Claremont, New Hampshire


Claremont is a city in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States The population was 13,355 at the 2010 census3

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Pre-colonial native populations
    • 12 Colonial settlement
    • 13 Industry
    • 14 Education history
    • 15 Namesakes
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 Transportation
  • 4 Demographics
  • 5 Education
  • 6 Old postcards
  • 7 Culture
  • 8 In the media
  • 9 Sites of interest
  • 10 Historical sites
  • 11 Notable people
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Historyedit

Pre-colonial native populationsedit

Before colonial settlement, the Upper Connecticut River Valley was home to the Pennacook and Western Abenaki Sokoki peoples, later merging with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by the wars and famines that accompanied the European settling of the region4 The Hunter Archeological Site, located near the bridge connecting Claremont with Ascutney, Vermont, is a significant prehistoric Native American site that includes seven levels of occupational evidence, including evidence of at least three longhouses The oldest dates recorded from evidence gathered during excavations in 1967 were to AD 13005

Ashley's Ferry c 1906

Colonial settlementedit

The city was named after Claremont, the country mansion of Thomas Pelham-Holles, Earl of Clare6 On October 26, 1764,7 Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth granted the township8 to Josiah Willard, Samuel Ashley and 67 others Although first settled in 1762 by Moses Spafford and David Lynde, many of the proprietors arrived in 1767, with a large number from Farmington, Hebron and Colchester, Connecticut The undulating surface of rich, gravelly loam made agriculture an early occupation9 Spafford was deeded land from Col Samuel Ashley, who was given a charter to establish a ferry across the Connecticut River in 1784, the location of which is still known as Ashley's Ferry landing Spafford was also the first man to marry in Claremont, and his son, Elijah, was the first white child to be born in the town

The Union Episcopal Church in West Claremont was built in 1773, and is the oldest surviving Episcopal church building in New Hampshire and the state's oldest surviving building built exclusively for religious purposes The parish was organized in 1771 and chartered by the New Hampshire legislature in 1794 as Union Church Parish10 Located across the street, Old St Mary's Church, built in 1823 mostly in the Federalist style, was the first Roman Catholic church in New Hampshire11 It was discontinued in 1870 in favor of the new St Mary's Church in the Lower Village District12

During the American Revolution, Claremont had a large number of loyalists, who used a small wooded valley in West Claremont called the Tory Hole to hide from the patriots1314 In 1777, when the New Hampshire Grants declared their own sovereignty as the Vermont Republic, Claremont was one of sixteen New Hampshire towns inclined to join them, and made multiple attempts to do so13

Industryedit

Claremont's first millwright was Col Benjamin Tyler, who arrived in the area from Farmington, Connecticut, in the spring of 176713 Tyler built mills using stone quarried from his land on nearby Mount Ascutney, and built Claremont's first mill on the Sugar River on the site of the Coy Paper Mill Tyler also invented the wry-fly water wheel, which was the subject of the Supreme Court case Tyler v Tuel His grandson John Tyler evolved the technology to create the Tyler Water Wheel and the Tyler Turbine Tyler's grandson was Benjamin Tyler Henry, inventor of the Henry Repeating rifle, manufactured in neighboring Windsor, Vermont, and used in the Civil War15

The water power harnessed from the Sugar River brought the town prosperity during the Industrial Revolution Large brick factories were built along the stream, including the Sunapee Mills, Monadnock Mills, Claremont Machine Works, Home Mills, Sanford & Rossiter, and Claremont Manufacturing Company Principal products were cotton and woolen textiles, lathes and planers, and paper9 Although like other New England mill towns, much industry moved away or closed in the 20th century, the city's former prosperity is evident in some fine Victorian architecture, including the 1897 city hall and opera house

In 1874, businesses in Claremont included Monadnock Mills, manufacturing cotton cloths from one to three yards wide, Marseilles quilts, union flannels, and lumber, and employing 125 males and 225 females; Home Mill A Briggs & Co producing cotton cloth and employing 8 males and 20 females; Sullivan Machine Co, manufacturing Steam Dimond Drill Machinery for quarrying rock, turbine water wheels, cloth measuring machines, and doing general machine and mill work, employing 56 males; Sugar River Paper Mill Co, manufacturing printing paper and employing 30 males and 20 females; Claremont Manufacturing Co, manufacturing paper and books, and doing stereotyping and book and job printing, employing 34 males and 34 females; Russell Jarvis, manufacturing hanging paper and employing 7 males and 2 females; John S Farrington, manufacturing straw wrapping paper and employing 5 males and 1 female; Sullivan Mills George L Balcom, manufacturing black doeskins and employing 20 males and 18 females; Charles H Eastman, in the leather business and employing 4 males; Sugar River Mill Co, manufacturing flour, feed, and doing custom grinding, and employing 8 males; three saw mills employing a part of the year, 10 males; Blood & Woodcock, in the business of monuments and grave stones and employing 8 males; and Houghton, Bucknam & Co, in the business of sashes, doors and blinds, employing 8 males7

The Monadnock Mills Co and Sullivan Mills Co were responsible the two most prominent collections of manufacturing structures in the Lower Village District Monadnock Mills' textile operations began with its founding in 1842, and lasted through 1932, shuttering operations following the decline of the textile industry in New England during the 1920s16 By the 1920s, Sullivan Mills Co had become New Hampshire's largest machining company, as well as Claremont's largest employer Sullivan's Machinery division merged with Joy Mining Machinery in 1946, becoming Joy Manufacturing Co Its founder, inventor Joseph Francis Joy, stayed on as general manager of the facility17 which remained the dominant employer in Claremont through the 1970s, when manufacturing technology had advanced sufficiently to hamper sales and productivity Parts of the campus suffered fires in 1979 and 1981,18 and the branch was closed in 1983 and sold in 198416

Education historyedit

In the 1850s, the city of Claremont approached the state legislature asking permission to build a public high school At the time, public high schools did not exist in New Hampshire The state agreed, and decided to offer permission to every town in the state so that every town could establish public high schools Claremont native and hotelier Paran Stevens then made an offer to fund 50% of the $20,000 cost of development, resulting in Stevens High School15

In March 1989, the Claremont School Board voted to initiate a lawsuit against the State of New Hampshire, claiming that the state's primary reliance upon local property taxes for funding education resulted in inequitable educational opportunities among children around the state and a violation of their constitutional rights Following a lawsuit and a series of landmark decisions, the New Hampshire Supreme Court agreed Known as the "Claremont Decision", the suit continues to drive the statewide debate on equitable funding for education, and Claremont continues to play a primary role in this legal challenge19

Namesakesedit

The cities of Claremont, California, Claremont, Minnesota, and Claremont Township, Minnesota, were named for Claremont, New Hampshire20

Downtown Claremont from the west, July 2016

Geographyedit

Claremont is located in western Sullivan County at 43°22′38″N 72°20′40″W / 4337722°N 7234444°W / 4337722; -7234444 43377207, -7234455521

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 441 square miles 1142 km2, of which 431 square miles 1117 km2 is land and 097 square miles 25 km2 is water, comprising 219% of the town3 The Connecticut River forms the western boundary of the city, and the boundary between New Hampshire and Vermont The Sugar River flows from east to west through the center of Claremont and empties into the Connecticut The highest point in the city is the summit of Green Mountain, at 2,018 feet 615 m above sea level in the northeastern part of the city Claremont lies fully within the Connecticut River watershed22

Transportationedit

See also: Claremont Amtrak station

The only city within Sullivan County, Claremont is home to Claremont Municipal Airport By highway, it is located 21 miles 34 km south of Interstate 89 in Lebanon, New Hampshire, and 5 miles 8 km east of Interstate 91 in Weathersfield, Vermont It is served by state routes 11, 12, 12A 103, and 120 Routes 11 and 103 travel east as a concurrency to Newport, with Route 11 continuing east to New London and Franklin, while Route 103 turns southeast to Bradford and Warner Routes 11 and 12 lead south as a concurrency to Charlestown West from downtown, Route 12 leads into Vermont, then turns north to Windsor Route 120 leads north from downtown through Cornish and Meriden to Lebanon Route 12A bypasses downtown Claremont to the west, leading south to Charlestown and north to West Lebanon

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides daily service aboard its Vermonter between Washington, DC and St Albans, Vermont

Demographicsedit

As of the census of 2010, there were 13,355 people, 5,697 households, and 3,461 families residing in the city The population density was 3099 people per square mile 1196/km2 There were 6,293 housing units at an average density of 1460 per square mile 563/km2 The racial makeup of the city was 959% White, 06% African American, 03% Native American, 09% Asian, 003% Pacific Islander, 04% some other race, and 18% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13% of the population23

Census
Historical population
Pop
1790 1,435
1800 1,889 316%
1810 2,094 109%
1820 1,702 −187%
1830 2,526 484%
1840 3,217 274%
1850 3,606 121%
1860 4,026 116%
1870 4,053 07%
1880 4,704 161%
1890 5,565 183%
1900 6,498 168%
1910 7,529 159%
1920 9,524 265%
1930 12,377 300%
1940 12,144 −19%
1950 12,811 55%
1960 13,563 59%
1970 14,221 49%
1980 14,557 24%
1990 13,902 −45%
2000 13,151 −54%
2010 13,355 16%
Est 2016 12,957 −30%
US Decennial Census24

There were 5,697 households, out of which 286% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 421% were headed by married couples living together, 130% had a female householder with no husband present, and 392% were non-families 308% of all households were made up of individuals, and 118% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 231, and the average family size was 28323

In the city, the population was spread out with 220% under the age of 18, 80% from 18 to 24, 260% from 25 to 44, 287% from 45 to 64, and 154% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 406 years For every 100 females there were 954 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 931 males23

For the period 2009–13, the estimated median annual income for a household in the city was $42,236, and the median income for a family was $51,259 Male full-time workers had a median income of $43,261 versus $35,369 for females The per capita income for the city was $22,773 About 133% of families and 159% of the population were below the poverty line, including 222% of those under age 18 and 53% of those aged 65 or over25

Educationedit

Claremont is part of New Hampshire's School Administrative Unit 6, or SAU 6 Stevens High School is the city's only public high school, and is located on Broad Street, just a few blocks from City Hall Claremont Middle School, the city's only public middle school, is located just down the street to the south

Claremont is home to three elementary schools: Maple Avenue School, Bluff Elementary and Disnard Elementary Also located in town are the New England Classical Academy, a private, Catholic school, and the Claremont Christian Academy, a private, parochial school offering education through 12th grade

Three elementary schools — North Street School, Way Elementary and the West Claremont Schoolhouse — were shut down, Way becoming home to several luxury apartments and North Street turned into offices

The city's opportunities for higher education include a branch of Granite State College, River Valley Community College, and the Sugar River Valley Regional Technical Center

Old postcardsedit

Cultureedit

Broad Street Park in 1909

A commercial area centered on Washington Street is Claremont's primary commercial district An Italian Renaissance-styled City Hall building, which houses the historic Claremont Opera House, was built in 1897 and designed by architect Charles A Rich26 City Hall faces Broad Street Park, a rotary-style town square This square connects Washington Street, Broad Street, and Main Street, which branch into different portions of the city Broad Street Park contains war monuments to World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam, and Freedom Garden Memorial dedicated to the victims and families of September 11 Included are two Civil War cannon and the centrally-located Soldier's Monument, designed by Martin Milmore and dating to 189027 The park is also home to a historic bandstand, originally built in a Victorian style in 189027 and redesigned in 1922 in a Classical Revival style,28 which primarily serves as performance space for the Claremont American Band, a community band dating to about 188029 Parallel to Broad Street lies Pleasant Street, home to a downtown business district, which was the city's primary commercial zone until the development of the Washington Street district

A number of mill buildings dot the Lower Village District in the city's center, along the Sugar River, and several attempts have been made at historic preservation of some of them

To the north end of the town lies the Valley Regional Hospital, an out-patient resource of the popular Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center of Lebanon

Moody Park

On the southern artery out of Claremont, Route 12, stood Highland View, the summer home of Claremont native William Henry Harrison Moody 1842–1925, who made his fortunes as a businessman and shoe manufacturer in the Boston area, but kept a residence in his hometown until his death30 The large William H H Moody estate was known for its horses and its five large barns the last of which burned in 2004 from a lightning strike31, which once hosted several hundred imported horses on over 500 acres 20 km2 Its Victorian farmhouse stands at the top of Arch Road In March 1916, a 175-acre 71 ha portion of the estate was donated by Moody to the city of Claremont for a city park, the entrance of which is on Maple Avenue; facilities include tennis A lone access road leads through a coniferous forest to the top of a hill, maintained as a large field by the city, with a large, open-air stone structure suitable for picnics The park has several miles of interconnected walking trailways; several of these trails terminate at the Boston and Maine Railroad3233

In the mediaedit

Claremont was the filming location, though not the setting, of the 2006 movie Live Free or Die, co-written and co-directed by Gregg Kavet and Andy Robin and starring Aaron Stanford, Paul Schneider, Michael Rapaport, Judah Friedlander, Kevin Dunn, and Zooey Deschanel Set in fictional Rutland, New Hampshire, it is a picaresque comedy-drama about a small-town would-be crime legend The name of the movie derives from the motto of the Granite State34

The Topstone Mill, formerly a shoe factory and now housing a restaurant,35 was featured in season 8, episode 20 of Ghost Hunters, airing October 24, 2012, titled "Fear Factory"36

Sites of interestedit

Mount Ascutney, seen from Claremont
  • Arrowhead Recreation Area
  • Claremont Historical Society & Museum37
  • Claremont Municipal Airport
  • Sugar River Rail Trail38
  • Twin State Speedway39

Historical sitesedit

  • Claremont Opera House
  • David Dexter House
  • Hunter Archeological Site
  • Lower Village Historic District40
  • Monadnock Mills Historic District41
  • Union Episcopal Church
  • William Rossiter House

Notable peopleedit

  • Doug Berry, football coach42
  • Edmund Burke, US congressman from Vermont43
  • Derastus Clapp, detective44
  • Barbara Cochran, Olympic gold medalist15
  • Franceway Ranna Cossitt, Cumberland Presbyterian minister45
  • Caleb Ellis, US congressman46
  • Harriet Farley, writer and abolitionist15
  • Kirk Hanefeld, golfer47
  • Jule Murat Hannaford, railway president48
  • Benjamin Tyler Henry, gunsmith
  • Jeffrey R Howard, judge49
  • Jonathan Hatch Hubbard, US congressman from Vermont50
  • Dorothy Loudon, actress15
  • Larry McElreavy, college football coach51
  • Jennifer Militello, poet52
  • Arthur F Nevers, cornetist and New Hampshire bandmaster
  • Hosea Washington Parker, US congressman53
  • Orrin W Robinson, politician and businessman54
  • Kaleb Tarczewski, basketball player55
  • George B Upham, US congressman56
  • William J Wilgus, designer of New York City's Grand Central Terminal 15
  • Constance Fenimore Woolson, novelist and short story writer57

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Area History" City of Claremont official website Retrieved July 20, 2015 
  2. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  3. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 G001: Claremont city, New Hampshire" US Census Bureau, American Factfinder Retrieved July 20, 2015 
  4. ^ "Abenaki History" tolatsgaorg Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  5. ^ Starbuck, David 2006 The Archeology of New Hampshire Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire Press p 89 ISBN 9781584655626 
  6. ^ "Profile for Claremont, New Hampshire, NH" ePodunk Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  7. ^ a b Article in Statistics and Gazetteer of New-Hampshire 1875
  8. ^ "Claremont, New Hampshire" City-Datacom Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  9. ^ a b Coolidge, Austin J; John B Mansfield 1859 A History and Description of New England, General and Local Boston, Massachusetts pp 445–448 
  10. ^ "Union Episcopal Church English Church" Connecticut River Joint Commissions Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  11. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: New Hampshire" newadventorg Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  12. ^ "Old St Mary Roman Catholic Church" Connecticut River Joint Commissions Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  13. ^ a b c Granite Monthly: A New Hampshire Magazine 1913 pp 1–386 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  14. ^ "Chapter IV Historic Resources" PDF City of Claremont Master Plan 2011 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Historian highlights: Early contributors to Claremont" Valley News Archived from the original on July 2, 2015 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  16. ^ a b "A Walking Tour of Claremont Village Industrial District" PDF City of Claremont Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  17. ^ "Joseph Francis Joy: Character – Inventor – Reformer" PDF joyglobalcom Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  18. ^ "Chief Roy T Quimby" Unity NH Volunteer Fire Department Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  19. ^ "Claremont Coalition" claremontlawsuitorg Archived from the original on June 7, 2007 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  20. ^ Chicago and North Western Railway Company 1908 A History of the Origin of the Place Names Connected with the Chicago & North Western and Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railways, p 56
  21. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990" United States Census Bureau 2011-02-12 Retrieved April 23, 2011 
  22. ^ Foster, Debra H; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N; Medalie, Laura 1995 Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey 
  23. ^ a b c "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Census Summary File 1 DP-1: Claremont city, New Hampshire" US Census Bureau, American Factfinder Retrieved July 20, 2015 
  24. ^ "Census of Population and Housing" Censusgov Archived from the original on May 12, 2015 Retrieved June 4, 2015 
  25. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates DP03: Claremont city, New Hampshire" US Census Bureau, American Factfinder Retrieved July 20, 2015 
  26. ^ "History" Claremont Opera House Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  27. ^ a b "Trail 6 – Connecticut River Heritage Trail" Connecticut River Historic Sites Database & Connecticut River Heritage Trails Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  28. ^ "A Secret Jewel: Claremont NH" bandstandsblogspotcom Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  29. ^ McElreavy, WL 2012 Claremont Arcadia Pub SC p 100 ISBN 9780738592978 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  30. ^ Davis, WT 1897 The New England States: Their Constitutional, Judicial, Educational, Commercial, Professional and Industrial History 1 DH Hurd & Co p 294 Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  31. ^ "Claremont Firefighters Association" kkg500com Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  32. ^ "Moody Park: Community Park & Trail System" PDF City of Claremont Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  33. ^ Sanborn, Colin J "WHH Moody" Claremont Historical Society Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  34. ^ "Live Free or Die" IMDB Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  35. ^ "Ghost-hunters-recap-haunted-shoe-factory-filled-with-ghostly-footsteps" realitytvmagazinesheknowscom Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  36. ^ ""Ghost Hunters" Fear Factory TV Episode 2012 - IMDb" imdbcom Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  37. ^ Claremont Historical Society & Museum
  38. ^ Sugar River Rail Trail Archived 2009-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ Twin State Speedway
  40. ^ Lower Village Historic District
  41. ^ Monadnock Mills Historic District
  42. ^ "Blue Bombers fire head coach Doug Berry" the starcom Retrieved January 7, 2014 
  43. ^ "BURKE, Edmund, 1809 - 1882" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved January 7, 2014 
  44. ^ Clap, Ebenezer 1876 The Clapp Memorial: Record of the Clapp Family in America : Containing Sketches of the Original Six Emigrants, and a Genealogy of Their Descendants Bearing the Name : with a Supplement and the Proceedings at Two Family Meetings David Clapp & Son p 60 
  45. ^ Middlebury College 1917 Catalogue of Officers and Students of Middlebury College in Middlebury, Vermont: And of Others who Have Received Degrees, 1800-1915 The College p 26 
  46. ^ "ELLIS, Caleb, 1767 - 1816" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  47. ^ "KIRK HANEFELD" PGA Tour Inc Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  48. ^ "Who's Who in Finance Incorporated" Who's Who in Finance and Banking: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries, 1920-1922 1922 p 298 
  49. ^ "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Howard, Jeffrey R" Federal Judicial Center Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  50. ^ "HUBBARD, Jonathan Hatch, 1768 - 1849" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  51. ^ "Larry McElreavy" New-York Historical Society Retrieved January 7, 2014 
  52. ^ "Jennifer Militello, Poet, Goffstown" New Hampshire State Council of the Arts Retrieved January 7, 2014 
  53. ^ "PARKER, Hosea Washington, 1833 - 1922" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  54. ^ "Robinson, O to R" A Database of American History: Index to Politicians The Political Graveyard Retrieved February 3, 2017 
  55. ^ "35 -Kaleb Tarczewski" NBAdraft,Net Retrieved January 7, 2014 
  56. ^ "UPHAM, George Baxter, 1768 - 1848" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Retrieved October 24, 2012 
  57. ^ Moore, Rayburn S 1932 Constance Fenimore Woolson Ardent Media p 18 

External linksedit

  • City of Claremont official website
  • Fiske Free Library
  • Claremont Historical Society
  • Claremont Opera House
  • New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
  • City-datacom
  • ePodunk: Profile for Claremont, New Hampshire
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