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Congenital rubella syndrome

congenital rubella syndrome, congenital rubella syndrome symptoms
Congenital rubella syndrome CRS can occur in a developing fetus of a pregnant woman who has contracted rubella, usually in the first trimester If infection occurs 0–28 days before conception, the infant has a 43% risk of being affected If the infection occurs 0–12 weeks after conception, the risk increases to 51% If the infection occurs 13–26 weeks after conception, the risk is 23% of the infant being affected by the disease Infants are not generally affected if rubella is contracted during the third trimester, or 26–40 weeks after conception Problems rarely occur when rubella is contracted by the mother after 20 weeks of gestation and continues to disseminate the virus after birth

It was discovered in 1941 by Australian Norman McAlister Gregg1

The molecular basis for the causation of congenital rubella syndrome are not yet completely clear, but in vitro studies with cell lines showed that rubella virus has an apoptotic effect on certain cell types There is evidence for a p53-dependent mechanism2


  • 1 Signs and symptoms
  • 2 Prevention
  • 3 References
  • 4 External links

Signs and symptomsedit

Infant with skin lesions from congenital rubella "Salt-and-pepper" retinopathy is characteristic of congenital rubella3 Congenital rubella serology time-line

The classic triad for congenital rubella syndrome is:4

  • Sensorineural deafness 58% of patients
  • Eye abnormalities—especially retinopathy, cataract, and microphthalmia 43% of patients
  • Congenital heart disease—especially pulmonary artery stenosis and patent ductus arteriosus 50% of patients5

Other manifestations of CRS may include:

  • Spleen, liver, or bone marrow problems some of which may disappear shortly after birth
  • Intellectual disability
  • Small head size microcephaly
  • Eye defects
  • Low birth weight
  • Thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Extramedullary hematopoiesis presents as a characteristic blueberry muffin rash
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Micrognathia

Children who have been exposed to rubella in the womb should also be watched closely as they age for any indication of:

  • Developmental delay
  • Autism6
  • Schizophrenia7
  • Growth retardation8
  • Learning disabilities
  • Diabetes mellitus9
  • Glaucoma


Vaccinating the majority of the population is effective at preventing congenital rubella syndrome10


  1. ^ Atkinson, William 2011 Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases 12th ed Public Health Foundation pp 301–323 ISBN 9780983263135 Retrieved Mar 2015  Check date values in: |access-date= help
  2. ^ Megyeri K, Berencsi K, Halazonetis TD, et al June 1999 "Involvement of a p53-dependent pathway in rubella virus-induced apoptosis" Virology 259 1: 74–84 PMID 10364491 doi:101006/viro19999757 
  3. ^ Sudharshan S, Ganesh SK, Biswas J 2010 "Current approach in the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis" Indian J Ophthalmol 58 1: 29–43 ISSN 0301-4738 PMC 2841371  PMID 20029144 doi:104103/0301-473858470 
  4. ^ "Congenital rubella syndrome | Sense" wwwsenseorguk Retrieved 2015-07-30 
  5. ^ Oster ME, Riehle-Colarusso T, Correa A January 2010 "An update on cardiovascular malformations in congenital rubella syndrome" Clin Mol Teratol 88 1: 1–8 PMID 19697432 doi:101002/bdra20621 
  6. ^ Muhle, R; Trentacoste, SV; Rapin, I May 2004 "The genetics of autism" Pediatrics 113 5: e472–86 PMID 15121991 doi:101542/peds1135e472 
  7. ^ Brown, A S 9 February 2006 "Prenatal Infection as a Risk Factor for Schizophrenia" Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 2: 200–202 PMC 2632220  PMID 16469941 doi:101093/schbul/sbj052 
  8. ^ "Pathogenesis of congenital rubella" JAMA 194 12: 1277–1283 1965-12-20 ISSN 0098-7484 doi:101001/jama196503090250011002 
  9. ^ Forrest, JillM; Menser, MargaretA; Burgess, J A 1971-08-14 "HIGH FREQUENCY OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN YOUNG ADULTS WITH CONGENITAL RUBELLA" The Lancet Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 7720 298 7720: 332–334 doi:101016/S0140-67367190057-2 
  10. ^ "Rubella vaccines: WHO position paper" PDF Wkly Epidemiol Rec 86 29: 301–16 15 July 2011 PMID 21766537 

External linksedit

  • Delayed effects of Congenital Rubella Syndrome
  • DeafBlindcom
  • Helen Keller National Center

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Congenital rubella syndrome

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