Thu . 19 Jun 2019

Critical discourse analysis

critical discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis ppt
Critical discourse analysis CDA is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally argue that non-linguistic social practice and linguistic practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use1


  • 1 Background
  • 2 Methodology
  • 3 Notable academics
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Bibliography
    • 51 Notes
    • 52 References
    • 53 Further reading
  • 6 External links
    • 61 Research groups associated with CDA
    • 62 Journals associated with CDA


Critical discourse analysis emerged from 'critical linguistics' developed at the University of East Anglia in the 1970s, and the terms are now often interchangeable23 Sociolinguistics was paying little attention to social hierarchy and power4 CDA was first developed by the Lancaster school of linguists of which Norman Fairclough was the most prominent figure Ruth Wodak has also made a major contribution to this field of study

In addition to linguistic theory, the approach draws from social theory — and contributions from Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu — in order to examine ideologies and power relations involved in discourse Language connects with the social through being the primary domain of ideology, and through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power1 Ideology has been called the basis of the social representations of groups, and, in psychological versions of CDA developed by Teun A van Dijk and Ruth Wodak, there is assumed to be a sociocognitive interface between social structures and discourse structures5 The historical dimension in critical discourse studies also plays an important role6


Although CDA is sometimes mistaken to represent a 'method' of discourse analysis, it is generally agreed upon that any explicit method in discourse studies, the humanities and social sciences may be used in CDA research, as long as it is able to adequately and relevantly produce insights into the way discourse reproduces or resists social and political inequality, power abuse or domination78 That is, CDA does not limit its analysis to specific structures of text or talk, but systematically relates these to structures of the sociopolitical context

Norman Fairclough developed a three-dimensional framework for studying discourse, where the aim is to map three separate forms of analysis onto one another: analysis of spoken or written language texts, analysis of discourse practice processes of text production, distribution and consumption and analysis of discursive events as instances of sociocultural practice19 Particularly, he combines micro, meso and macro-level interpretation At the micro-level, the analyst considers various aspects of textual/linguistic analysis, for examples syntactic analysis, use of metaphor and rhetorical devices clarification needed The meso-level or "level of discursive practice" involves studying issues of production and consumption, for instance, which institution produced a text, who is the target audience, etc At the macro-level, the analyst is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive elements and tries to take into account the broad, societal currents that are affecting the text being studied1011

Notable academicsedit

Notable writers include Norman Fairclough, Michał Krzyżanowski, Paul Chilton, Teun A van Dijk, Ruth Wodak, Phil Graham, Theo Van Leeuwen, Siegfried Jäger, Christina Schäffner, James Paul Gee, Roger Fowler, Gunther Kress, Mary Talbot, Lilie Chouliaraki, Thomas Huckin, Hilary Janks, Veronika Koller and Bob Hodge

See alsoedit

  • Argumentation theory
  • Conceptual history
  • Critical theory
  • Informal logic
  • Hermeneutics
  • Linguistic anthropology
  • Mediated Stylistics
  • Pragma-dialectics
  • Pragmatics
  • Rhetoric
  • Semiotics
  • Systemic functional grammar



  1. ^ a b c Fairclough, Norman 1995 Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language Longman ISBN 978-0582219847 
  2. ^ Some still insist on distinctions between the two terms, although they are relatively minor
  3. ^ Fowler, Roger; Bob Hodge, Gunther Kress, Tony Trew 1979 Language and Control Routledge ISBN 978-0-7100-0288-4  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  4. ^ Wodak, R 2001 "What CDA is about" In: Wodak, Ruth & Meyer, Michael eds 2001 Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis London: Sage p5
  5. ^ van Dijk, Teun Adrianus 1998 Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach Sage Publications ISBN 0-7619-5654-9 
  6. ^ Wodak, Ruth; Michael Meyer 2001 Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis Sage Publications ISBN 0-7619-6154-2 
  7. ^ Fairclough, Norman, Critical discourse analysis: the critical study of language Harlow: Longman
  8. ^ Fairclough, Norman, Language and globalization Oxon: Routlege
  9. ^ Fairclough, Norman 2001 Language and Power Longman ISBN 0-582-41483-0 
  10. ^ David Barry; Brigid Carroll; Hans Hansen 4 May 2006 Narrative and Discursive Organizational Studies To Text or Context Endotextual, Exotextual, and Multi-textual Approaches to Narrative and Discursive Organizational Studies Organization Studies 2006; 27; 1091 doi:101177/0170840606064568 
  11. ^ Alvesson, Mats, Dan Karreman 2000 ‘Varieties of discourse: On the study of organizations through discourse analysis’ Human Relations 53/9: 1125–1149  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link


  • Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen Rosa, and Coulthard, Malcolm, editors 1996 Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis, London: Routledge
  • Chouliaraki, Lilie & Norman Fairclough 1999 Discourse in Late Modernity: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  • Norman Fairclough 1995 Media Discourse London: Edward Arnold
  • Norman Fairclough 2003 Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research London: Routledge
  • Jaworski, Adam, & Coupland, Nikolas Eds 2002 The Discourse Reader New York: Routledge
  • Lazar, Michelle Ed 2005 Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Gender, Power and Ideology In Discourse Basingstoke: Palgrave
  • Rogers, Rebecca 2003 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Family Literacy Practices: Power in and Out of Print Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
  • Rogers, Rebecca Ed 2003 An Introduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in Education Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
  • Talbot, Mary, Atkinson, Karen and Atkinson, David 2003 Language and Power in the Modern World Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  • Toolan, Michael Ed 2002 Critical Discourse Analysis: Critical Concepts in Linguistics Vol I: Precursors and Inspirations London: Routledge
  • Toolan, Michael Ed 2002 Critical Discourse Analysis: Critical Concepts in Linguistics Vol II: Leading Advocates London: Routledge
  • Toolan, Michael Ed 2002 Critical Discourse Analysis: Critical Concepts in Linguistics Vol III: Concurrent Analyses and Critiques London: Routledge
  • Toolan, Michael Ed 2002 Critical Discourse Analysis: Critical Concepts in Linguistics Vol IV: Current Debates and New Directions London: Routledge
  • Teun A Van Dijk 1993 Elite discourse and racism Newbury Park, CA: Sage
  • Teun A Van Dijk 2005 Racism and discourse in Spain and Latin America Amsterdam: Benjamins
  • Teun A Van Dijk 2008 Discourse and Power Houndsmills: Palgrave
  • Weiss, Gilbert & Wodak, Ruth Eds 2003 Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity in Critical Discourse Analysis London: Palgrave
  • Young, Lynne & Harrison, Claire Eds 2004 Systemic Functional Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis: Studies in Social Change London: Continuum
  • Anna Duszak, Juliane House, Łukasz Kumięga: Globalization, Discourse, Media: In a Critical Perspective / Globalisierung, Diskurse, Medien: eine kritische Perspektive Warsaw University Press, r 2010

Further readingedit

  • Henry Widdowson 1995 Review of Fairclough's Discourse and Social Change Applied Linguistics 164: 510–516
  • Norman Fairclough 1996 A Reply to Henry Widdowson's 'Discourse Analysis: A Critical View Language & Literature 51: 49–56
  • Henry Widdowson 1996 Reply to Fairclough: Discourse and Interpretation: Conjectures and Refutations Language & Literature 51: 57–69
  • Henry Widdowson 1998 "The Theory and Practice of Critical Discourse Analysis" Applied Linguistics 19/1: 136–151
  • O'Halloran, Kieran A 2003 Critical Discourse Analysis and Language Cognition Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
  • Beaugrande, Robert de 2001 "Interpreting the Discourse of HG Widdowson: A Corpus-Based Critical Discourse Analysis Applied Linguistics 221: 104–121
  • Toolan, Michael 1997 What Is Critical Discourse Analysis and Why Are People Saying Such Terrible Things About It Language & Literature 62: 83–103
  • Stubbs, Michael 1998 Whorf's Children: Critical Comments on Critical Discourse Analysis In Ryan, A & Wray, A Eds, Evolving Models of Language: British Studies in Applied Linguistics 12, Clevedon: BAAL/Multilingual Matters
  • Blommaert, Jan & Bulcaen, Chris 2000 Critical Discourse Analysis Annual Review of Anthropology 29: 447–466
  • Blommaert, Jan, Collins, James, Heller, Monica, Rampton, Ben, Slembrouck, Stef & Jef Verschueren Discourse and Critique Special issue of Critique of Anthropology 21/1: 5–107 and 21/2:117-183
  • Slembrouck, Stef 2001 Explanation, Interpretation and Critique in the Analysis of Discourse Critique of Anthropology, 21: 33–57
  • Slembrouck, Stef 2005 Discourse, critique and ethnography: class-oriented coding in accounts of child protection Language Sciences 27:619–650
  • Threadgold, Terry 2003 Cultural Studies, Critical Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: Histories, Remembering and Futures Linguistik Online 142
  • Tyrwhitt-Drake, Hugh 1999 Resisting the Discourse of Critical Discourse Analysis: Reopening a Hong Kong Case Study Journal of Pragmatics 31: 1081–1088

External linksedit

  • Discourseanalysisnet Research portal and mailing list
  • Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines Research portal and conference
  • Discoursesorg Website of Teun van Dijk
  • Norman Fairclough's profile page

Research groups associated with CDAedit

  • Language, Ideology and Power research group at Lancaster University
  • Newcastle Critical Discourse Group
  • Discourse and Rhetoric group at Loughborough University

Journals associated with CDAedit

  • Discourse & Society from 1990
  • Social Semiotics from 1990
  • Journal of Language and Politics from 2002
  • Critical Discourse Studies from 2004
  • Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines peer-reviewed free online journal, from 2007

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