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CUDA is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface API model created by Nvidia1 It allows software developers and software engineers to use a CUDA-enabled graphics processing unit GPU for general purpose processing – an approach termed GPGPU General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units The CUDA platform is a software layer that gives direct access to the GPU's virtual instruction set and parallel computational elements, for the execution of compute kernels2

The CUDA platform is designed to work with programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran This accessibility makes it easier for specialists in parallel programming to use GPU resources, in contrast to prior APIs like Direct3D and OpenGL, which required advanced skills in graphics programming Also, CUDA supports programming frameworks such as OpenACC and OpenCL2 When it was first introduced by Nvidia, the name CUDA was an acronym for Compute Unified Device Architecture,3 but Nvidia subsequently dropped the use of the acronym


  • 1 Background
  • 2 Programming abilities
  • 3 Advantages
  • 4 Limitations
  • 5 GPUs supported
  • 6 Version features and specifications
  • 7 Example
  • 8 Language bindings
  • 9 Current and future usages of CUDA architecture
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links


Further information:Graphics processing unit

The graphics processing unit GPU, as a specialized computer processor, addresses the demands of real-time high-resolution 3D graphics compute-intensive tasks By 2012, GPUs had evolved into highly parallel multi-core systems allowing very efficient manipulation of large blocks of data This design is more effective than general-purpose central processing unit CPUs for algorithms in situations where processing large blocks of data is done in parallel, such as:

  • push-relabel maximum flow algorithm
  • fast sort algorithms of large lists
  • two-dimensional fast wavelet transform
  • molecular dynamics simulations

Programming abilitiesedit

Example of CUDA processing flow
  1. Copy data from main mem to GPU mem
  2. CPU instructs the process to GPU
  3. GPU execute parallel in each core
  4. Copy the result from GPU mem to main mem

The CUDA platform is accessible to software developers through CUDA-accelerated libraries, compiler directives such as OpenACC, and extensions to industry-standard programming languages including C, C++ and Fortran C/C++ programmers use 'CUDA C/C++', compiled with nvcc, Nvidia's LLVM-based C/C++ compiler4 Fortran programmers can use 'CUDA Fortran', compiled with the PGI CUDA Fortran compiler from The Portland Group

In addition to libraries, compiler directives, CUDA C/C++ and CUDA Fortran, the CUDA platform supports other computational interfaces, including the Khronos Group's OpenCL,5 Microsoft's DirectCompute, OpenGL Compute Shaders and C++ AMP6 Third party wrappers are also available for Python, Perl, Fortran, Java, Ruby, Lua, Haskell, R, MATLAB, IDL, and native support in Mathematica

In the computer game industry, GPUs are used for graphics rendering, and for game physics calculations physical effects such as debris, smoke, fire, fluids; examples include PhysX and Bullet CUDA has also been used to accelerate non-graphical applications in computational biology, cryptography and other fields by an order of magnitude or more7891011

CUDA provides both a low level API and a higher level API The initial CUDA SDK was made public on 15 February 2007, for Microsoft Windows and Linux Mac OS X support was later added in version 20,12 which supersedes the beta released February 14, 200813 CUDA works with all Nvidia GPUs from the G8x series onwards, including GeForce, Quadro and the Tesla line CUDA is compatible with most standard operating systems Nvidia states that programs developed for the G8x series will also work without modification on all future Nvidia video cards, due to binary compatibilitycitation needed

CUDA 80 comes with the following libraries for compilation & runtime, in alphabetical order:

  • CUBLAS - CUDA Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines library, see main and docs
  • CUDART - CUDA RunTime library, see docs
  • CUFFT - CUDA Fast Fourier Transform library, see main and docs
  • CURAND - CUDA Random Number Generation library, see main and docs
  • CUSOLVER - CUDA based collection of dense and sparse direct solvers, see main and docs
  • CUSPARSE - CUDA Sparse Matrix library, see main and docs
  • NPP - NVIDIA Performance Primitives library, see main and docs
  • NVGRAPH - NVIDIA Graph Analytics library, see main and docs
  • NVML - NVIDIA Management Library, see main and docs
  • NVRTC - NVRTC RunTime Compilation library for CUDA C++, see docs

CUDA 80 comes with these other software components:

  • nView - NVIDIA nView Desktop Management Software, see main and docs pdf
  • NVWMI - NVIDIA Enterprise Management Toolkit, see main and docs chm
  • PhysX - GameWorks PhysX is a scalable multi-platform game physics solution, see main and docs


CUDA has several advantages over traditional general-purpose computation on GPUs GPGPU using graphics APIs:

  • Scattered reads –code can read from arbitrary addresses in memory
  • Unified virtual memory CUDA 40 and above
  • Unified memory CUDA 60 and above
  • Shared memory –CUDA exposes a fast shared memory region that can be shared among threads This can be used as a user-managed cache, enabling higher bandwidth than is possible using texture lookups14
  • Faster downloads and readbacks to and from the GPU
  • Full support for integer and bitwise operations, including integer texture lookups


  • CUDA does not support the full C standard, as it runs host code through a C++ compiler, which makes some valid C but invalid C++ code fail to compile1516
  • Interoperability with rendering languages such as OpenGL is one-way, with OpenGL having access to registered CUDA memory but CUDA not having access to OpenGL memory
  • Copying between host and device memory may incur a performance hit due to system bus bandwidth and latency this can be partly alleviated with asynchronous memory transfers, handled by the GPU's DMA engine
  • Threads should be running in groups of at least 32 for best performance, with total number of threads numbering in the thousands Branches in the program code do not affect performance significantly, provided that each of 32 threads takes the same execution path; the SIMD execution model becomes a significant limitation for any inherently divergent task eg traversing a space partitioning data structure during ray tracing
  • Unlike OpenCL, CUDA-enabled GPUs are only available from Nvidia17
  • No emulator or fallback functionality is available for modern revisions
  • Valid C/C++ may sometimes be flagged and prevent compilation due to optimization techniques the compiler is required to employ to use limited resourcescitation needed
  • A single process must run spread across multiple disjoint memory spaces, unlike other C language runtime environments
  • C++ run-time type information RTTI is unsupported in CUDA code, due to lack of support in the underlying hardware
  • Exception handling is unsupported in CUDA code due to performance overhead that would be incurred with many thousands of parallel threads running
  • CUDA with compute ability 2x allows a subset of C++ class functionality, for example member functions may not be virtual this restriction will be removed in some future release See CUDA C Programming Guide 31 – Appendix D6
  • In single precision on first generation CUDA compute ability 1x devices, denormal numbers are unsupported and are instead flushed to zero, and the precisions of the division and square root operations are slightly lower than IEEE 754-compliant single precision math Devices that support compute ability 20 and above support denormal numbers, and the division and square root operations are IEEE 754 compliant by default However, users can obtain the prior faster gaming-grade math of compute ability 1x devices if desired by setting compiler flags to disable accurate divisions and accurate square roots, and enable flushing denormal numbers to zero18

GPUs supportededit

Supported CUDA Level of GPU and Card See direct also Nvidia:

  • CUDA SDK 65:Last Version with support for Tesla with Compute Capability 1x
  • CUDA SDK 75 support for Compute Capability 20 – 5x Fermi, Kepler, Maxwell
  • CUDA SDK 80 support for Compute Capability 20 – 6x Fermi, Kepler, Maxwell, Pascal
  • Next CUDA SDK Version no support for Fermi 2x
GPUsGeForceQuadro, NVSTeslaTegra,
10TeslaG80GeForce 8800 Ultra, GeForce 8800 GTX, GeForce 8800 GTSG80Quadro FX 5600, Quadro FX 4600, Quadro Plex 2100 S4Tesla C870, Tesla D870, Tesla S870
11G92, G94, G96, G98, G84, G86GeForce GTS 250, GeForce 9800 GX2, GeForce 9800 GTX, GeForce 9800 GT, GeForce 8800 GTSG92, GeForce 8800 GT, GeForce 9600 GT, GeForce 9500 GT, GeForce 9400 GT, GeForce 8600 GTS, GeForce 8600 GT, GeForce 8500 GT,
GeForce G110M, GeForce 9300M GS, GeForce 9200M GS, GeForce 9100M G, GeForce 8400M GT, GeForce G105M
Quadro FX 4700 X2, Quadro FX 3700, Quadro FX 1800, Quadro FX 1700, Quadro FX 580, Quadro FX 570, Quadro FX 470, Quadro FX 380, Quadro FX 370, Quadro FX 370 Low Profile, Quadro NVS 450, Quadro NVS 420, Quadro NVS 290, Quadro NVS 295, Quadro Plex 2100 D4,
Quadro FX 3800M, Quadro FX 3700M, Quadro FX 3600M, Quadro FX 2800M, Quadro FX 2700M, Quadro FX 1700M, Quadro FX 1600M, Quadro FX 770M, Quadro FX 570M, Quadro FX 370M, Quadro FX 360M, Quadro NVS 320M, Quadro NVS 160M, Quadro NVS 150M, Quadro NVS 140M, Quadro NVS 135M, Quadro NVS 130M, Quadro NVS 450, Quadro NVS 420, Quadro NVS 295
12GT218, GT216, GT215GeForce GT 340, GeForce GT 330, GeForce GT 320, GeForce 315, GeForce 310, GeForce GT 240, GeForce GT 220, GeForce 210,
GeForce GTS 360M, GeForce GTS 350M, GeForce GT 335M, GeForce GT 330M, GeForce GT 325M, GeForce GT 240M, GeForce G210M, GeForce 310M, GeForce 305M
Quadro FX 380 Low Profile, Nvidia NVS 300, Quadro FX 1800M, Quadro FX 880M, Quadro FX 380M, Nvidia NVS 300, NVS 5100M, NVS 3100M, NVS 2100M, ION
13GT200, GT200bGeForce GTX 295, GTX 285, GTX 280, GeForce GTX 275, GeForce GTX 260Quadro FX 5800, Quadro FX 4800, Quadro FX 4800 for Mac, Quadro FX 3800, Quadro CX, Quadro Plex 2200 D2Tesla C1060, Tesla S1070, Tesla M1060
20FermiGF100, GF110GeForce GTX 590, GeForce GTX 580, GeForce GTX 570, GeForce GTX 480, GeForce GTX 470, GeForce GTX 465, GeForce GTX 480MQuadro 6000, Quadro 5000, Quadro 4000, Quadro 4000 for Mac, Quadro Plex 7000, Quadro 5010M, Quadro 5000MTesla C2075, Tesla C2050/C2070, Tesla M2050/M2070/M2075/M2090
21GF104, GF106 GF108, GF114, GF116, GF117, GF119GeForce GTX 560 Ti, GeForce GTX 550 Ti, GeForce GTX 460, GeForce GTS 450, GeForce GTS 450, GeForce GT 640 GDDR3, GeForce GT 630, GeForce GT 620, GeForce GT 610, GeForce GT 520, GeForce GT 440, GeForce GT 440, GeForce GT 430, GeForce GT 430, GeForce GT 420,
GeForce GTX 675M, GeForce GTX 670M, GeForce GT 635M, GeForce GT 630M, GeForce GT 625M, GeForce GT 720M, GeForce GT 620M, GeForce 710M, GeForce 610M, GeForce 820M, GeForce GTX 580M, GeForce GTX 570M, GeForce GTX 560M, GeForce GT 555M, GeForce GT 550M, GeForce GT 540M, GeForce GT 525M, GeForce GT 520MX, GeForce GT 520M, GeForce GTX 485M, GeForce GTX 470M, GeForce GTX 460M, GeForce GT 445M, GeForce GT 435M, GeForce GT 420M, GeForce GT 415M, GeForce 710M, GeForce 410M
Quadro 2000, Quadro 2000D, Quadro 600, Quadro 410, Quadro 4000M, Quadro 3000M, Quadro 2000M, Quadro 1000M, NVS 310, NVS 315, NVS 5400M, NVS 5200M, NVS 4200M
30KeplerGK104, GK106, GK107GeForce GTX 770, GeForce GTX 760, GeForce GT 740, GeForce GTX 690, GeForce GTX 680, GeForce GTX 670, GeForce GTX 660 Ti, GeForce GTX 660, GeForce GTX 650 Ti BOOST, GeForce GTX 650 Ti, GeForce GTX 650,
GeForce GTX 880M, GeForce GTX 780M, GeForce GTX 770M, GeForce GTX 765M, GeForce GTX 760M, GeForce GTX 680MX, GeForce GTX 680M, GeForce GTX 675MX, GeForce GTX 670MX, GeForce GTX 660M, GeForce GT 750M, GeForce GT 650M, GeForce GT 745M, GeForce GT 645M, GeForce GT 740M, GeForce GT 730M, GeForce GT 640M, GeForce GT 640M LE, GeForce GT 735M, GeForce GT 730M
Quadro K5000, Quadro K4200, Quadro K4000, Quadro K2200, Quadro K2000, Quadro K2000D, Quadro K600, Quadro K420, Quadro K500M, Quadro K510M, Quadro K610M, Quadro K1000M, Quadro K2000M, Quadro K1100M, Quadro K2100M, Quadro K3000M, Quadro K3100M, Quadro K4000M, Quadro K5000M, Quadro K4100M, Quadro K5100M, NVS 510Tesla K10, GRID K340, GRID K520
32GK20ATegra K1,
Jetson TK1
35GK110, GK208GeForce GTX Titan Z, GeForce GTX Titan Black, GeForce GTX Titan, GeForce GTX 780 Ti, GeForce GTX 780, GeForce GT 640 GDDR5, GeForce GT 630 v2, GeForce GT 730, GeForce GT 720, GeForce GT 710,GeForce GT 740M 64-bit, DDR3Quadro K6000, Quadro K5200Tesla K40, Tesla K20x, Tesla K20
37GK210Tesla K80
50MaxwellGM107, GM108GeForce GTX 750 Ti, GeForce GTX 750, GeForce GTX 960M, GeForce GTX 950M, GeForce 940M, GeForce 930M, GeForce GTX 860M, GeForce GTX 850M, GeForce 845M, GeForce 840M, GeForce 830MQuadro K1200, Quadro K620, Quadro M2000M, Quadro M1000M, Quadro M600M, Quadro K620M, NVS 810Tesla M10
52GM200, GM204, GM206GeForce GTX Titan X, GeForce GTX 980 Ti, GeForce GTX 980, GeForce GTX 970, GeForce GTX 960, GeForce GTX 950, GeForce GTX 750 SE, GeForce GTX 980M, GeForce GTX 970M, GeForce GTX 965MQuadro M6000 24GB, Quadro M6000, Quadro M5000, Quadro M4000, Quadro M2000, Quadro M5500, Quadro M5000M, Quadro M4000M, Quadro M3000MTesla M4, Tesla M40, Tesla M6, Tesla M60
53GM20BTegra X1,
Jetson TX1,
60PascalGP100Tesla P100
61GP102, GP104, GP106, GP107Nvidia Titan X, GeForce GTX 1080, GTX 1070, GTX 1060, GTX 1050 Ti, GTX 1050Quadro P6000, Quadro P5000, Quadro P5000Mobile, Quadro P4000Mobile, Quadro P3000MobileTesla P40, Tesla P4
62T186Drive PX2 with Tegra Parker19

'' – OEM-only products

Version features and specificationsedit

Feature support unlisted features are supported for all compute abilitiesCompute ability version
101112132x303235, 37, 50, 52536x
Integer atomic functions operating on 32-bit words in global memoryNoYes
atomicExch operating on 32-bit floating point values in global memory
Integer atomic functions operating on 32-bit words in shared memoryNoYes
atomicExch operating on 32-bit floating point values in shared memory
Integer atomic functions operating on 64-bit words in global memory
Warp vote functions
Double-precision floating-point operationsNoYes
Atomic functions operating on 64-bit integer values in shared memoryNoYes
Floating-point atomic addition operating on 32-bit words in global and shared memory
_syncthreads_count, _syncthreads_and, _syncthreads_or
Surface functions
3D grid of thread block
Warp shuffle functionsNoYes
Funnel shiftNoYes
Dynamic parallelismNoYes
Half-precision floating-point operations:
addition, subtraction, multiplication, comparison, warp shuffle functions, conversion
Atomic addition operating on 64-bit floating point values in global memory and shared memoryNoYes
Data TypeOperationSupported sinceSupported since
for Global Memory
Supported since
for Shared Memory
16-bit integergeneral operations
32-bit integeratomic functions1112
64-bit integeratomic functions1220
16-bit floating pointaddition, subtraction,
multiplication, comparison,
warp shuffle functions, conversion
32-bit floating pointatomicExch1112
32-bit floating pointatomic addition2020
64-bit floating pointgeneral operations13
64-bit floating pointatomic addition6060

Note:Any missing lines or empty entries do reflect some lack of information on that exact item

Technical specificationsCompute ability version
Maximum number of resident grids per device
Concurrent Kernel Execution
Maximum dimensionality of grid of thread blocks23
Maximum x-dimension of a grid of thread blocks65535231 − 1
Maximum y-, or z-dimension of a grid of thread blocks65535
Maximum dimensionality of thread block3
Maximum x- or y-dimension of a block5121024
Maximum z-dimension of a block64
Maximum number of threads per block5121024
Warp size32
Maximum number of resident blocks per multiprocessor81632
Maximum number of resident warps per multiprocessor24324864
Maximum number of resident threads per multiprocessor768102415362048
Number of 32-bit registers per multiprocessor8 K16 K32 K64 K128 K64 K
Maximum number of 32-bit registers per thread blockN/A32 K64 K32 K64 K32 K64 K32 K
Maximum number of 32-bit registers per thread12463255
Maximum amount of shared memory per multiprocessor16 KB48 KB112 KB64 KB96 KB64 KB96 KB64 KB
Maximum amount of shared memory per thread block48 KB
Number of shared memory banks1632
Amount of local memory per thread16 KB512 KB
Constant memory size64 KB
Cache working set per multiprocessor for constant memory8 KB10 KB
Cache working set per multiprocessor for texture memory6 – 8 KB12 KB12 – 48 KB24 KB48 KBN/A24 KB48 KB24 KB
Maximum width for 1D texture reference bound to a CUDA
Maximum width for 1D texture reference bound to linear
Maximum width and number of layers for a 1D layered
texture reference
8192 × 51216384 × 2048
Maximum width and height for 2D texture reference bound
to a CUDA array
65536 × 3276865536 x 65535
Maximum width and height for 2D texture reference bound
to a linear memory
Maximum width and height for 2D texture reference bound
to a CUDA array supporting texture gather
Maximum width, height, and number of layers for a 2D
layered texture reference
8192 × 8192 × 51216384 × 16384 × 2048
Maximum width, height and depth for a 3D texture
reference bound to linear memory or a CUDA array
Maximum width and number of layers for a cubemap
layered texture reference
N/A16384 × 2046
Maximum number of textures that can be bound to a
Maximum width for a 1D surface reference bound to a
CUDA array
Maximum width and number of layers for a 1D layered
surface reference
65536 × 2048
Maximum width and height for a 2D surface reference
bound to a CUDA array
65536 × 32768
Maximum width, height, and number of layers for a 2D
layered surface reference
65536 × 32768 × 2048
Maximum width, height, and depth for a 3D surface
reference bound to a CUDA array
65536 × 32768 × 2048
Maximum width and number of layers for a cubemap
layered surface reference
32768 × 2046
Maximum number of surfaces that can be bound to a
Maximum number of instructions per kernel2 million512 million
Architecture specificationsCompute ability version
10111213202130353750526061, 62
Number of ALU lanes for integer and single-precision floating-point arithmetic operations820324819212864128
Number of special function units for single-precision floating-point transcendental functions248321632
Number of texture filtering units for every texture address unit or render output unit ROP248168
Number of warp schedulers12424
Number of instructions issued at once by scheduler1221

For more information please visit this site:http://wwwgeeks3dcom/20100606/gpu-computing-nvidia-cuda-compute-capability-comparative-table/ and read Nvidia CUDA programming guide22


This example code in C++ loads a texture from an image into an array on the GPU:

texture<float, 2, cudaReadModeElementType> tex;void foo //end foo__global__ void kernelfloat odata, int height, int width

Below is an example given in Python that computes the product of two arrays on the GPU The unofficial Python language bindings can be obtained from PyCUDA23

import pycudacompiler as compimport pycudadriver as drvimport numpyimport pycudaautoinitmod = compSourceModule"""__global__ void multiply_themfloat dest, float a, float b"""multiply_them = modget_function"multiply_them"a = numpyrandomrandn400astypenumpyfloat32b = numpyrandomrandn400astypenumpyfloat32dest = numpyzeros_likeamultiply_themdrvOutdest, drvIna, drvInb,block=400,1,1print dest-ab

Additional Python bindings to simplify matrix multiplication operations can be found in the program pycublas24

import numpyfrom pycublas import CUBLASMatrixA = CUBLASMatrix numpymat1,2,3,4,5,6,numpyfloat32 B = CUBLASMatrix numpymat2,3,4,5,6,7,numpyfloat32 C = ABprint Cnp_mat

Language bindingsedit

  • Common Lisp – cl-cuda
  • Fortran – FORTRAN CUDA, PGI CUDA Fortran Compiler
  • F# – AleaCUDA
  • Haskell – DataArrayAccelerate
  • IDL – GPULib
  • Java – jCUDA, JCuda, JCublas, JCufft, CUDA4J
  • Lua – KappaCUDA
  • Mathematica – CUDALink
  • MATLAB – Parallel Computing Toolbox, MATLAB Distributed Computing Server,25 and 3rd party packages like Jacket
  • NET – CUDANET, Managed CUDA, CUDAfyNET NET kernel and host code, CURAND, CUBLAS, CUFFT
  • Perl – KappaCUDA, CUDA::Minimal
  • Python – Numba, NumbaPro, PyCUDA, KappaCUDA, Theano
  • Ruby – KappaCUDA
  • R – gputools

Current and future usages of CUDA architectureedit

  • Accelerated rendering of 3D graphics
  • Accelerated interconversion of video file formats
  • Accelerated encryption, decryption and compression
  • Bioinformatics, eg NGS DNA sequencing BarraCUDA
  • Distributed calculations, such as predicting the native conformation of proteins
  • Medical analysis simulations, for example virtual reality based on CT and MRI scan images
  • Physical simulations, in particular in fluid dynamics
  • Neural network training in machine learning problems
  • Face recognition
  • Distributed computing
  • Molecular dynamics
  • Mining cryptocurrencies

See alsoedit

  • OpenCL – A standard for programming a variety of platforms, including GPUs
  • BrookGPU – the Stanford University graphics group's compiler
  • Array programming
  • Parallel computing
  • Stream processing
  • rCUDA – An API for computing on remote computers
  • Molecular modeling on GPU
  • Vulkan


  1. ^ Nvidia CUDA Home Page
  2. ^ a b Abi-Chahla, Fedy June 18, 2008 "Nvidia's CUDA:The End of the CPU" Tom's Hardware Retrieved May 17, 2015 
  3. ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal; Wilson, Derek November 8, 2006 "Nvidia's GeForce 8800 G80:GPUs Re-architected for DirectX 10" AnandTech Retrieved May 16, 2015 
  4. ^ CUDA LLVM Compiler
  5. ^ First OpenCL demo on a GPU on YouTube
  6. ^ DirectCompute Ocean Demo Running on Nvidia CUDA-enabled GPU on YouTube
  7. ^ Giorgos Vasiliadis; Spiros Antonatos; Michalis Polychronakis; Evangelos P Markatos; Sotiris Ioannidis September 2008 "Gnort:High Performance Network Intrusion Detection Using Graphics Processors" PDF Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection RAID 
  8. ^ Schatz, MC; Trapnell, C; Delcher, AL; Varshney, A 2007 "High-throughput sequence alignment using Graphics Processing Units" BMC Bioinformatics 8:474:474 doi:101186/1471-2105-8-474 PMC 2222658 PMID 18070356 
  9. ^ Manavski, Svetlin A; Giorgio Valle 2008 "CUDA compatible GPU cards as efficient hardware accelerators for Smith-Waterman sequence alignment" BMC Bioinformatics 9:S10 doi:101186/1471-2105-9-S2-S10 PMC 2323659 PMID 18387198 
  10. ^ Pyrit – Google Code https://codegooglecom/p/pyrit/
  11. ^ Use your Nvidia GPU for scientific computing, BOINC official site December 18, 2008
  12. ^ Nvidia CUDA Software Development Kit CUDA SDK – Release Notes Version 20 for MAC OS X
  13. ^ CUDA 11 – Now on Mac OS X- Posted on Feb 14, 2008
  14. ^ Silberstein, Mark; Schuster, Assaf; Geiger, Dan; Patney, Anjul; Owens, John D 2008 Efficient computation of sum-products on GPUs through software-managed cache Proceedings of the 22nd annual international conference on Supercomputing – ICS '08 pp 309–318 doi:101145/13755271375572 ISBN 978-1-60558-158-3 
  15. ^ NVCC forces c++ compilation of cu files
  16. ^ C++ keywords on CUDA C code
  17. ^ "CUDA-Enabled Products" CUDA Zone Nvidia Corporation Retrieved 2008-11-03 
  18. ^ Whitehead, Nathan; Fit-Florea, Alex "Precision & Performance:Floating Point and IEEE 754 Compliance for Nvidia GPUs" PDF Nvidia Retrieved November 18, 2014 
  19. ^ Discussion of LUA compilation on Drive PX2 by GitHub user Bernhard Schuster
  20. ^ ALUs perform only single-precision floating-point arithmetics There is 1 double-precision floating-point unit
  21. ^ No more than one scheduler can issue 2 instructions at once The first scheduler is in charge of warps with odd IDs The second scheduler is in charge of warps with even IDs
  22. ^ "Appendix F Features and Technical Specifications" PDF  32 MiB, Page 148 of 175 Version 50 October 2012
  23. ^ PyCUDA
  24. ^ pycublas
  25. ^ "MATLAB Adds GPGPU Support" 2010-09-20 

External linksedit

  • Official website
  • CUDA Community on Google+
  • A little tool to adjust the VRAM size

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