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Darlene Ka-Mook Nichols

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Darlene Nichols, also known by the names Kamook, Ka-Mook, Kamook Nichols and Ka-Mook Nichols, is the name of a former AIM member and Native American protester She is best known for her role in the American Indian Movement for organizing and participating in The Longest Walk, and for serving as a key material witness12 in United States v Peltier and United States v Looking Cloud that ultimately led to the conviction of several AIM members in the murders of Anna Mae Aquash and two FBI special agents

Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Personal life
  • 3 Activism
  • 4 FBI informant
  • 5 Testimony
    • 51 United States v Peltier
    • 52 United States v Looking Cloud
    • 53 State of South Dakota v Graham
  • 6 Legacy
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Early lifeedit

Darlene "Ka-Mook" Ecoffey was born Darlene Pearl Nichols7 in the city of Scotts Bluff, Nebraska13 She is from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation14 Sources vary on the exact age Nichols was when she first met Dennis Banks Some sources say she met Banks at 17,15 some sources state 16,27 and others state that he met her when she was 1416 Dennis Banks, co-founder of the American Indian Movement and one of its leaders, 34 at the time, started having a sexual affair with Nichols when she was 15-years-old, and had their first child together when she was 1716

Personal lifeedit

Nichols had previously lived with AIM leader Dennis Banks for 17 years and is mother of four of Banks' thirteen children17 She would separate from Banks in 198917 Shortly after the conviction of Arlo Looking Cloud18 on 8 February 2004 for the first-degree murder of Anna Mae Aquash,19 Nichols would marry Robert Ecoffey,15 who served as the lead investigator into Aquash's murder and now Bureau of Indian Affairs superintendent for the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in September 20048

Aquash affair with Banks began while he was still in a common-law marriage with Nichols Aquash's relationship with Banks was viewed with contempt and consternation by women of different tribal affiliations within the movement, as they believed the relationship represented a threat to AIM’s stability at a time when AIM had become “a vortex of paranoia"20

In 1973, when Nichols met Aquash, they wound up becoming friends421

In 1975, Nichol's second daughter, Ta Tiyopa Maza Win or Iron Door Woman, was born while Nichols was taken to a jail in Wichita, Kansas on a firearms charge14

Activismedit

Nichols had previously participated in a Gordon, Nebraska rally related to Native American causes5 One of the greatest hallmarks of Nichols' career as a civil rights activist and organizer was "The Longest Walk" In response to 11 bills introduced in the United States Congress intended to dismantle American Indian tribal sovereignty, tribal lands22 and water rights22 in 197823 The Longest Walk was thought of with the Trail of Broken Treaties of 1972 in mind, a similar form of protest which consisted of a caravan by car and subsequent march in Washington, DC and occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to protest the government’s during the throes of the Termination Era24 The Longest Walk also symbolized the last major event of the Red Power Movement22 Organized by Nichols and then husband, Dennis Banks, the former organized over 30,000 Native Americans from 80 different Tribal nations in the city of Davis, California and marched 5,800 kilometers 3,600 miles from Alcatraz to Washington, DC in a span of 5 months5 The Longest Walk came to an end on 15 July 1978 when approximately 2,000 people entered the United States nation's capital, traveled to Meridian Hill Park and stopped at the Washington Monument25 The Longest Walk was a resounding success, as the demonstration brought international attention and outrage against the federal paternalism the nation's Native Americans were facing, and resulted in the bills being defeated26

FBI informantedit

Nichols originally served as a staunch supporter of the American Indian Movement Even while one of her daughters was born in federal prison, Nichols refused to cooperate with the FBI27 However, following the murder of activist and friend Anna Mae Aquash, she began to reconsider her steadfast alliance with the group After reading newspaper reports about the murder of Anna Mae Pictou-Aquash, Nichols began to suspect that the American Indian Movement was involved with Anna Mae's murder28 Nichols contacted the FBI, agreed to cooperate in Aquash's murder investigation21 and later wore a wire to record conversations with Arlo Looking Cloud, Dennis Banks and others

One particular conservation with ex-husband Dennis Banks proved to be particularly illuminating Dennis Banks had been the subject of investigation regarding the death of African-American civil rights protestor Ray Robinson, who disappeared when he traveled to Wounded Knee to participate in the Wounded Knee incident and fellow AIM activist Anna Mae-Pictou Aquash Although Banks would claim to not have any knowledge of Robinson until after the conclusion of the Wounded Knee siege,29 recordings of Banks' conversation appear to suggest otherwise In 2001, Nichols interviewed Banks while trying to learn more about the 1975 murder of AIM activist Anna Mae Aquash Although Banks refused to discuss Aquash, he directed the conversation to Robinson, saying that he had been shot by another AIM officer and bled to death because the group was under siege and had no way to treat him adequately Banks said he saw Robinson's body and ordered a subordinate, Chris Westerman, to "bury him where no one will know"30 He said Westerman was "gone for about five hours" and that Robinson had been buried "over by the creek"30 Westerman is the brother of activist, actor and musician Floyd Red Crow Westerman31

Testimonyedit

United States v Peltieredit

Testimony at trial involved AIM member John Trudell and Darlene "Ka-Mook" Nichols describing an exchange between Pictou-Aquash and another AIM member, Leonard Peltier, in which Pictou-Aquash told Peltier to either shoot her or defend her3233 Nichols testified that Leonard Peltier said "he believed Aquash was a Fed and that he was going to get some truth serum and give it to her so she would tell the truth"21 Nichols testified that she had heard how Peltier "put a gun to her Aquash's head and wanted to know if she was an informant"17 Nichols said she and Aquash shared a jail cell in the fall of 1975, and during their brief internment together, Aquash openly discussed her fears2734 According to Nichols, "She was upset, she was crying, she was afraid I knew she was scared of Leonard and Dennis at that point"35 Nichols also told jurors that she was with Aquash when Peltier bragged about killing two FBI agents in 19753236 It was also the last time she saw Aquash alive3537

On 18 April 1977, Leonard Peltier was found guilty of the first-degree murders of Special Agents Ron Williams and Jack Coler and sentenced to serve two consecutive life terms by Chief US District Paul Benson on 1 June 199738

United States v Looking Cloudedit

Fritz Arlo Looking Cloud, an Oglala Sioux39 and adopted brother of former American Indian Movement member Richard Two Elk,40 was arrested 27 March 2003 in Denver, Colorado on a warrant issued by federal authorities in South Dakota, in which Looking Cloud and another man were accused of shooting Pictou-Aquash during a kidnapping in December 1975 near Wanblee, South Dakota41

Nichols-Ecoffey testified that Peltier told her and Aquash that he killed two FBI agents during a June 1975 shootout known as the Jumping Bull Compound Shootout at a Pine Ridge ranch According to Nichols-Ecoffey's testimony, “He said the expletive was begging for his life, but I shot him anyway"42 According to Nichols-Ecoffey, she, along with Leonard Peltier, her sisters, Bernie Nichols-Lafferty10 and Barbara Robideau,7 then-husband Dennis Banks,28 and others, were riding in a recreational vehicle lent to the American Indian Movement by the Hollywood actor Marlon Brando when Peltier recounted this event43 Nichols-Ecoffey also testified that she had heard Peltier say he thought Aquash was a snitch44

During the trial, Nichols-Ecoffey testified about several incidents of violence involving the American Indian Movement Three of these incidents were The Custer Courthouse Riot Incident which involved several hundred people, the seventy-one day occupation of Wounded Knee, and a shoot-out near her home, during which two FBI agents were killed45 Nichols-Ecoffey also discussed rumors that Aquash was an informant, which were known to or held as suspicions by nearly twenty members of the American Indian Movement45 Nichols-Ecoffey also testified that several members, one of whom had already threatened Aquash's life because he suspected she was an informant, took Aquash away for weeks to "watch her," explaining that Aquash was constantly under the surveillance of American Indian Movement members, was not allowed to go anywhere alone, and was not permitted to go home despite her requests to do so45 Mathalene White Bear, another former member of the American Indian Movement who provided shelter to Aquash in 1975, testified that Aquash believed her life was in danger as early as September of that year46 Nichols-Ecoffey testified that Leonard Crow Dog and Leonard Peltier thought Aquash was an informant, and that Nichols-Ecoffey, her daughter, and Dennis Banks heard Peltier say that he thought Aquash was an informant45

In February 2004, a federal jury composed of seven women and five men deliberated for approximately seven hours before convicting Arlo Looking Cloud in the 1975 execution-style slaying of Anna Mae Pictou Aquash4748 Looking Cloud appealed to the United States Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals in 2005, but his appeal was struck down and his mandatory life prison term was affirmed45 In August 2011, however, US District Judge Lawrence Piersol signed an order that reduced Looking Cloud's lifetime federal prison sentence to 20 years, in exchange for Looking Cloud's December, 2010 testimony for state prosecutors against co-conspirator John Graham4950

State of South Dakota v Grahamedit

John Graham, known to members of the American Indian Movement as John Boy Patton,51 of Southern Tutchone ethnicity,52 a native of the Yukon and father of eight, was living in Vancouver when he was charged in the United States on 30 March 2003, with the 1975 first-degree murder/pre-meditated murder of Anna Mae Aquash53

On 6 December 2007, Graham was extradited from Canada to the United States based on the pre-mediated murder charge54 After protracted litigation in the federal courts, the federal pre-meditated murder charge was dismissed in United States v Graham, 572 F3d 954 8th Cir200955 Before Graham could return to Canada, however, he was indicted by a Pennington County grand jury on state charges of premeditated murder and felony murder The underlying felony was alleged to be the kidnapping of Anna Mae Pictou Aquash56

On 2 December 2010, South Dakota Judge John Delaney forbade any mention to jurors of a finding in the first autopsy report for Aquash suggesting that she may have had sex shortly before her death, a finding that prosecutors believed originated from Graham allegedly raping Aquash during her kidnapping42

On 3 December 2010, Nichols-Ecoffey, who had previously been married to AIM leader Dennis Banks, testified that an AIM activist later convicted of killing two FBI agents, made an “incriminating” statement in front her and Aquash Aquash was later shot and killed42 The "incriminating" statement referred to Peltier's admission of "shooting the motherf that was begging for his life, and still shooting him"57 Nichols-Ecoffey was forbidden by Circuit Court Judge John Delaney from telling jurors exactly what she alleged group member Leonard Peltier told her six months before Pictou-Aquash was killed The judge deemed it hearsay, but under questioning from prosecutors, she was allowed to say that Peltier made an “incriminating” statement42

Graham was convicted of felony murder on 10 December 2014, after jurors heard evidence that he aided in abducting Aquash from Denver in December, 197558

Legacyedit

Nichols-Ecoffey has been both praised and condemned for cooperating with the federal government and testifying against Leonard Peltier and Arlo Looking Cloud She has also been castigated by some American Indians for cooperating with the FBI59 Barry Bachrach, one of Leonard Peltier's defense lawyers, claimed Nichols had received money from the FBI in exchange for her testimony According to Bachrach, "This case was nothing more than smearsay35 They coached Kamook and she admitted she had been paid $40,000 by the FBI Her evidence should never have seen the light of day"3235 Robert Robideau, co-defendant and first cousin60 to Leonard Peltier, also claimed that Nichols accepted $47,00000 to say Peltier bragged about killing two agents8 There are some who believe Nichols-Ecoffey had financial motivation to lie about the actions undertaken by AIM members61

During United States v Looking Cloud, Nichols acknowledged receipt of $42,000 from the FBI in connection with her cooperation on the case, money she explained was compensation for the expenses she incurred while traveling to collect evidence by wearing a wire while visiting her ex-husband, Dennis Banks The money was also paid to her to cover relocation expenses due to her fear of Banks28 Nichols testified that she received $42,000 from the federal government, some of it reimbursement for her travel expenses The government also paid to move Nichols from California to a safer location in New Mexico because of her involvement with the case She said she moved again after Banks learned where she was living35

During that period cover almost four years, Nichols was reimbursed some $42,000 for moving twice for security reasons when Dennis Banks found out where she lived, 4 and for travel, lodging, phone and meal expenses According to FBI agent caseworker for the Aquash case, the $42,000 reimbursed was accounted for by receipt according to Jim Graff, FBI agent caseworker for the Aquash case Nichols, who worked in the movie industry,4 had to pass up several contracts for movie casting over a three-year timeframe that cost over $100,000 in personal income, including one three month casting offer that alone would have paid her around $50,000428

The Indigenous Women for Justice, where Denise Maloney-Pictou, one of Aquash's daughters, serves as executive director, thanked Nichols-Ecoffey for the heroism she displayed in the testimony that led to convictions in her mother's Aquash murder59 Joseph H Trimbach, one of the special agents who was part of the Wounded Knee incident and Anna Mae Aquash murder investigation, and his son, John H Trimbach who is also a special agent, chronicled the testimony provided by witnesses, including Nichols-Ecoffey, in the book,62 which served as a recount of the events which surrounded the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and the American Indian Movement during the 1970s from the perspective of a former FBI Chief Agent63

On 27 August 2008, Nichols-Ecoffey and her husband opened a Subway restaurant on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation64

See alsoedit

  • American Indian Movement
  • Wounded Knee incident
  • Ray Robinson
  • Anna Mae Pictou-Aquash
  • Leonard Peltier

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Mosendale, Mike 7 July 2004 "Dennis Banks's New Memoir - And The Murder That Won't Go Away Bury the Truth at Wounded Knee" JFAMR Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  2. ^ a b Stern, Kenneth S 15 April 2002 Loud Hawk: The United States Versus the American Indian Movement Abingdon-on-Thames: University of Oklahoma Press p 24 ISBN 978-0806134390 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  3. ^ a b "Testimony of Darlene Nichols in the Trial of Arlo Looking Cloud February 3, 2004" JFAMR 3 February 2004 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  4. ^ a b c d e "AIM leader's former wife testifies in trial" Sioux City Journal 5 February 2004 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  5. ^ a b c Snodgrass, Mary Ellen 4 May 2012 Civil Disobedience: An Encyclopedic History of Dissidence in the United States Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge p 20 ISBN 978-0765681270 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  6. ^ "Meet our Counselors" Catholic Social Services Rapid City Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Banks, Dennis 3 December 2010 "Testimony of Witness testifies FBI agent threatened Aquash's life" JFAMR Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  8. ^ a b c Claypoole, Antoinette Nora 16 May 2007 "Murder, Wrapped in a Blanket" Portland Independent Media Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  9. ^ Banks, Dennis 4 May 2012 Ojibwa Warrior: Dennis Banks and the Rise of the American Indian Movement Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press p XII ISBN 978-0806136912 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  10. ^ a b "Leonard Peltier" Ani-Kutani Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  11. ^ "Native American Icon" Am I Annoying Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  12. ^ "Native Sun News: Retired FBI agent takes on Peltier and AIM" Indianz 19 January 2012 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  13. ^ "John Graham Defense Committee" John Graham Defense Committee Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  14. ^ a b Bird, Mary Brave 27 January 2009 Ohitika Woman New York City: Grove Press ISBN 978-0802143396 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  15. ^ a b Konigsberg, Eric 25 April 2014 "Who Killed Anna Mae" New York Times Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  16. ^ a b Burrows, John 14 April 1983 "Who Killed Anna Mae" Los Angeles Times Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  17. ^ a b c "Who Killed Anna Mae" Los Angeles Times 5 February 2004 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  18. ^ Roubideau, Robert "JOHN TRUDELL, A PROFILE OF COWARDICE AN FBI INFORMANT COVERS HIS TRACKS IN THE MURDER OF A" Portland Independent Media Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  19. ^ "Denver Man's Sentence Reduced In 1975 AIM Slaying" Denver CBS Local News Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  20. ^ Billingsley, Lloyd 1 May 2014 "American Indian Murder, Inc" Front Page Mag Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  21. ^ a b c Melmer, David 13 February 2004 "Witness at AIM trial says Peltier bragged of killings" The Lawrence World-Journal Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  22. ^ a b c "1978: 'Longest Walk' draws attention to American Indian concerns" US National Library of Medicine Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  23. ^ "The Longest Walk" Humboldt State University Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  24. ^ Freeman, Jo "Indians End Longest Walk in Washington DC on July 15, 1978" Humboldt State University Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  25. ^ "Native Americans walk from San Francisco to Washington, DC for US civil rights, 1978" Global Nonviolent Action Database Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  26. ^ "Commemorating "The Longest Walk"" Freedom Socialist Party Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  27. ^ a b DeMain, Paul 13 June 2007 "Jury convicts man in 1975 murder of Aquash" Indian Country News Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  28. ^ a b c d DeMain, Paul 23 February 2004 "Jury convicts man in 1975 murder of Anna Mae Pictou Aquash of Being Party to 1st Degree Murder" JFAMR Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  29. ^ "Black Man Goes To Fight For American Indians 40 Yrs Ago, Then Disappears" NewsOne 27 April 2012 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  30. ^ a b Konigsberg, Erik 25 April 2014 "Who Killed Anna Mae" NYTimes Retrieved 22 August 2014 
  31. ^ "Bernie Lafferty speaks about Ray Robinson's killing inside Wounded Knee 1973" Indian Country News 17 July 2007 Retrieved 22 August 2014 
  32. ^ a b c Summers, Chris 24 April 2004 "Native American prisoner to fight on" BBC Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  33. ^ Melmer, David 13 February 2004 "Analysis: Looking Cloud - Guilty or victim" Indian Country News Retrieved 22 August 2014 
  34. ^ "The Lies of John Graham" Indigenous Women for Justice 2011 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  35. ^ a b c d e Gease, Heidi Bell 5 February 2004 "Wife of AIM leader says Leonard Peltier admitted killing FBI agents" Free Republic Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  36. ^ Kolpack, David 14 April 2010 "Trial set in 1975 killing of AIM activist in SD" Native Times Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  37. ^ Gease, Heidi Bell 4 February 2004 "Wife of AIM leader says Leonard Peltier admitted killing FBI agents" Rapid City Journal Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  38. ^ "The RESMURS Case The Investigation of the Murders of FBI Agents Jack Coler and Ronald Williams" FBI Minneapolis Division Archived from the original on 7 March 2016 Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  39. ^ Leahy, Todd 4 May 2012 Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press p 21 ISBN 978-0810857735 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  40. ^ "Russ Means holds press conference on Annie Mae's murder 11-3-99" Indian Country News Archived from the original on 5 December 2014 Retrieved 29 November 2014 
  41. ^ Mendez, Deborah 3 April 2003 "Man Held in Decades-old Slayingof American Indian Activist" Dick Shovel Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  42. ^ a b c d Merchant, Norman 8 December 2010 "Prosecution rests in 1975 AIM slaying trial" Native Times Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  43. ^ Cashman, Ray 21 September 2011 The Individual and Tradition: Folkloristic Perspectives Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press p 229 ISBN 978-0253223739 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  44. ^ Kolpack, Dave 12 April 2010 "Trial set in 1975 killing of AIM activist in SD" Journal Star Retrieved 6 March 2016 
  45. ^ a b c d e "419 F 3d 781 - United States of America v Fritz Arlo Looking Cloud" OpenJurist Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  46. ^ "United States Court of Appeals,Eighth Circuit UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v Fritz Arlo LOOKING CLOUD, Defendant-Appellant No 04-2173 Decided: August 19, 2005" Case Law Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  47. ^ "21st-century Developments" Sites by Dawn Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  48. ^ Walker, Carson "Jury convicts Looking Cloud in 1975 murder" Dick Shovel Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  49. ^ Lammers, Dirk 26 September 2011 "Denver Man's Sentence Reduced In 1975 AIM Slaying" Huffington Post Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  50. ^ "Looking Cloud has sentence reduced in Aquash murder case" Indian Country News October 2011 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  51. ^ Jabali-Nash, Naimah 9 December 2010 "Murder in the American Indian Movement: 30 Years Later" Front Page Magazine Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  52. ^ Jabali-Nash, Naimah 30 November 2010 "John Graham to Stand Trial for 1975 Murder of American Indian Movement Activist Anna Mae Pictou Aquash" John Graham Defense Committee Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  53. ^ "John Graham Defense Committee Page" John Graham Defense Committee Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  54. ^ "John Graham" PDF Anti-Politics Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  55. ^ "Supreme Court of South Dakota STATE of South Dakota, Plaintiff and Appellee, v John GRAHAM a/k/a John Boy Patton, Defendant and Appellant No 25899 Decided: May 30, 2012" Case Law Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  56. ^ "Supreme Court of South Dakota STATE of South Dakota, Plaintiff and Appellee, v John GRAHAM a/k/a John Boy Patton, Defendant and Appellant No 25899 Decided: May 30, 2012" Case Law Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  57. ^ DeMain, Paul "Aquash Murder Case Timeline" JFAMR Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  58. ^ Geise, Heidi Bell 24 January 2011 "Graham sentenced to life in prison" Rapid City Journal Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  59. ^ a b Pictou, Denise-Maloney "The Truth About Leonard" Indigenous Women for Justice Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  60. ^ Frosch, Dan 18 March 2004 "The Truth About Leonard" JFAMR Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  61. ^ "FBI loses trial against former AIM member Richard Marshall" AIM-West 12 May 2010 Retrieved 7 March 2016 
  62. ^ "Richard Two Elk's Oral Histories of the American Indian Movement AIM" Legend of Pine Ridge 22 December 2009 Retrieved 29 November 2014 
  63. ^ "American Indian Mafia: An FBI Agent's True Story about Wounded Knee, Leonard Peltier, and the American Indian Movement Aim" Amazon Retrieved 29 November 2014 
  64. ^ Renaud, Roseanna 4 September 2008 "Subway opens in Pine Ridge" Lakota Country Times Retrieved 7 March 2016 

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