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Conductive hearing loss

conductive hearing loss, conductive hearing loss vs sensorineural
Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem conducting sound waves anywhere along the route through the outer ear, tympanic membrane eardrum, or middle ear ossicles This type of hearing loss may occur in conjunction with sensorineural hearing loss mixed hearing loss or alone


  • 1 Presentation
  • 2 Diagnosis
    • 21 Otoscopy
    • 22 Differential testing
    • 23 Tympanometry
    • 24 Audiometry
    • 25 CT scan
  • 3 Pathophysiology
  • 4 Causes
  • 5 Treatment
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References


Conductive hearing loss occurs uniformly over all frequencies, resulting in sound and voices which seem faint or muffled



Differential testingedit

For basic screening, hearing loss with a one-sided conductive component can be differentiated through the combined use of both the Weber and Rinne tests If the hearing loss has a neural component on only one side, the Weber test, in which a tuning fork is touched to the midline of the forehead, can determine which ear is affected; the person will hear the sound softer in the affected ear The Rinne test, which tests air conduction versus bone conduction is negative abnormal result

When a Weber test is carried out, sound localizes to the ear affected by the conductive loss A Rinne test, in which air conduction is normally greater than bone conduction, is usually negative abnormal – note unusual terminology here compared with other medical tests, and shows greater bone conduction than air conduction

The following table compares sensorineural hearing loss to conductive:

Criteria Sensorineural hearing loss Conductive hearing loss
Anatomical site Inner ear, cranial nerve VIII, or central processing centers Middle ear ossicular chain, tympanic membrane, or external ear
Weber test Sound localizes to normal ear Sound localizes to affected ear ear with conductive loss
Rinne test Positive Rinne; air conduction > bone conduction both air and bone conduction are decreased equally, but the difference between them is unchanged Negative Rinne; bone conduction > air conduction bone/air gap



Pure tone audiometry, a standardized hearing test over a set of frequencies from 250Hz to 8000Hz, may be administered by a medical doctor or audiologist or audiometrist, with the result plotted separately for each ear on an audiogram The shape of the plot reveals the degree and nature of hearing loss, distinguishing conductive hearing loss from other kinds of hearing loss

CT scanedit



  • External ear

Common causes of conductive hearing loss include:1

    • Cerumen earwax or foreign body in the external auditory canal
    • Otitis externa, infection or irritation of the outer ear
    • Exostoses, abnormal growth of bone within the ear canal
    • Tumor of the ear canal
    • Congenital stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal narrow or blocked ear canal
    • Perforated eardrum
    • Tympanic membrane retraction
    • Barotrauma unequal air pressures in the external and middle ear2 This can temporarily occur, for example, by the environmental pressure changes as when shifting altitude, or inside a train going into a tunnel It is managed by any of various methods of ear clearing maneuvers to equalize the pressures, like swallowing, yawning, or the Valsalva maneuver
  • Middle ear

Fluid accumulation is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss in the middle ear, especially in children3 Major causes are ear infections or conditions that block the eustachian tube, such as allergies or tumors3 Blocking of the eustachian tube leads to decreased pressure in the middle ear relative to the external ear, and this causes decreased motion of both the ossicles and the tympanic membrane2

    • acute or serous otitis media
    • Cholesteatoma
    • Otosclerosis, abnormal growth of bone in or near the middle ear
    • middle ear tumour
    • temporal bone trauma
    • direct trauma such as objects inserted forcibly down the ear canal
    • Congenital malformation of the ossicles This can be an isolated phenomenon or can occur as part of a syndrome where development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches is seen such as in Goldenhar syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, branchio-oto-renal syndrome etc
    • Superior canal dehiscence – which may require surgical correction


Treatment falls into three modalities: surgical, pharmaceutical, and management, depending on the nature and location of the specific cause

In cases of infection, antibiotics or antifungal medications are an option Some conditions are amenable to surgical intervention such as middle ear fluid, cholesteatoma, otosclerosis If conductive hearing loss is due to head trauma, surgical repair is an option4 If absence or deformation of ear structures cannot be corrected, or if the patient declines surgery hearing aids, which amplify sounds are a possible treatment option3 Bone conduction hearing aids are useful as these deliver sound directly, through bone, to the cochlea or organ of hearing bypassing the pathology These can be on a soft or hard headband or can be inserted surgically, a bone anchored hearing aid, of which there are several types Conventional air conduction hearing aids can also be used

See alsoedit

  • Hearing loss


  1. ^ "Hearing Loss" HealthCentral Retrieved 8 June 2013 
  2. ^ a b Page 152 in:Rex S Haberman 2004 Middle Ear and Mastoid Surgery New York: Thieme Medical Pub ISBN 1-58890-173-4 
  3. ^ a b c Ruben, Robert J April 2007 "Hearing Loss and Deafness" The Merck Manual Retrieved 8 June 2013 
  4. ^ "Types, Causes and Treatment" Hearing Loss Association of America Retrieved 8 June 2013 

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Conductive hearing loss

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