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Collective motion

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Collective motion is defined as the spontaneous emergence of ordered movement in a system compound of a large number of self-propelled agents It can be observed in everyday life, for example in flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of animals and also in crowds and car traffic It also appears at the microscopic level: in colonies of bacteria, motility assays and artificial self-propelled particles The scientific community is trying to understand the universality of this phenomenon In particular it is intensively investigated in statistical physics and more precisely in the field of active matter Experiments on animals, biological and synthesized self-propelled particles, simulations and theories are conducted in parallel to study these phenomena One of the most famous models that attempt to exhibit such behavior is the Vicsek model introduced by Tamás Vicsek et al in 1995


  • 1 Collective behavior of Self-propelled particles
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 Further references
  • 5 External links

Collective behavior of Self-propelled particles

Just like biological systems, Self-propelled particles also respond to external gradients and show collective behavior Micromotors or nanomotors can interact with self-generated gradients and exhibit schooling and exclusion behavior For example, Ibele et al demonstrated that silver chloride micromotors, in presence of UV light interact with each other at high concentrations and form schools Similar behavior can also be observed with Titanium dioxide microparticles Silver orthophosphate microparticles exhibit transitions between schooling and exclusion behaviors in response to ammonia and UV light This behavior can be used to design a NOR gate since different combinations of the two different stimuli ammonia and UV light generate different outputs

Micromotors and nanomotors can also move preferentially in the direction of externally applied chemical gradient, defined as chemotaxis Chemotaxis has been observed in self propelled Au-Pt nanorods, which diffuse towards the source of hydrogen peroxide, when placed in a gradient of the chemical Silica microparticles with Grubbs catalyst tethered to them, also move towards higher monomer concentrations Enzymes also behave as nanomotors and migrate towards regions of higher substrate concentration Chemotaxis provides a way of directing motion at the microscale and can be used for drug delivery, sensing, lab-on-a-chip devices and other applications

See also

  • Collective animal behavior


  1. ^ Palacci, Jeremie; Sacanna, Stefano; Steinberg, Asher Preska; Pine, David J; Chaikin, Paul M 2013-02-22 "Living Crystals of Light-Activated Colloidal Surfers" Science 339 6122: 936–940 doi:101126/science1230020 ISSN 0036-8075 PMID 23371555
  2. ^ Theurkauff, I, Cottin-Bizonne, C, Palacci, J, Ybert, C, & Bocquet, L 2012 Dynamic clustering in active colloidal suspensions with chemical signaling Physical Review Letters, 10826, 268303
  3. ^ Buttinoni, I, Bialké, J, Kümmel, F, Löwen, H, Bechinger, C, & Speck, T 2013 Dynamical clustering and phase separation in suspensions of self-propelled colloidal particles Physical review letters, 11023, 238301
  4. ^ Feder, Toni October 2007 "Statistical physics is for the birds" Physics Today 60 10: 28–30 doi:101063/12800090
  5. ^ Grégoire, Guillaume; Chaté, Hugues 2004-01-15 "Onset of Collective and Cohesive Motion" Physical Review Letters 92 2: 025702 arXiv:cond-mat/0401208 Bibcode:2004PhRvL92b5702G doi:101103/PhysRevLett92025702 
  6. ^ Toner, John; Tu, Yuhai 1995-12-04 "Long-Range Order in a Two-Dimensional Dynamical $\mathrm$ Model: How Birds Fly Together" Physical Review Letters 75 23: 4326–4329 Bibcode:1995PhRvL754326T doi:101103/PhysRevLett754326 
  7. ^ Chaté, H; Ginelli, F; Grégoire, G; Peruani, F; Raynaud, F 2008-07-11 "Modeling collective motion: variations on the Vicsek model" The European Physical Journal B 64 3-4: 451–456 Bibcode:2008EPJB64451C doi:101140/epjb/e2008-00275-9 ISSN 1434-6028 
  8. ^ Vicsek, T; Czirok, A; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O 1995 "Novel type of phase transition in a system of self-driven particles" Physical Review Letters 75 6: 1226–1229 arXiv:cond-mat/0611743 Bibcode:1995PhRvL751226V doi:101103/PhysRevLett751226 PMID 10060237
  9. ^ Wang, W, Duan, W, Ahmed, S, Mallouk, T, & Sen, A 2013 Small power: Autonomous nano- and micromotors propelled by self-generated gradients NanoToday, 85, 531
  10. ^ Ibele, M, Mallouk, T, & Sen, A 2009 Schooling behavior of light-powered autonomous micromotors in water Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 4818, 3308
  11. ^ Hong, Y, Diaz, M, Córdova‐Figueroa, U, & Sen, A 2010 Light‐Driven Titanium‐Dioxide‐Based Reversible Microfireworks and Micromotor/Micropump Systems Advanced Functional Materials, 2010, 1568
  12. ^ Duan, W, Liu, R, & Sen, A 2013 Transition between collective behaviors of micromotors in response to different stimuli Journal of American Chemical Society, 135, 1280
  13. ^ Hong, Y, Blackmann, NMK, Kopp, ND, Sen, A, & Velegol, D 2007 Chemotaxis of nonbiological colloidal rods Physics Review Letters, 99, 178103
  14. ^ Ravlick, RA, Sengupta, S, McFadden, T, Zhang, H, & Sen, A 2011 A Polymerization-Powered Motor Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 5040, 9374
  15. ^ Sengupta, S, Dey, KK, Muddana, HS, Tabouillot, T, Ibele, M, Butler, PJ, & Sen, A 2013 Enzyme Molecules as Nanomotors Journal of American Chemical Society, 1354, 1406

Further references

  • Bricard, A, Caussin, J B, Desreumaux, N, Dauchot, O, & Bartolo, D 2013 "Emergence of macroscopic directed motion in populations of motile colloids" Nature, 503 7474: 95–98 doi:101038/nature12673
  • Vicsek, T, & Zafeiris, A 2012 "Collective motion" Physics Reports, 517 3: 71–140 doi:101016/jphysrep201203004

External links

  • Physicists come together to explore mechanics of collective motion The Guardian, 13 January 2014

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