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Crown lands of France

crown lands of france
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or in French domaine royal from demesne of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France1 While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination2 In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed Patiently, through the use of feudal law and, in particular, the confiscation of fiefs from rebellious vassals, conquest, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, and even by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit,3 and by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom However, the medieval system of appanage a concession of a fief with its land rights by the sovereign to his younger sons, which reverts to the crown upon the extinction of the male line of the original holder alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals especially the Duchy of Burgundy from the 14th to the 15th centuries

During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was frequently criticized The Edict of Moulins 1566 declared that the royal domain defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line

Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity, especially in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom the taille became permanent in 1439

Contents

  • 1 Chronology of the formation of the royal domain
    • 11 House of Capet
      • 111 Reign of Hugh Capet
      • 112 Reign of Robert II
      • 113 Reign of Henry I
      • 114 Reign of Philip I
      • 115 Reign of Louis VI
      • 116 Reign of Louis VII
      • 117 Reign of Philip II Augustus
      • 118 Reign of Louis VIII
      • 119 Reign of Louis IX
      • 1110 Reign of Philip III
      • 1111 Reigns of Philip IV, the Fair and his sons
    • 12 House of Valois
      • 121 Reign of Philip VI of Valois
      • 122 Reign of John II
      • 123 Reign of Charles V
      • 124 Reign of Charles VI
      • 125 Reign of Charles VII
      • 126 Reign of Louis XI
      • 127 Reign of Charles VIII
      • 128 Reign of Louis XII
      • 129 Reign of Francis I
      • 1210 Reign of Henry II
    • 13 House of Bourbon
      • 131 Reign of Henry IV
      • 132 Reign of Louis XIII
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References

Chronology of the formation of the royal domainedit

The Kingdom of France at the time of Hugh Capet French royal domain in blue

House of Capetedit

Reign of Hugh Capetedit

At the beginning of Hugh Capet's reign, the crown estate was extremely small and consisted essentially of scattered possessions in the Île-de-France and Orléanais regions Senlis, Poissy, Orléans, with several other isolated pockets, such as Attigny These lands were largely the inheritance of the Robertians, the direct ancestors of the Capetians

  • 988: Montreuil-sur-Mer, the first port held by the Capetians, is acquired through the marriage of the crown prince Robert future Robert II the Pious with Rozala, the widow of the Arnulf II, Count of Flanders

Reign of Robert IIedit

  • 1016: acquisition of the Duchy of Burgundy The king was the nephew of Duke Henry of Burgundy, who died without heirs
  • Robert gains the counties of Paris, Dreux and Melun, and negotiates the ultimate acquisition 1055 of a part of Sens4

Reign of Henry Iedit

The Kingdom of France in 1030 French royal domain in blue
  • 1034: the king gives the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert 5 the duchy would remain with his descendants until 1361; see House of Burgundy
  • 1055: annexation of the County of Sens

Reign of Philip Iedit

  • 1068: acquisition of Gâtinais and Château-Landon from Fulk IV, Count of Anjou
  • 1077: annexation of the French Vexin
  • 1081: acquisition of Moret-sur-Loing
  • 1101: acquisition of the Viscounty of Bourges and the seigneury of Dun-sur-Auron from Odo Arpin of Bourges

Reign of Louis VIedit

  • the king spends much of his reign pacifying and consolidating the royal domain by battling certain feudal lords lords of Montlhéry, of Coucy, of Puiset, of Crécy
  • from Fulk, Viscount of Gâtinais, Louis bought Moret, Le Châtelet-en-Brie, Boësses, Yèvre-le-Châtel and Chambon
  • Other additions to the royal domain include: Montlhéry and Châteaufort, Chevreuse, Corbeil, Meung-sur-Loire, Châteaurenard and Saint-Brisson6

Reign of Louis VIIedit

The Kingdom of France in 1154 French royal domain in dark blue
  • 1137: marriage of Louis with Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou By this marriage, Louis hopes to attach most of South-West France to the royal domain
  • 1137: Louis gives Dreux to his brother Robert7
  • 1151: separation of Louis VII and of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who in 1152 weds Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine and Duke of Normandy, who becomes in 1154, King of England Eleanor's lands come to Henry in her dowry
  • 1160: gives Norman Vexin to his daughter Margaret as a dowry8 Margaret is later forced to surrender her dowry

Reign of Philip II Augustusedit

The territorial conquests of Philip Augustus of France, at the time of his coronation 1180 and at the time of his death 1223
  • 1184: granted Montargis9
  • 1185: by the Treaty of Boves, gains Amiens and Montdidier, Roye, Choisy-au-Bac, and Thourotte and rights to the inheritance of Vermandois and Valois10
  • 1187: seizes Tournai from the bishop11
  • confiscates Meulan, Gisors, and other castles12
  • 1191: at the death of Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders, the County of Artois and its dependencies, the inheritance of the queen Isabelle of Hainaut, are given to prince Louis These areas would not become integrated into the royal domain until 1223 when Louis becomes king13
  • 1191: the County of Vermandois is acquired by the king, after the death of Elisabeth of Vermandois, the inheritor of the County Confirmed in 1213, by Eléonore of Vermandois sister of Elisabeth Philip also gains Valois
  • 1200: the Norman Vexin is annexed
  • 1200 the County of Évreux and Issoudun are annexed, in exchange for the king's recognition of John of England as king of England14
  • 1204: confiscation of the Duchy of Normandy, the Touraine, Anjou, Saintonge and, temporarily, of the Poitou from John of England
  • 1208: La Ferté-Macé confiscated from Guillaume IV of Ferté-Macé
  • 1220: the County of Alençon is reunited to the royal domain in the absence of a male heir to Count Robert IV the county is sold by the vicomtesse of Châtellerault

Reign of Louis VIIIedit

  • 1223: Philip Hurepel, half-brother of the king, received in appanage the Counties of Boulogne Boulogne-sur-Mer, and of Clermont Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, as well as the fiefs of Domfront, Mortain and Aumale
  • Poitou, Saintonge, Angoumois, Périgord and a part of the Bordelais were confiscated from the king of England
  • following the Albigensian Crusade 1209–1229 against the Cathars and the Count of Toulouse, the king annexed the County of Toulouse the heiress of which, Joan of Toulouse, married Alphonse, Count of Poitou, son of the king, in 1237
  • 1225: in his will, Louis grants the appanages of Artois and his mother's inheritance to his second son Robert; Poitou and Auvergne to his third son Alphonse; and Anjou and Maine to his fourth son John due to John's death, these possessions would go to Louis' seventh son Charles15

Reign of Louis IXedit

  • 1229: the Raymond VII of Toulouse cedes to the king the sénéchaussées of Nîmes–Beaucaire and of Béziers–Carcassonne Treaty of Paris 1229
  • 1237: the king confirms the appanage grant of the County of Artois for his brother Robert I of Artois
  • 1241: the king confirms the appanage grant of Poitou for his brother Alfonso, Count of Poitou
  • 1249: Alfonso, Count of Poitou, by right of his wife succeeds Raymond VII of Toulouse
  • 1255: the County of Beaumont-le-Roger is bought back from Raoul of Meulan
  • 1258: the king renounces the Roussillon and Catalonia; in exchange the king of Aragon renounces Provence and Languedoc Treaty of Corbeil 1258
  • 1259: seigneuries of Domfront and of Tinchebray acquired
  • 1259: the king gives to the king of England Henry III the Duchy of Aquitaine, and promises him Saintonge, Charente and Agenais in the case of the death without heir of the Count of Toulouse Alfonso of Poitiers Treaty of Paris 1259
  • 1268 the king gives the County of Alençon and Perche to his son Peter
  • the king grants as appanage the County of Valois to his son John Tristan and Clermont-en-Beauvaisis to his son Robert16

Reign of Philip IIIedit

  • 1271: reversion of the County of Toulouse, Poitou and Auvergne, the Comtat Venaissin, appanages of Alfonso, Count of Poitou, to the royal domain
  • 1274: purchase of the County of Nemours
  • 1274: the king cedes half of the Comtat Venaissin to pope Gregory X
  • 1283: Perche and the County of Alençon are inherited from the king's brother Pierre I of Alençon
  • 1284: purchase of the County of Chartres
  • the king makes appanage grants of Valois to his second son Charles and Beaumont-en-Oise to his third son Louis17

Reigns of Philip IV, the Fair and his sonsedit

  • 1284: marriage of Philip the Fair, the future king of France, with Queen Joan I of Navarre, Countess of Champagne The County of Champagne is reunited to the royal domain made official in 1361
  • 1285–1295: purchase of the County of Guînes from Count Arnould III who needed money to pay a ransom
  • 1286: purchase of the County of Chartres from Jeanne of Blois-Châtillon, widow of her uncle Pierre
  • 1292: Ostrevant
  • 1295: the king gives up a part of the County of Guines
  • as they reverted to the crown, Philip IV makes appanage grants of Alençon, Chartres and Perche to his brother Charles and Évreux to his brother Louis By his marriage, Charles also acquires Maine and Anjou To his sons, Philip gives the appanages of Poitiers to Philip, and La Marche and Angoulême to Charles18
  • 1308: purchase of the County of Angoulême, of Fougères and of Lusignan from Yolande of Lusignan
  • 1313: Confiscation of Tournai - which is however a land belonging to the Empire - from Marie de Mortagne
  • 1322: the County of Bigorre is incorporated into the royal domain at the crowning of the king Charles IV, who held it from his mother Joan I of Navarre

House of Valoisedit

Reign of Philip VI of Valoisedit

  • the appanages of the new king Valois, Anjous, Maine, Chartres and Alençon are reunited to the royal domain
  • 1336: conquest of the County of Ponthieu, given to the king of England in 1360
  • 1343–1349: the Dauphiné is sold to the kingdom of France by the Dauphin of Viennois
  • 1349: purchase for the kingdom of France of the seigneurie of Montpellier from James III of Majorca, the dispossessed king of Majorca, for 120 000 écus

Reign of John IIedit

  • 1350–1360: after the death of Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Guînes, and connétable of France decapitated for treason, the County of Guînes is confiscated It will be ceded to the English by the Treaty of Brétigny
  • 1360: by the Treaty of Brétigny, Aquitaine 1/3 of the kingdom is given to the king of England, to obtain the release of the French king, prisoner since the Battle of Poitiers 1356
  • 1360: John, Duke of Berry receives the Duchy of Berry as appanage He is also made Count of Poitiers 1357–1416, Count of Mâcon c 1360–1372, Count of Angoulême and Saintonge bef 1372–1374 and Count of Étampes 1399–1416 At his death, these lands return to the royal domain He is also given the Duchy of Auvergne
  • 1361: the king gives Touraine in appanage to his son Philip
  • 1361: the king successfully claims the Duchy of Burgundy as the heir by proximity of blood

Reign of Charles Vedit

  • Thanks to Du Guesclin, the king recovers the Duchy of Aquitaine
  • 27 May 1364: the city of Montivilliers is detached from the County of Longueville and attached to the royal domain
  • 1364: Philip the Bold receives in appanage the Duchy of Burgundy
  • 1371: purchase of the County of Auxerre
  • 1377: Dreux returns to the royal domain

Reign of Charles VIedit

The royal domain and the appanages early in the reign of Charles VI
  • 1392: the appanage of Orléans is given to Louis I de Valois, Duke of Orléans, brother of the king He also becomes Count of Valois 1386, Duke of Touraine 1386, Count of Blois 1397; the county is sold by Guy II, Count of Blois at the death of his only son, Angoulême 1404, Périgord, Dreux and Soissons
  • 1416: the appanage of the Duchy of Berry comes back to the royal domain after the death of Jean, Duke of Berry, the uncle of the king
  • 1416: the king recreates the appanage of Berry for his son Jean who dies in 1417
  • 1417: the king gives the appanage of Berry to his son Charles VII of France

Reign of Charles VIIedit

  • 1424: Duchy of Touraine granted to Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, killed later that year at Verneuil
  • 1434: Amboise is confiscated from Louis of Amboise who had plotted against Georges de la Trémoille, a favorite of the king and reunited with the crown
  • 1453: at the death of Mathieu of Foix, the County of Comminges is incorporated into the royal domain

Reign of Louis XIedit

Map of France in 1477
  • 1461–1472: the king gives the Duchy of Berry in appanage to his brother Charles of France Dissatisfied, Charles joins with other feudal nobles in the League of the Public Weal At the Treaty of Conflans in 1465, Charles of France exchanges Berry for the Duchy of Normandy 1465–1469 In 1469, Charles is forced to exchange Normandy for the Duchy of Guyenne 1486-1472
  • 1462: the king alienates the County of Comminges from the royal domain, giving it to Jean de Lescun
  • 1477: the County of Ponthieu is definitively reattached to the royal domain
  • 1478: the County of Boulogne is acquired by exchange
  • 1481: Charles IV, Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Guise, Mortain and Gien, who succeeded his uncle René I of Anjou as Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence and Forcalquier, dies, bequeathing his lands to his cousin Louis XI of France
  • 1482: by the Treaty of Arras, the Duchy of Burgundy and Picardy are reattached to the domain
  • 1482: acquisition of the viscounty of Châtellerault

Reign of Charles VIIIedit

  • 1483: the seigneuries of Châtel-sur-Moselle and Bainville are taken from the Duchy of Bar
  • 1491: the marriage of the king to Duchess Anne of Brittany begins the personal union of the Duchy of Brittany and the kingdom

Reign of Louis XIIedit

  • 1498: the crowning of the new king brings his appanages Valois alienated in 1386 and Orléans alienated in 1392 back to the royal domain, and the county of Blois is integrated into the royal domain for the first time
  • 1498: the second marriage of the king with the Duchess Anne of Brittany continues the personal union of Brittany to the kingdom which had been interrupted when Anne, as widow, asserted the independence of Brittany
  • 1498: at the death of Odet of Aydie, the County of Comminges alienated in 1462 returns to the crown
  • 1499: the king gives the Duchy of Berry to his former wife Joan of France
  • 1504–1512: the Duchy of Nemours reverts to the royal domain In 1507, it is given to Gaston of Foix, but reverts at his death in 1512

Reign of Francis Iedit

  • 1515: Nemours is given to Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici The duchy passes in 1524 to Francis' mother, Louise of Savoy and will remain with the house of Savoy until 1659
  • 1531: possessions of the disgraced Charles III, Duke of Bourbon are confiscated: Bourbonnais, Auvergne, Counties of Montpensier, of Clermont, of Mercœur and Forez

From the reign of Francis I, the concept of "royal domain" begins to coincide with the French kingdom in general; the appanage of the House of Bourbon however remains alienated

  • 1532: union of the Duchy of Brittany to France, the inheritance of Claude of France daughter of Anne of Brittany The Dauphin becomes the Duke of Brittany but dies before he ascends to the throne of France

Reign of Henry IIedit

  • 1547: for the first time the title Duke of Brittany and King of France is held by the same male primogeniture descendant This marks the final step in the personal union of Brittany with France
  • 1548: Duchy of Châtellerault conferred upon James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran
  • 1558: French reconquest and incorporation of Calais into the Crown lands under the leadership of Henry II, which ended 150 years of English rule

House of Bourbonedit

Reign of Henry IVedit

  • 1589: Henry III of Navarre becomes king Henry IV of France, succeeding his cousin Henry III after his assassination On accession to the thrones of Navarre and France, Henry ruled over a vast territory including appanages suzerain to the king of France, such as the County of Soissons, the duchies of Alençon, Vendôme, Beaumont, the Viscounty of Limoges, the County of Périgord, the County of Rodez, the Duchy of Albret, the viscounties of Lomagne, Marsan, Gabardan, and Tursan, as well as the counties of Fézensac, Quatre-Vallées, Gaure, Armagnac, Foix, and Bigorre
  • 1589: The Kingdom of Navarre Basse-Navarre and the principality of Béarn remains independent but in personal union with France

Reign of Louis XIIIedit

  • 1620: The king issues an edict, incorporating the Kingdom of Navarre to the crown of France From then on, while some prerogatives and the name were kept, the Kingdom of Navarre Basse Navarre and Bearn was no longer a separate kingdom

See alsoedit

  • Kingdom of France portal
  • Appanage
  • Feudal system
  • Territorial formation of France
  • Crown Estate - for similar holdings in the UK

Referencesedit

  • This article is based on a translation of the equivalent article from the French Wikipedia, retrieved on 13 September 2008
  • Elizabeth M Hallam Capetian France: 987-1328 London: Longman, 1980 ISBN 0-582-48910-5
  1. ^ Hallam, 79 and 247
  2. ^ Hallam, 80-82
  3. ^ Hallam, 247
  4. ^ Hallam, 82
  5. ^ Hallam, 250
  6. ^ Hallam, 157
  7. ^ Hallam, 250
  8. ^ Hallam, 157
  9. ^ Hallam, 158
  10. ^ Hallam, 158
  11. ^ Hallam, 158
  12. ^ Hallam, 158
  13. ^ Hallam, 158
  14. ^ Hallam, 158
  15. ^ Hallam, 248
  16. ^ Hallam, 248
  17. ^ Hallam, 250
  18. ^ Hallam, 250

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