieldstock This new celebration includes a barbecue, live music, and the revival of the 1970s and 1980s tradition of racing homemade chariots around the Green Unlike Tubestock, Fieldstock is funded and supported by the College

Another longstanding tradition is four-day, student-run Dartmouth Outing Club trips for incoming freshmen, begun in 1935 Each trip concludes at the Moosilauke Ravine Lodge In 2011, over 96% of freshmen elected to participate

Insignia and other representations

Motto and song

Dartmouth's motto, chosen by Eleazar Wheelock, is Vox clamantis in deserto The Latin motto is literally translated as "A calling voice in the wilderness", but is more often rendered as "A voice crying out in the wilderness" The phrase appears five times in the Bible and is a reference to the college's location on what was once the frontier of European settlement Richard Hovey's "Men of Dartmouth" was elected as the best of Dartmouth's songs in 1896, and became the school's official song in 1926 The song was retitled to "Alma Mater" in the 1980s when its lyrics were changed to refer to women as well as men

Seal

Main article: Seal of Dartmouth College Seal of Dartmouth College

Dartmouth's 1769 royal charter required the creation of a seal for use on official documents and diplomas The college's founder Eleazar Wheelock designed a seal for his college bearing a striking resemblance to the seal of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, a missionary society founded in London in 1701, in order to maintain the illusion that his college was more for mission work than for higher education Engraved by a Boston silversmith, the seal was ready by commencement of 1773 The trustees officially accepted the seal on August 25, 1773, describing it as:

An Oval, circumscribed by a Line containing SIGILL: COL: DARTMUTH: NOV: HANT: IN AMERICA 1770 within projecting a Pine Grove on the Right, whence proceed Natives towards an Edifice two Storey on the left; which bears in a Label over the Grove these Words "vox clamantis in deserto" the whole supported by Religion on the Right and Justice on the Left, and bearing in a Triangle irradiate, with the Hebrew Words , agreeable to the above Impression, be the common Seal under which to pass all Diplomas or Certificates of Degrees, and all other Affairs of Business of and concerning Dartmouth College

On October 28, 1926, the trustees affirmed the charter's reservation of the seal for official corporate documents alone The College Publications Committee commissioned noted typographer W A Dwiggins to create a line drawing version of the seal in 1940 that saw widespread use Dwiggins' design was modified during 1957 to change the date from "1770" to "1769", to accord with the date of the college charter The trustees commissioned a new set of dies with a date of "1769" to replace the old dies, now badly worn after almost two hundred years of use The 1957 design continues to be used under trademark number 2305032

Shield

On October 28, 1926, the trustees approved a "Dartmouth College Shield" for general use Artist and engraver W Parke Johnson designed this emblem on the basis of the shield that is depicted at the center of the original seal This design does not survive On June 9, 1944, the trustees approved another coat of arms based on the shield part of the seal, this one by Canadian artist and designer Thoreau MacDonald That design was used widely and, like Dwiggins' seal, had its date changed from "1770" to "1769" around 1958 That version continues to be used under trademark registration number 3112676 and others

College designer John Scotford made a stylized version of the shield during the 1960s, but it did not see the success of MacDonald's design The shield appears to have been used as the basis of the shield of Dartmouth Medical School, and it has been reproduced in sizes as small as 20 micrometers across The design has appeared on Rudolph Ruzicka's Bicentennial Medal Philadelphia Mint, 1969 and elsewhere

Nickname, symbol, and mascot

Dartmouth has never had an official mascot The nickname "The Big Green," originating in the 1860s, is based on students' adoption of a shade of forest green "Dartmouth Green" as the school's official color in 1866 Beginning in the 1920s, the Dartmouth College athletic teams were known by their unofficial nickname "the Indians", a moniker that probably originated among sports journalists This unofficial mascot and team name was used until the early 1970s, when its use came under criticism In 1974, the Trustees declared the "use of the symbol in any form to be inconsistent with present institutional and academic objectives of the College in advancing Native American education" Some alumni and students, as well as the conservative student newspaper, The Dartmouth Review, have sought to return the Indian symbol to prominence, but never succeeded in doing so

Various student initiatives have been undertaken to adopt a mascot, but none has become "official" One proposal devised by the college humor magazine the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern was Keggy the Keg, an anthropomorphic beer keg who makes occasional appearances at college sporting events Despite student enthusiasm for Keggy, the mascot has received approval from only the student government In November 2006, student government attempted to revive the "Dartmoose" as a potential replacement amid renewed controversy surrounding the former unofficial Indian mascot

Alumni

Main article: List of Dartmouth College alumni

Dartmouth's alumni are known for their devotion to the college Most start by giving to the Senior Class Gift According to a 2008 article in The Wall Street Journal based on data from payscalecom, Dartmouth graduates also earn higher median salaries at least 10 years after graduation than alumni of any other American university surveyed

By 2008, Dartmouth had graduated 238 classes of students and has over 60,000 living alumni in a variety of fields

Nelson A Rockefeller, 41st Vice President of the United States and 49th Governor of New York, graduated cum laude from Dartmouth with a degree in economics in 1930 Over 164 Dartmouth graduates have served in the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives, such as Massachusetts statesman Daniel Webster Cabinet members of American presidents include Attorney General Amos T Akerman, Secretary of Defense James V Forrestal, Secretary of Labor Robert Reich, former Secretary of the Treasury Henry Paulson, and former Secretary of the Treasury Timothy Geithner C Everett Koop was the Surgeon General of the United States under President Ronald Reagan Two Dartmouth alumni have served as justices on the Supreme Court of the United States: Salmon P Chase and Levi Woodbury Eugene Norman Veasey class of 1954 served as the Chief Justice of Delaware The 46th and current Governor of Pennsylvania Tom Wolf is also a Dartmouth alumnus

In literature and journalism, Dartmouth has produced thirteen Pulitzer Prize winners: Thomas M Burton, Richard Eberhart, Dan Fagin, Paul Gigot, Frank Gilroy, Jake Hooker, Nigel Jaquiss, Joseph Rago, Martin J Sherwin, David K Shipler, David Shribman, and Justin Harvey Smith

Other authors and media personalities include ABC Senior White House correspondent Jake Tapper, novelist and founding editor of The Believer Heidi Julavits, "Dean of rock critics" Robert Christgau, National Book Award winner Louise Erdrich, novelist/screenwriter Budd Schulberg, political analyst Dinesh D'Souza, radio talk show host Laura Ingraham, commentator Mort Kondracke, and journalist James Panero Norman Maclean, a former professor at the University of Chicago and author of A River Runs Through It and Other Stories, graduated from Dartmouth in 1924 Theodor Geisel, better known as children's author Dr Seuss, was a member of the class of 1925

In the area of religion and theology, Dartmouth alumni include priests and ministers Ebenezer Porter, Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, Caleb Sprague Henry, Arthur Whipple Jenks, Solomon Spalding, and Joseph Tracy; and rabbis Marshall Meyer, Arnold Resnicoff, and David E Stern Hyrum Smith, brother of Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith, attended the college in his teens He was Patriarch of the LDS Church

Dartmouth alumni in academia include Stuart Kauffman and Jeffrey Weeks, both recipients of MacArthur Fellowships commonly called "genius grants" Dartmouth has also graduated three Nobel Prize winners: Owen Chamberlain Physics, 1959, K Barry Sharpless Chemistry, 2001, and George Davis Snell Physiology or Medicine, 1980 Educators include founder and first president of Bates College, Oren Burbank Cheney 1839, the current chancellor of the University of California, San Diego, Marye Anne Fox PhD in Chemistry, 1974, founding president of Vassar College Milo Parker Jewett, founder and first president of Kenyon College Philander Chase, first professor of Wabash College Caleb Mills, and former president of Union College Charles Augustus Aiken Nine of Dartmouth's 17 presidents were alumni of the College

Dartmouth alumni serving as CEOs or company presidents and executives include Charles Alfred Pillsbury, founder of the Pillsbury Company and patriarch of the Pillsbury family, Sandy Alderson San Diego Padres, John Donahoe eBay, Louis V Gerstner, Jr IBM, Charles E Haldeman Putnam Investments, Donald J Hall, Sr Hallmark Cards, Jeffrey R Immelt General Electric, Gail Koziara Boudreaux United Health Care, Grant Tinker NBC, and Brian Goldner Hasbro

In film, entertainment, and television, Dartmouth is represented by Budd Schulberg, Academy Award-winning screenwriter of On the Waterfront, Michael Phillips, who won the Academy Award for best picture as co-producer of The Sting, Rachel Dratch, a cast member of Saturday Night Live, Shonda Rhimes creator of Grey's Anatomy, Private Practice and Scandal, Chris Meledandri Executive Producer of Ice Age, Horton Hears a Who!, and Despicable Me, and the title character of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Fred Rogers Other notable film and television figures include Sarah Wayne Callies Prison Break, Emmy Award winner Michael Moriarty, Andrew Shue of Melrose Place, Aisha Tyler of Friends and 24, Connie Britton of Spin City, The West Wing and Friday Night Lights, and Mindy Kaling of The Office and The Mindy Project

A number of Dartmouth alumni have found success in professional sports In baseball, Dartmouth alumni include All-Star and three-time Gold Glove winner and manager Brad Ausmus, All-Star reliever Mike Remlinger, and pitcher Kyle Hendricks Professional football players include former Miami Dolphins quarterback Jay Fiedler, linebacker Reggie Williams, three-time Pro Bowler Nick Lowery, quarterback Jeff Kemp, and Tennessee Titans tight end Casey Cramer Dartmouth has also produced a number of Olympic competitors Adam Nelson won the silver medal in the shotput in the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympics to go along with his gold medal in the 2005 World Championships in Athletics in Helsinki Kristin King and Sarah Parsons were members of the United States' 2006 bronze medal-winning ice hockey team Cherie Piper, Gillian Apps, and Katie Weatherston were among Canada's ice hockey gold medalists in 2006

Dick Durrance and Tim Caldwell competed for the United States in skiing in the 1936 and 1976 Winter Olympics, respectively Arthur Shaw, Earl Thomson, Edwin Myers, Marc Wright, Adam Nelson, Gerry Ashworth, and Vilhjálmur Einarsson have all won medals in track and field events Former heavyweight rower Dominic Seiterle is a member of the Canadian national rowing team and won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the men's 8+ event

In popular culture

Dartmouth College has appeared in or been referenced by a number of popular media Most notably, the 1978 comedy film National Lampoon's Animal House was co-written by Chris Miller '63, and is based loosely on a series of stories he wrote about his fraternity days at Dartmouth In a CNN interview, John Landis said the movie was "based on Chris Miller's real fraternity at Dartmouth", Alpha Delta Phi Dartmouth's Winter Carnival tradition was the subject of the 1939 film Winter Carnival starring Ann Sheridan and written by Budd Schulberg '36 and F Scott Fitzgerald

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Further reading

  • Behrens, Richard K, "From the Connecticut Valley to the West Coast: The Role of Dartmouth College in the Building of the Nation," Historical New Hampshire, 63 Spring 2009, 45–68
  • Chase, Frederick; John King Lord 1913 A History of Dartmouth College and the Town of Hanover, New Hampshire, Volume 2 1 ed Concord, NH: J Wilson, The Rumford Press OCLC 11267716  Read and download public domain copy via Google Books
  • Drake, Chuck 2004 Dartmouth Outing Guide Fifth ed Dartmouth Outing Club 
  • Graham, Robert B 1990 The Dartmouth Story: A Narrative History of the College Buildings, People, and Legends Dartmouth Bookstore 
  • Glabe, Scott L 2005 Dartmouth College: Off the Record College Prowler ISBN 978-1-59658-038-1 
  • Hughes, Molly K; Susan Berry 2000 Forever Green: The Dartmouth College Campus — An arboretum of Northern Trees Enfield Books ISBN 978-1-893598-01-0 
  • Richardson, Leon B 1932 History of Dartmouth College Dartmouth College Publications OCLC 12157587 
  • Listen, Look, Likeness: examining the portraits of Félix de la Concha 2009 ArtsEditorcom article

External links

  • Official website
  • Dartmouth College Varsity Athletics

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