Colebrook, New Hampshire


Colebrook is a town in Coos County, New Hampshire, United States The population was 2,301 at the 2010 census1 Situated in the Great North Woods Region, it is bounded on the west by the Connecticut River and home to Beaver Brook Falls Natural Area

The main village of the town, where 1,394 people resided at the 2010 census,1 is defined as the Colebrook census-designated place CDP, and is located at the junction of US Route 3 with New Hampshire Route 26 The town also includes the villages of Kidderville, Upper Kidderville, and Factory Village

Colebrook is part of the Berlin, NH−VT Micropolitan Statistical Area

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Climate
  • 3 Demographics
  • 4 Notable people
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Sites of interest
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links

Historyedit

First granted in 1762 by New Hampshire's Colonial Governor, Benning Wentworth, the territory was named Dryden, after English poet and playwright, John Dryden Due to the inability of its original grantees to settle the remote area, however, it was regranted in 1770 by Colonial Governor John Wentworth, who renamed it Colebrook Town after Sir George Colebrooke, the East India Company's chairman of the board It was settled that same year by a single family by the name of Rosebrook, but the family was driven out by the Revolutionary War, and further settlement did not occur until after the war's end2 The 1790 census recorded a population of 29, and the town was incorporated as Colebrook on June 11, 1796 For many years, it was the shire town of the Northern Judicial District of Coos County Today, it has a district branch of the Lancaster Superior Court

A conflicting account holds that the town "was originally called Coleburne and was granted to Sir George Colebrook and others It was incorporated June 11, 1795"3

The first road through the town was known as River Road, taking a route that is roughly followed today by US Route 3, the Daniel Webster Highway The first surveyed lots in the town comprised about 100 acres 40 ha each, running from River Road to the Connecticut River Settlement then proceeded up two new roads, Titus Hill Road and what is now Pleasant Street Titus Hill leads southeast out of the town center up to high ground in the neighboring town of Columbia that supports farming, while Pleasant Street, now a short road in Colebrook village, led east up the valley of the Mohawk River now the route of New Hampshire Route 26 to the area of East Colebrook, the present-day village of Kidderville, and what was known as "Factory Village", which grew about 2 miles 3 km east of the present village of Colebrook around a woolen mill constructed in 18162

In 1803, seven years after the incorporation of the town, historian Timothy Dwight wrote, "Everything in this township exhibits the activity and enterprise of its inhabitants; their roads, plantations, barns and schoolhouses are well built Their dwelling houses are principally of logs; but they are beginning to form better, and will soon be lodged very comfortable Mills they have already"2 The first sawmill and gristmill in the town were constructed around 1800 by Andrew McAllaster and his son, William, on the west side of the Beaver Brook bridge on what is now Main Street Route 3 at the north end of the present village The first brick maker was the Loomis kiln, located north of the current village approximately where the IGA grocery store now stands A larger brickmaker, Pratt & Smith, constructed a large kiln about 1826 in the Factory Village area In 1822 a new brick woolen mill was constructed in Factory Village along the Mohawk River and produced at its peak 6,000 to 7,000 pounds 2,700 to 3,200 kg of finished wool per year It was capable of producing 50 yards 46 m of cloth per day, including flannel and blankets2

What is now Colebrook village, located on the eastern edge of the Connecticut River bottomlands where the Mohawk River enters, began to grow in the decade following 1811, when the Walker House was constructed at the corner of present-day Main and Pleasant streets Commercial buildings began to appear in 1816 on the block of Main Street between Pleasant Street and Parsons Street2

The area was noted for excellent farming soil After the Coos Trail through Dixville Notch was created in 1803, farmers loaded sleds each winter with potash, pearlash, wheat and other produce, including potato whiskey, to exchange in Portland, Maine, for molasses, saltfish and other necessities According to the 1874 Gazetteer, Colebrook was the Potato Capital of New Hampshire, producing over 120,000 bushels per year, most of which were milled into potato starch Some were distilled into "potato whiskey" This industry dated back to 1848, when Sherburn R Merrill bought land in Factory Village along the Mohawk River to build a starch mill, originally with 150 tons capacity Other starch factories soon followed At its peak, the town was producing, according to James O Adams in 1877, "approximately one third of the potato starch in the state Considered another way, one twentieth of all the starch produced in the United States came from the Colebrook area during this period"2 The starch industry began to decline after 1880, due to lack of fertilization in the area's potato farms Gradually, the area turned to dairy farming

Abundant regional forests helped Colebrook become a lumbering center, with the first sawmill established at Beaver Brook in 1800 Between 1868 and 1915, the town was witness to great log drives

Other local manufacturing businesses, including blacksmiths, bobbin mills, boot- and shoemakers, carriage shops, cheesemakers, and tanneries, grew in the area through the 1800s, until the arrival of the railroad in 1887 connected the town to larger suppliers of goods2

Tourism has been a growing component of Colebrook's economy since the 19th century As early as 1804, an inn was constructed by the McAllaster family on what is now North Main Street Chamberlain's Tavern was built in 1816 and was for a time the meeting place of the town's militia; it is now the Jenkins/Jacoby Funeral Home Three large hotels were built in Colebrook in the mid 1800s The earliest was the Colebrook House, originally a large private home that was converted to an inn in the 1840s After a series of conversions of use and two fires, a new hotel occupying the site was built in 1903 and still is in operation The second hotel to be built in the town was the Parsons House 1862 on the south corner of Main and Parsons streets; it had a 75-foot-long 23 m dining room that could seat 125 guests The Parsons House burned in 1890 and was not rebuilt The Monadnock House, built in the late 1860s, burned in 1895 and was replaced with a new structure that had 70 guest rooms By the late 1940s, it had been sold to the Daughters of Charity of the Sacred Heart of Jesus for a convent and boarding school In 1971 it was sold to the town of Colebrook, and the building was torn down in 19772

During the Gilded Age, a new grand hotel was planned for Colebrook Called the Metallak after Native American chief Metallak, the imposing Victorian structure was designed by architect John Calvin Stevens, and intended to attract tourists arriving by railroad to escape the summer heat and pollution in big cities Construction began on Lombard's Hill, but a violent windstorm in April 1893 destroyed the frame, and investors abandoned the project Stevens then reused the building's scheme, while reducing its size by two-fifths, to become the Bay of Naples Inn at Naples, Maine, which opened in 1899 Although the Metallak itself was never finished, its extensive plans are preserved among the architect's papers at the Maine Historical Society, making the ill-fated Colebrook hotel perhaps the most thoroughly documented design of its type in the White Mountains

The Balsams Grand Resort Hotel was built in neighboring Dixville Notch in 1874 The resort's golf course is located on land in Colebrook that overlooks the notch and the hotel Another hotel, the Hampshire Inn, was located on the Colebrook/Columbia town line and enjoyed a heyday in the 1890s and 1900s The building was demolished in the 1970s, and the land is now part of the Shrine of Our Lady of Grace along US Route 32

Serial killer Christopher Wilder's nationwide murder spree ended at a Colebrook gas station on April 13, 1984, when two New Hampshire state troopers attempted to apprehend him, but in a scuffle Wilder shot and killed himself as well as seriously wounding one of the troopers

Geographyedit

Colebrook is the hub of northern Coos County, and is the largest town by population north of the county seat of Lancaster Roads from Maine, Vermont, and Quebec all converge in the center of town To the north is Stewartstown, to the east is Dixville and to the south is Columbia Lemington, Vermont is located to the west of town, across the Connecticut River

The town is located along US Route 3 New Hampshire Route 26 crosses Colebrook from east to west, briefly overlapping US 3 The southern terminus of New Hampshire Route 145 is also located in Colebrook, providing a second route northward to Pittsburg and Canada

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 409 square miles 106 km2, of which 407 square miles 105 km2 is land and 02 square miles 052 km2 is water, comprising 050% of the town4 The highest point in Colebrook is Van Dyck Mountain, elevation 2,760 feet 840 m above sea level The town's western view is dominated by Monadnock Mountain, elevation 3,148 ft 960 m, in Lemington, Vermont Colebrook is drained by Beaver Brook and the Mohawk River, which flows into the Connecticut River The town lies almost fully within the Connecticut River watershed, with a tiny portion of the northeast corner of town lying in the Androscoggin River watershed5

Climateedit

Climate data for Colebrook, NH
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F °C 61
16
63
17
79
26
86
30
90
32
93
34
94
34
95
35
94
34
81
27
71
22
65
18
95
35
Average high °F °C 238
−46
269
−28
371
28
500
10
645
181
727
226
773
252
748
238
661
189
542
123
409
49
286
−19
5141
1077
Average low °F °C 02
−177
12
−171
147
−96
283
−21
395
42
493
96
537
121
517
109
441
67
325
03
232
−49
89
−128
2894
−17
Record low °F °C −40
−40
−42
−41
−29
−34
−8
−22
17
−8
27
−3
31
−1
29
−2
18
−8
7
−14
−13
−25
−38
−39
−42
−41
Average precipitation inches mm 285
724
196
498
264
671
263
668
384
975
413
1049
415
1054
445
113
372
945
340
864
342
869
280
711
3999
1,0158
Average snowfall inches cm 212
538
178
452
138
351
49
124
trace 0
0
0
0
0
0
trace 06
15
87
221
231
587
901
2289
Source: NOAA 6

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1790 29
1800 160 4517%
1810 325 1031%
1820 469 443%
1830 542 156%
1840 743 371%
1850 908 222%
1860 1,118 231%
1870 1,372 227%
1880 1,580 152%
1890 1,736 99%
1900 1,876 81%
1910 1,905 15%
1920 1,811 −49%
1930 1,937 70%
1940 2,096 82%
1950 2,116 10%
1960 2,389 129%
1970 2,094 −123%
1980 2,459 174%
1990 2,444 −06%
2000 2,321 −50%
2010 2,301 −09%
Est 2015 2,188 −49%
US Decennial Census8
Colebrook Main Street in 2009

At the first census of 1790 there were 29 residents

As of the census9 of 2000, there were 2,321 people, 1,035 households, and 607 families residing in the town The population density was 566 people per square mile 219/km² There were 1,312 housing units at an average density of 320 per square mile 124/km² The racial makeup of the town was 9849% White, 026% Native American, 030% Asian, 017% from other races, and 078% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 039% of the population

There were 1,035 households out of which 251% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 462% were married couples living together, 81% had a female householder with no husband present, and 413% were non-families 340% of all households were made up of individuals and 143% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 220 and the average family size was 276

In the town, the population was spread out with 222% under the age of 18, 72% from 18 to 24, 269% from 25 to 44, 272% from 45 to 64, and 165% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 41 years For every 100 females there were 960 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 933 males

The median income for a household in the town was $32,244, and the median income for a family was $42,260 Males had a median income of $31,833 versus $20,383 for females The per capita income for the town was $18,390 About 65% of families and 120% of the population were below the poverty line, including 145% of those under age 18 and 202% of those age 65 or over

Notable peopleedit

  • Irving W Drew 1845–1922, US senator
  • Chester B Jordan 1839–1914, 48th governor of New Hampshire
  • Horace White 1834–1916, co-owner and editor-in-chief of the Chicago Tribune

See alsoedit

  • List of colonial governors of New Hampshire

Sites of interestedit

  • Beaver Brook Falls Wayside
  • Colebrook Area Historical Society & Museum, located in the Town Hall building
  • Poore Family Homestead Farm Museum

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b United States Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2010 Census figures Retrieved March 23, 2011
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Granvyl Hulse, "The Early History of Colebrook" lecture series, 2007
  3. ^ Article in Statistics and Gazetteer of New-Hampshire 1875
  4. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data G001 - Colebrook town, New Hampshire" US Census Bureau American Factfinder Archived from the original on September 11, 2013 Retrieved November 8, 2011 
  5. ^ Foster, Debra H; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N; Medalie, Laura 1995 Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey 
  6. ^ "Climatography of the United States No 20" PDF NOAA Retrieved March 5, 2011 
  7. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" Archived from the original on June 2, 2016 Retrieved July 2, 2016 
  8. ^ "Census of Population and Housing" Censusgov Archived from the original on May 12, 2015 Retrieved June 4, 2016 
  9. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on 2013-09-11 Retrieved 2008-01-31 

Further readingedit

  • Bryant F Tolles, Jr, The Grand Resort Hotels of the White Mountains, 1998, David F Godine, publisher, Boston, MA

External linksedit

  • Town of Colebrook official website
  • Colebrook Public Library
  • The Colebrook Chronicle, weekly newspaper
  • The News and Sentinel, weekly newspaper
  • Beaver Brook Falls Wayside
  • Colebrook Ski-Bees Snowmobile Club
  • New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
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