Sat . 20 Jul 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

chronic traumatic encephalopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy symptoms
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE is a degenerative disease found in people who have suffered repeated blows to the head

A subtype of CTE is dementia pugilistica DP, ie "punch-drunk," as it was initially found in those with a history of boxing CTE is most commonly found in professional athletes participating in American football, rugby, ice hockey, boxing, professional wrestling, stunt performing, bull riding, rodeo riding, Association football and other contact sports who have experienced repeated brain trauma, such as concussions and blows to the head that do not produce concussions The presence of CTE in domestic violence is also being investigatedcitation needed It can affect high-school athletes following just a few years of participation in sports1

CTE is a form of tauopathy


  • 1 Symptoms
  • 2 Pathology
  • 3 Diagnosis
  • 4 Prevention
  • 5 Epidemiology
  • 6 History
    • 61 American football
      • 611 Early retirements
    • 62 Ice hockey
    • 63 Professional wrestling
    • 64 Mixed martial arts
    • 65 Association football
    • 66 Rugby
    • 67 Australian rules football
    • 68 Major League Baseball
    • 69 Extreme sports
  • 7 Society and culture
    • 71 Notable cases
      • 711 Professional wrestling
      • 712 American Football
      • 713 Baseball
      • 714 Action Sports
    • 72 Popular culture
  • 8 Research
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links


Symptoms of CTE, which occur in four stages, generally appear 8 to 10 years after an athlete experiences repetitive mild traumatic brain injury2

First-stage symptoms include attention deficits as well as disorientation, dizziness, and headaches Second-stage symptoms include memory loss, social instability, erratic behavior, and poor judgment Third and fourth stages include progressive dementia, movement disorders, hypomimia, speech impediments, tremors, vertigo, deafness, and suicidality

Additional symptoms include dysarthria, dysphagia, and ocular abnormalities, such as ptosis3


The neuropathological appearance of CTE is distinguished from other tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease The four clinical stages of observable CTE disability have been correlated with tau pathology in brain tissue, ranging in severity from focal perivascular epicenters of neurofibrillary tangles in the frontal neocortex to severe tauopathy affecting widespread brain regions4

The primary physical manifestations of CTE include a reduction in brain weight, associated with atrophy of the frontal and temporal cortices and medial temporal lobe The lateral ventricles and the third ventricle are often enlarged, with rare instances of dilation of the fourth ventricle5 Other physical manifestations of CTE include anterior cavum septi pellucidi and posterior fenestrations, pallor of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus, and atrophy of the olfactory bulbs, thalamus, mammillary bodies, brainstem and cerebellum6 As CTE progresses, there may be marked atrophy of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala2

On a microscopic scale, the pathology includes neuronal loss, tau deposition, TAR DNA-binding Protein 43 TDP 434 beta-amyloid deposition, white matter changes, and other abnormalities The tau deposition occurs as dense neurofibrillary tangles NFT, neurites, and glial tangles, which are made up of astrocytes and other glial cells5 Beta-amyloid deposition is a relatively uncommon feature of CTE

A small group of individuals with CTE have chronic traumatic encephalomyopathy CTEM, which is characterized by symptoms of motor-neuron disease and which mimics amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS Progressive muscle weakness and balance and gait problems problems with walking seem to be early signs of CTEM5

Exosome vesicles created by the brain are potential biomarkers of TBI, including CTE7


Currently, CTE can only be definitively diagnosed by direct tissue examination after death, including full autopsies and immunohistochemical brain analyses8

The lack of in vivo techniques to show distinct biomarkers for CTE is the reason CTE cannot currently be diagnosed while a person is alive The only known diagnosis for CTE occurs by studying the brain tissue after death Concussions are non-structural injuries and do not result in brain bleeding, which is why most concussions cannot be seen on routine neuroimaging tests such as CT or MRI9 Acute concussion symptoms those that occur shortly after an injury should not be confused with CTE Differentiating between prolonged post-concussion syndrome PCS, where symptoms begin shortly after a concussion and last for weeks, months, and sometimes even years and CTE symptoms can be difficult Research studies are currently examining whether neuroimaging can detect subtle changes in axonal integrity and structural lesions that can occur in CTE2 Recently, more progress in in-vivo diagnostic techniques for CTE has been made, using DTI, fMRI, MRI, and MRS imaging; however, more research needs to be done before any such techniques can be validated5

PET tracers that bind specifically to tau protein are desired to aid diagnosis of CTE in living individuals One candidate is the tracer 18FFDDNP, which is retained in the brain in individuals with a number of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, familial frontotemporal dementia, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease10 In a small study of 5 retired NFL players with cognitive and mood symptoms, the PET scans revealed accumulation of the tracer in their brains11 However, 18FFDDNP, binds to beta-amyloid and other proteins as well Moreover, the sites in the brain where the tracer was retained were not consistent with the known neuropathology of CTE12 A more promising candidate is the tracer 18F-T807, which binds only to tau It is being tested in several clinical trials12

A putative biomarker for CTE is the presence in serum of autoantibodies against the brain The autoantibodies were detected in football players who experienced a large number of head hits but no concussions, suggesting that even sub-concussive episodes may be damaging to the brain The autoantibodies may enter the brain by means of a disrupted blood-brain barrier, and attack neuronal cells which are normally protected from an immune onslaught13 Given the large numbers of neurons present in the brain 86 billion, and considering the poor penetration of antibodies across a normal blood-brain barrier, there is an extended period of time between the initial events head hits and the development of any signs or symptoms Nevertheless, autoimmune changes in blood of players may consist the earliest measurable event predicting CTE14

Robert A Stern, one of the scientists at the Boston University CTE Center,15 said in 2015 that "he expected a test to be developed within a decade that will be able to diagnose CTE in living people"16


Investigators have demonstrated that immobilizing the head during a blast exposure prevented the learning and memory deficits associated with CTE that occurred when the head was not immobilized This research represents the first case series of postmortem brains from US military personnel who were exposed to a blast and/or a concussive injury17


Professional level athletes are the largest demographic to suffer from CTE due to frequent concussions from play in contact-sport18 These contact-sports include American football, ice hockey, rugby,19 boxing, soccer by "heading" especially,19 and wrestling20 Other individuals that have been diagnosed with CTE were involved in military service, had a previous history of chronic seizures, victims of domestic abuse, and or were involved in activities resulting in repetitive head collisions21


CTE was originally studied in boxers in the 1920s as dementia pugilistica The seminal work on the disease came from British neurologist Macdonald Critchley, who in 1949 wrote a paper titled "Punch-drunk syndromes: the chronic traumatic encephalopathy of boxers"22 CTE was first recognized as affecting individuals who took considerable blows to the head, but was believed to be confined to boxers and not other athletes As evidence pertaining to the clinical and neuropathological consequences of repeated mild head trauma grew, it became clear that this pattern of neurodegeneration was not restricted to boxers, and the term chronic traumatic encephalopathy became most widely used2324 In the early 2000s, a Nigerian neuropathologist Dr Bennet Omalu worked on the case of American football player Mike Webster, who had died following unusual and unexplained behavior In 2005 Omalu, along with colleagues in the Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh, published his findings in the journal Neurosurgery in a paper which he titled "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player" This was followed by a paper on a second case in 2006 describing similar pathology

In 2008, the Sports Legacy Institute joined with the Boston University School of Medicine BUSM to form the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy CSTE25 Brain Injury Research Institute BIRI also studies the impact of concussions2627

American footballedit

Main article: Concussions in American football See also: List of NFL players with chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Beginning in 2005, Dr Bennet Omalu, a forensic pathologist and neuropathologist in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, found CTE in the brains of Mike Webster, Terry Long, Andre Waters, Justin Strzelczyk, and Tom McHale27 Omalu, initially a medical examiner, then associate adjunct professor in California, was a co-founder of the Brain Injury Research Institute27 and reportedly in 2012 participated in the autopsy of Junior Seau26 Omalu's participation was halted during the autopsy after Junior Seau's son revoked previously provided oral permission after he received telephone calls from NFL management denouncing Omalu's professional ethics, qualifications, and motivation

Between 2008 and 2010, the bodies of twelve former professional American football players were diagnosed with CTE postmortem by Dr Ann McKee28

On December 1, 2012, Kansas City Chiefs linebacker Jovan Belcher killed his girlfriend and drove to Arrowhead Stadium and killed himself in front of then GM Scott Pioli and then head coach Romeo Crennel A year later, on behalf of Belcher's minor daughter, a family lawyer filed a wrongful-death lawsuit, against the Chiefs, alleging that the team deliberately ignored warning signs of CTE, possibly leading to Belcher's suicide The lawyer also hired a medical examiner to examine Belcher's brain for signs of CTE On September 29, 2014, it was confirmed that he suffered from CTE29

As of November 2016, 90 of 94 former National Football League NFL players were diagnosed post-mortem with CTE by Dr McKee30 Former Detroit Lions lineman and eight-time Pro Bowler Lou Creekmur,31 former Houston Oilers and Miami Dolphins linebacker John Grimsley,32 former Tampa Bay Buccaneers guard Tom McHale,33 former Cincinnati Bengals wide receiver Chris Henry,34 former Chicago Bears safety Dave Duerson,35 and former New England Patriots and Philadelphia Eagles running back Kevin Turner36 have all been diagnosed post-mortem with CTE Other football players diagnosed with CTE include former Buffalo Bills star running back Cookie Gilchrist37 and Wally Hilgenberg38

An autopsy conducted by Dr McKee in 2010 on the brain of Owen Thomas, a 21-year-old junior lineman at the University of Pennsylvania who died of suicide, showed early stages of CTE, making him the second youngest person to be diagnosed with the condition Thomas was the second amateur football player diagnosed with CTE; Mike Borich, who died at 42, was also diagnosed by Dr McKee39 The doctors who performed the autopsy indicated that they found no causal connection between the nascent CTE and Thomas's suicide There was no indication that Thomas missed playing time due to concussions; however, as a player who played hard and "loved to hit people", Thomas may have played through concussions and received thousands of subconcussive impacts on the brain40

In October 2010, 17-year-old Nathan Stiles died hours after his high-school homecoming football game, where he took a hit that would be the final straw in a series of subconcussive and concussive blows to the head for the highschooler The CSTE diagnosed him with CTE, making him the youngest reported CTE case to date41

In July, 2011, Colt tight-end John Mackey died after several years of deepening symptoms of frontotemporal dementia BUSM was reported to be planning to examine his brain for signs of CTE42 The CSTE found CTE in his brain post-mortem43

In 2012, retired NFL player Junior Seau died of suicide with a gunshot wound to the chest44 There was speculation that he suffered brain damage due to CTE2645464748 Seau's family donated his brain tissue to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke49 On January 10, 2013, the brain pathology report was revealed and Seau did have evidence of CTE50

On July 27, 2012, an autopsy report concluded that the former Atlanta Falcons safety Ray Easterling, who died from suicide in April 2012, had CTE5152

The NFL has taken measures to help prevent CTE As of July 2011, the NFL has changed its return-to-play rulescitation needed The number of contact practices has been reduced, based on the recent collective bargaining agreementclarification needed53

In 2012, some four thousand former NFL players "joined civil lawsuits against the League, seeking damages over the League's failure to protect players from concussions, according to Judy Battista of the New York Times"54

On August 30, 2013, the NFL reached a $765 million settlement with the former NFL players over the head injuries55 The settlement created a $675 million compensation fund from which former NFL players can collect depending on the extent of their conditions Severe conditions such as Lou Gehrig's disease and postmortem diagnosed chronic traumatic encephalopathy would be entitled to payouts as high as $5 million55 From the remainder of the settlement, $75 million will be used for medical exams, and $10 million will be used for research and education55 However, in January, 2014, US District Judge Anita B Brody refused to accept the agreed settlement because "the money wouldn't adequately compensate the nearly 20,000 men not named in the suit"56 In the settlement Brody did accept, she argued that people "cannot be compensated for CTE in life because no diagnostic or clinical profile of CTE exists, and the symptoms of the disease, if any, are unknown"16

On September 17, 2014, Patrick Risha died from suicide at the age of 32 He played football as a running back for Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts and Dartmouth University in New Hampshire After graduation from college he moved to Pittsburgh and started suffering from CTE symptoms His family started the Patrick Risha CTE Awareness Foundation, StopCTEorg to spread awareness of the disease

On April 22, 2015 a final settlement was reached between players and the NFL in the case adjudicated by Judge Brody Terms include payments to be made by the NFL for $75 million for "baseline medical exams" for retired players, $10 million for research and education, as well an uncapped amount for retirees "who can demonstrate that they suffer from one of several brain conditions covered by the agreement", with total payments expected to exceed $1 billion over 65 years57

In September 2015, researchers with the Department of Veterans Affairs and Boston University announced that they had identified CTE in 96 percent of NFL players that they had examined and in 79 percent of all football players58

On January 26, 2016, an autopsy report released by the family of former New York Giants safety Tyler Sash confirmed that Sash was suffering from CTE at the time of his death at age 27 in September 201559

On February 4, 2016, an autopsy report from Massachusetts confirmed discovered high Stage 3 chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE in Ken Stabler's brain after his death60

On March 14, 2016, the top NFL official, Jeff Miller, publicly admitted that there is a link between football and CTE at the roundtable discussion on concussions61

Heisman Trophy winner and former NFL All-Pro Bo Jackson said in a 2017 interview with USA Today that if he knew about the risks associated with CTE's, he would never have played football and discourages his children from doing so62

On July 25, 2017, the Journal of the American Medical Association released an updated study reporting that out of 111 brains of deceased former NFL players studied, 110 99% had CTE 63 This also led to players retiring very early in their career

Early retirementsedit

In the 2015 off-season, a number of NFL players retired early with concussion- and other health-risk as expressed or possible motive The youngest, in March, Chris Borland, 24, would have been entering his second year in the league after a third-round draft out of University of Wisconsin and a "stellar" rookie season with the San Francisco 49ers64 Explaining his decision to ESPN, Borland said "I just honestly want to do what's best for my health From what I've researched and what I've experienced, I don't think it's worth the risk"65

Patrick Willis, a seven-time All-Pro linebacker also with the 49ers, had previously announced that he was retiring rather than risk further injury However Willis' decision to retire has nothing to do with CTE, but rather as he explained: "You’ve seen me break my hand on Sunday, have surgery on Monday and play on Thursday with a cast on," Willis said "But there's something about these feet And those are what made me who I am They had you all saying, ‘Wow, where’d he come from’ "I know I no longer have it in these feet to go out there and give you guys that kind of ‘Wow’"66 Cornerback Cortland Finnegan of the St Louis Rams, quarterback Jake Locker of the Tennessee Titans and linebacker Jason Worilds of the Pittsburgh Steelers have all retired this off-season as well Worilds, who was paid $975 million by the Steelers in 2014, was expected to sign a big contract with another team as a free agent Borland won Rookie of the Week honors twice and was Defensive Rookie of the Month in November in 2014 He earned the league-minimum $420,000 and a bonus of $154,000, according to Overthecapcom64

ESPN noted that four of the retirees—Borland, Willis, Locker and Worilds—were under 30 years of age and that Borland had replaced Willis during the season due to a Willis toe injury and had been expected to replace him in the coming year It also recounted Borland's course of decision from a possible concussion he "played through" in training camp as he was trying to make the team to the post-season decision He said in making his decision he'd "read about Mike Webster and Dave Duerson and Ray Easterling"—two of them suicides, all, per ESPN, "diagnosed with the devastating brain disease Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, after their deaths"—and he had talked to "prominent concussion researchers and former players" after the season65

In the 2016 off-season, AJ Tarpley,67 Husain Abdullah,68 and Eugene Monroe69 all announced early retirements from the NFL, each citing concern over sustaining further head trauma as the main factor in their decision

In the 2017 off-season, John Urschel also announced early retirement from the NFL, two days after the study from AMA70

Ice hockeyedit

Athletes from other sports have also been identified as having CTE, such as hockey player Bob Probert71 Neuropathologists at Boston University diagnosed Reg Fleming as the first hockey player known to have the disease This discovery was announced in December 2009, six months after Fleming's death72

Rick Martin, best known for being part of the Buffalo Sabres' French Connection, was diagnosed with CTE after his brain was posthumously analyzed73 Martin was the first documented case of an ice hockey player not known as an enforcer to have developed CTE; Martin was believed to have developed the disease primarily as a result of a severe concussion he suffered in 1977 while not wearing a helmet The disease was low-grade and asymptomatic in his case, not affecting his cognitive functions He died of a heart attack in March 2011 at the age of 5974

Also within a few months in 2011, the deaths of three hockey "enforcers"—Derek Boogaard from a combination of too many painkillers and alcohol, Rick Rypien, an apparent suicide, and Wade Belak, who, like Rypien, had reportedly suffered from depression; and all with a record of fighting, blows to the head and concussions—led to more concerns about CTE Boogaard's brain was examined by BUSM, which in October 2011 determined the presence of CTE75 One National Hockey League player known in part for leading "the thump parade", former Boston Bruin and current Florida Panthers right winger Shawn Thornton mulled over the "tragic coincidence" of the three recent league deaths and agreed that their deaths were due to the same cause, yet still defended the role of fighting on the rink76

In 2016, Stephen Peat, then 36 years old and formerly an enforcer for the Washington Capitals during his professional career, was reported to be suffering severe symptoms of CTE His father Walter was reported to worry that his son would join the "dead before turning 50 since 2010" list of enforcers including Boogaard, Rypien, Belak, Steve Montador and Todd Ewen77

Professional wrestlingedit

In 2007, neuropathologists from the Sports Legacy Institute an organization co-founded by Christopher Nowinski, himself a former professional wrestler examined the brain of Chris Benoit, a professional wrestler with the WWE, who had apparently killed his wife and son before committing suicide The suicide and double murder were originally attributed to anabolic steroid abuse, but a brain biopsy confirmed pathognomonic CTE tissue changes: large aggregations of tau protein as manifested by neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, which cause neurodegeneration7879

In 2009, Bennet Omalu discovered CTE in recently retired wrestler Andrew "Test" Martin, who died at age 33 from an accidental medicine overdose80

On February 9, 2016, Daniel Bryan was forced to retire early due to suffering from signs of CTE and post-concussion seizures81

After their deaths in February and April 2016 respectively, former ECW wrestlers Axl Rotten and Balls Mahoney were found to have suffered from CTEcitation needed

Mixed martial artsedit

It is believed that former MMA Fighters Gary Goodridge 82and James Leahy suffer from CTE, as a result of repeated head trauma from their fighting careers Delayed onset is becoming increasingly common as with Leahy, whose symptoms developed many years post any sporting activity83

In October 2016, Dr Bennet Omalu announced that CTE had been detected in the brain of Jordan Parsons, an MMA fighter who had been killed the previous May by a drunk driver84

Association footballedit

In 2012, Patrick Grange a semi-professional footballer, was diagnosed in an autopsy with Stage 2 CTE with motor neuron disease "The fact that Patrick Grange was a prolific header is important", Christopher Nowinski, co-founder of the Sports Legacy Institute, said in an e-mail "We need a larger discussion around at what age we introduce headers, and how we set limits to exposure once it is introduced"85 Grange played football at high school; college at Illinois-Chicago and New Mexico; in the Premier Development League; for Albuquerque Asylum and Chicago Fire Premier He died of ALS at age 29 in 2012 with a posthumous diagnosis of CTE86

In 2014, Brazilian footballer Bellini was posthumously diagnosed with CTE Bellini, along with Pelé, led Brazil to FIFA World Cup victories in 1958 and 196287

West Bromwich Albion forward Jeff Astle died in January 2002 following five years of deteriorating mental health Originally diagnosed as Alzheimer's, Astle's condition was later rediagnosed as CTE In 2014 following 12 years of campaigning from his family and fans at his former club West Bromwich Albion, Jeff Astle officially became the first British footballer listed to have died as a result of heading a football The campaign was known as the 'Justice for Jeff' campaign, its awareness raised by West Bromwich Albion supporters minutes of applause on the 9th minute of every match his squad number Astle was particularly noted for his powerful heading off the ball, it is believed that this, combined with the weight of the old fashioned leather footballs contributed to his CTE


Researchers found Australian rugby union player Barry "Tizza" Taylor died in 2013 of complications of severe CTE with dementia at age 77 Taylor played for 19 years in amateur and senior leagues before becoming a coach85

In 2013, Dr Willie Stewart, Consultant Neuropathologist at the Institute of Neurological Sciences at the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow, identified CTE in the brain of a former amateur rugby player in his 50s which is believed to be the first confirmed case of early onset dementia caused by CTE in a rugby player88

Australian rules footballedit

Australian rules football player Greg Williams is thought to have CTE as a result of concussions over a 250-game career89

In March 2016 Justin Clarke of the Australian Football League AFL team the Brisbane Lions was forced to retire at just 22 years of age due to a serious concussion sustained during off-season training two months earlier90 He was the fifth AFL player in the previous ten months to retire with concussion related injuries, with Sam Blease 25 yo, Melbourne and Geelong, Leigh Adams 27 yo, North Melbourne, Matt Maguire 32 yo, Brisbane and St Kilda, and Brent Reilly 32 yo, Adelaide all having retired since May 2015 All the retirements were linked to a crackdown on head injuries by the AFL and fears of CTE associated with local and international sportspeople, especially American footballers91

Major League Baseballedit

In 2012, the brain tissue of Ryan Freel was tested after his death It was found that he had Stage 2 CTE Freel was the first Major League Baseball player to be diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy92

Extreme sportsedit

In 2016, BMX biker and extreme sport icon Dave Mirra was diagnosed post-mortem with CTE He died of suicide by gunshot on February 4, 2016, and his brain was examined by Dr Lili-Naz Hazrati of the University of Toronto, who confirmed the diagnosis93

Society and cultureedit

Notable casesedit

Professional wrestlingedit

In 2007, neuropathologists from the Sports Legacy Institute an organization co-founded by Christopher Nowinski, himself a former professional wrestler examined the brain of Chris Benoit, a professional wrestler with the WWE, who had apparently killed his wife and son before committing suicide The suicide and double murder were originally attributed to anabolic steroid abuse, but a brain biopsy confirmed pathognomonic CTE tissue changes: large aggregations of tau protein as manifested by neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads, which cause neurodegeneration7879

In 2009, Bennet Omalu discovered CTE in recently retired professional wrestler Andrew "Test" Martin, who died at age 33 from an accidental medicine overdose80

In July 2016, 53 professional wrestlers filed a suit against WWE, looking to hold the organization accountable for their "long-term neurological injuries" due to multiple concussions and CTE94

  • Andrew "Test" Martin
  • Perry Saturn
  • Balls Mahoney
  • Axl Rotten

American Footballedit

See also: List of NFL players with chronic traumatic encephalopathy

While the following list is incomplete, the list of just NFL players tops the 4500 who reached a legal settlement with the National Football League NFL in 2013 and appears on a separate page for length:

  • Cullen Finnerty95
  • Cookie Gilchrist96
  • Bobby Kuntz97
  • Jay Roberts97


  • Ryan Freel98

Action Sportsedit

  • Dave Mirra99

Popular cultureedit

On December 7, 2011, the television show Law & Order: Special Victims Unit aired the episode "Spiraling Down", which featured a character suffering from CTE

On October 8, 2013, PBS aired an episode of its Frontline documentary television series concerning CTE and the NFL100 The episode was re-aired in December 2015 with additional updated information

Concussion is a 2015 film starring Will Smith dramatizing the efforts of Bennet Omalu's fight against the NFL's efforts to suppress his research on the brain damage suffered by professional football players

House MD Season 8 Episode 16 "Gut Check"

A Gifted Man Season 1 Episode 6 "In Case of Memory Loss" A former american football star, now homeless, suffers from CTE


In 2005 forensic pathologist Bennet Omalu, along with colleagues in the Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh, published a paper, "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player", in the journal Neurosurgery, based on analysis of the brain of deceased former NFL center Mike Webster This was then followed by a paper on a second case in 2006 describing similar pathology, based on findings in the brain of former NFL player Terry Long

In 2008, the CSTE at Boston University at the BU School of Medicine started the CSTE brain bank at the Bedford VA Hospital to analyze the effects of CTE and other neurodegenerative diseases on the brain and spinal cord of athletes, military veterans, and civilians4 To date, the CSTE Brain Bank is the largest CTE tissue repository in the world5 On December 21, 2009, the National Football League Players Association announced that it would collaborate with the CSTE at the Boston University School of Medicine to support the Center's study of repetitive brain trauma in athletes101 Additionally, in 2010 the National Football League gave the CSTE a $1 million gift with no strings attached102103 In 2008, twelve living athletes active and retired, including hockey players Pat LaFontaine and Noah Welch as well as former NFL star Ted Johnson, committed to donate their brains to CSTE after their deaths25104 In 2009, NFL Pro Bowlers Matt Birk, Lofa Tatupu, and Sean Morey pledged to donate their brains to the CSTE105 In 2010, 20 more NFL players and former players pledged to join the CSTE Brain Donation Registry, including Chicago Bears linebacker Hunter Hillenmeyer, Hall of Famer Mike Haynes, Pro Bowlers Zach Thomas, Kyle Turley, and Conrad Dobler, Super Bowl Champion Don Hasselbeck and former pro players Lew Carpenter, and Todd Hendricks In 2010, Professional Wrestlers Mick Foley, Booker T and Matt Morgan also agreed to donate their brains upon their deaths Also in 2010, MLS player Taylor Twellman, who had to retire from the New England Revolution because of post-concussion symptoms, agreed to donate his brain upon his death As of 2010, the CSTE Brain Donation Registry consists of over 250 current and former athletes106 In 2011, former North Queensland Cowboys player Shaun Valentine became the first rugby player to agree to donate his brain upon his death, in response to recent concerns about the effects of concussions on Rugby League players, who do not use helmets Also in 2011, boxer Micky Ward, whose career inspired the film The Fighter, agreed to donate his brain upon his death

In related research, the Center for the Study of Retired Athletes, which is part of the Department of Exercise and Sport Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is conducting research funded by National Football League Charities to "study former football players, a population with a high prevalence of exposure to prior Mild Traumatic Brain Injury MTBI and sub-concussive impacts, in order to investigate the association between increased football exposure and recurrent MTBI and neurodegenerative disorders such as cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease AD"107

In February 2011, Dave Duerson committed suicide,48 leaving text messages to loved ones asking that his brain be donated to research for CTE108 The family got in touch with representatives of the Boston University center studying the condition, said Robert Stern, the co-director of the research group Stern said Duerson's was the first time he was aware of that such a request had been left by a suicide potentially linked to CTE109 Stern and his colleagues found high levels of the protein tau in Duerson's brain These elevated levels, which were abnormally clumped and pooled along the brain sulci,4 are indicative of CTE35

In July 2010, NHL enforcer Bob Probert died of heart failure Before his death, he asked his wife to donate his brain to CTE research because it was noticed that Probert experienced a mental decline in his 40s In March 2011, researchers at Boston University concluded that Probert had CTE upon analysis of the brain tissue he donated He is the second NHL player from the program at the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy to be diagnosed with CTE postmortem110

BUSM has also found indications of links between Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS and CTE in athletes who have participated in contact sports Tissue for the study was donated by twelve athletes and their families to the CSTE Brain Bank at the Bedford, Massachusetts VA Medical Center111

In 2013, President Barack Obama announced the creation of the Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium or CENC, a federally funded research project devised to address the long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury in military service personnel SM's and Veterans112113114 The CENC is a multi-center collaboration linking premiere basic science, translational, and clinical neuroscience researchers from the DoD, VA, academic universities, and private research institutes to effectively address the scientific, diagnostic, and therapeutic ramifications of mild TBI and its long-term effects115116117118119 Nearly 20% of the more than 25 million US Service Members SMs deployed since 2003 to Operation Enduring Freedom OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom OIF have sustained at least one traumatic brain injury TBI, predominantly mild TBI mTBI,120121 and almost 8% of all OEF/OIF Veterans demonstrate persistent post-TBI symptoms more than six months post-injury122123 Unlike those head injuries incurred in most sporting events, recent military head injuries are most often the result of blast wave exposurecitation needed After a competitive application process, a consortium led by Virginia Commonwealth University was awarded funding115116117118124125 The project principal investigator for the CENC is David Cifu, Chairman and Herman J Flax professor126 of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PM&R at Virginia Commonwealth University VCU in Richmond, Virginia, with co-principal investigators Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Professor of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences,118 and Rick L Williams, statistician at RTI International

Some researchers have argued that prospective longitudinal studies, following subjects over time, are needed to more completely understand the causes and progression of CTE 127

As of September 2015, the CSTE had diagnosed CTE in 96% of NFL players analyzed in postmortem brain studies128


  1. ^ Toporek, Bryan "New: High School Football Can Lead to Long-Term Brain Damage, Study Says" Education Week Retrieved 6 December 2012 
  2. ^ a b c McKee AC, Cantu RC, Nowinski CJ, Hedley-Whyte ET, Gavett BE, Budson AE, Santini VE, Lee HS, Kubilus CA, Stern RA 2009 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury" J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68 7: 709–35 PMC 2945234  PMID 19535999 doi:101097/NEN0b013e3181a9d503 
  3. ^ Corsellis; et al 1973 "The Aftermath of Boxing" Psychological Medicine 3 3: 270–303 PMID 4729191 doi:101017/S0033291700049588 
  4. ^ a b c d McKee AC, Stern RA, Nowinski CJ, Stein TD, Alvarez VE, Daneshvar DH, Lee HS, Wojtowicz SM, Hall G, Baugh CM, Riley DO, Kubilus CA, Cormier KA, Jacobs MA, Martin BR, Abraham CR, Ikezu T, Reichard RR, Wolozin BL, Budson AE, Goldstein LE, Kowall NW, Cantu RC 2013 "The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy" Brain 136 Pt 1: 43–64 PMC 3624697  PMID 23208308 doi:101093/brain/aws307 
  5. ^ a b c d e Baugh CM, Stamm JM, Riley DO, Gavett BE, Shenton ME, Lin A, Nowinski CJ, Cantu RC, McKee AC, Stern RA 2012 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: neurodegeneration following repetitive concussive and subconcussive brain trauma" Brain Imaging Behav 6 2: 244–254 PMID 22552850 doi:101007/s11682-012-9164-5 
  6. ^ Jancin, Bruce 1 June 2011 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy test sought" Internal Medicine News Retrieved 15 December 2013 
  7. ^ Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C 2014 "Exosome platform for diagnosis and monitoring of traumatic brain injury" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 369 1652: 20130503 PMC 4142024  PMID 25135964 doi:101098/rstb20130503 
  8. ^ Omalu; et al 2010 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, suicides and parasuicides in professional American athletes: the role of the forensic pathologist" Am J Forensic Med Pathol 31 2: 130–132 PMID 20032774 doi:101097/PAF0b013e3181ca7f35 
  9. ^ Poirier MP 2003 "Concussions: Assessment, management, and recommendations for return to activity" Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine 4 3: 179–85 doi:101016/S1522-84010300061-2 
  10. ^ Villemagne VL, Fodero-Tavoletti MT, Masters CL, Rowe CC 2015 "Tau imaging: early progress and future directions" The Lancet Neurology 14 1: 114–24 PMID 25496902 doi:101016/S1474-44221470252-2 
  11. ^ Small GW, Kepe V, Siddarth P, Ercoli LM, Merrill DA, Donoghue N, Bookheimer SY, Martinez J, Omalu B, Bailes J, Barrio JR 2013 "PET scanning of brain tau in retired national football league players: preliminary findings" Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 21 2: 138–144 PMID 23343487 doi:101016/jjagp201211019 
  12. ^ a b Montenigro PH, Corp DT, Stein TD, Cantu RC, Stern RA 2015 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: historical origins and current perspective" Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 11: 309–330 PMID 25581233 doi:101146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112814 
  13. ^ John Mangels, Cleveland Plain Dealer, 2013/03
  14. ^ Marchi N, Bazarian JJ, Puvenna V, Janigro M, Ghosh C, Zhong J, Zhu T, Blackman E, Stewart D, Ellis J, Butler R, Janigro D 2013 "Consequences of repeated blood-brain barrier disruption in football players" PLoS ONE 8 3: e56805 PMC 3590196  PMID 23483891 doi:101371/journalpone0056805 
  15. ^ "Robert A Stern, PhD" bio, BU CTE Center Retrieved 2015-08-11
  16. ^ a b Nocera, Joe, "NFL's Bogus Settlement for Brain-Damaged Former Players" op-ed column, New York Times, August 11, 2015 Retrieved 2015-08-11
  17. ^ Goldstein LE, Fisher AM, Tagge CA, Zhang XL, Velisek L, Sullivan JA, Upreti C, Kracht JM, Ericsson M, Wojnarowicz MW, Goletiani CJ, Maglakelidze GM, Casey N, Moncaster JA, Minaeva O, Moir RD, Nowinski CJ, Stern RA, Cantù RC, Geiling J, Blusztajn JK, Wolozin BL, Ikezu T, Stein TD, Budson AE, Kowall NW, Chargin D, Sharon A, Saman S, Hall GF, Moss WC, Cleveland RO, Tanzi RE, Stanton PK, McKee AC 2012 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model" Sci Transl Med 4 134: 134ra60 PMC 3739428  PMID 22593173 doi:101126/scitranslmed3003716 
  18. ^ Saulle M, Greenwald BD 2012 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a review" PDF Rehabil Res Pract 2012: 1–9 PMC 3337491  PMID 22567320 doi:101155/2012/816069 
  19. ^ a b Stone, Paul March 18, 2014 "First Soccer and Rugby Players Diagnosed With CTE" Neurologic Rehabilitation Institute at Brookhaven Hospital Retrieved March 21, 2016 
  20. ^ Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Cantu RC 2011 "The epidemiology of sport-related concussion" Clin Sports Med 30 1: 1–17, vii PMC 2987636  PMID 21074078 doi:101016/jcsm201008006 
  21. ^ Daneshvar DH, Riley DO, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Stern RA, Cantu RC 2011 "Long-term consequences: effects on normal development profile after concussion" Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 22 4: 683–700, ix PMC 3208826  PMID 22050943 doi:101016/jpmr201108009 
  22. ^ "‘Concussion’ Subject Bennet Omalu Exaggerated His Role, Researchers Say" CBS New York December 17, 2015
  23. ^ Martland H 1928 "Punch Drunk" The Journal of the American Medical Association 91 15: 1103–1107 doi:101001/jama192802700150029009 
  24. ^ Gavett BE, Stern RA, McKee AC 2011 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late effect of sport-related concussive and subconcussive head trauma" Clin Sports Med 30: 179–88, xi PMC 2995699  PMID 21074091 doi:101016/jcsm201009007 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  25. ^ a b "New pathology findings show significant brain degeneration in professional athletes with history of repetitive concussions", Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, September 25, 2008
  26. ^ a b c "Seau family revisiting brain decision" ESPNcom May 6, 2012 Archived from the original on May 6, 2012 
  27. ^ a b c "Our Team" Brain Injury Research Institute Archived from the original on 2011-06-07 
  28. ^ Gavett BE, Stern RA, McKee AC 2011 "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late effect of sport-related concussive and subconcussive head trauma" Clin Sports Med 30 1: 179–188, xi PMC 2995699  PMID 21074091 doi:101016/jcsm201009007 
  29. ^ "OTL: Belcher's brain had CTE signs" ESPNcom 
  30. ^ "Case Studies » CTE Center | Boston University" wwwbuedu Retrieved 2016-11-04 
  31. ^ Case Study: Lou Creekmur, Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy Accessed August 17, 2010
  32. ^ Case Study: John Grimsley, Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy Accessed August 17, 2010
  33. ^ Case Study: Thomas McHale, Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy Accessed August 17, 2010
  34. ^ Schwarz, Alan June 28, 2010 "Former Bengal Henry Found to Have Had Brain Damage" The New York Times Retrieved October 19, 2010 
  35. ^ a b Deardorff, Julie May 2, 2011 "Study: Duerson had brain damage at time of suicide" Los Angeles Times Retrieved May 2, 2011 dead link
  36. ^ "Former NFL player Kevin Turner diagnosed with CTE" 
  37. ^ Gaughan, Mark November 6, 2011 Gilchrist had severe damage to brain Archived November 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine The Buffalo News Retrieved November 6, 2011
  38. ^ Gladwell, Malcolm October 18, 2009 "Offensive Play" The New Yorker 
  39. ^ Staff "First former college football player diagnosed with CTE: Former Brigham Young University Football Coach Died at 42", Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, October 22, 2009 Accessed October 19, 2010
  40. ^ Schwarz, Alan "Suicide Reveals Signs of a Disease Seen in NFL", The New York Times, September 13, 2010 Accessed September 14, 2010
  41. ^ "Brain Bank examines athletes' hard hits" CNNcom 27 Jan 2012 Retrieved 3 May 2012 
  42. ^ Cowherd, Kevin, "Mackey leaves enduring legacy on and off field", Baltimore Sun, July 07, 2011 Retrieved 2011-09-11
  43. ^ "Study: new cases of CTE in players" ESPNcom 3 Dec 2012 Retrieved 3 May 2012 
  44. ^ Duke, Alan; Chelsea J Carter 3 May 2012 "Junior Seau's death classified as a suicide" CNNcom Retrieved 3 May 2012 
  45. ^ Duke, Alan; Chelsea J Carter "Doctors to examine Junior Seau's brain" CNN Retrieved 4 May 2012 
  46. ^ Given, Karen May 12, 2012 "Researchers Compete For Athletes' Brains" wburorg Archived from the original on May 25, 2012 
  47. ^ Farmer, Sam May 3, 2012 "Family of Junior Seau will allow his brain to be studied" Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on May 4, 2012 
  48. ^ a b Smith, Michael David, "Boston researchers request Junior Seau's brain" NBC Sports Pro Football Talk, May 3, 2012 Retrieved 2012-05-03
  49. ^ Lavelle, Janet July 12, 2012 "Seau brain tissue donated for research" U-T San Diego Archived from the original on July 12, 2012 
  50. ^ Wilner, Barry January 10, 2013 "NFL's Junior Seau had brain disease CTE when he killed himself" The Washington Times 
  51. ^ "Autopsy: Former Falcons safety Ray Easterling had brain disease associated with concussions", CBS/AP, July 27, 2012
  52. ^ "Ray Easterling autopsy found signs of brain disease CTE", New York Times, July 27, 2012
  53. ^ "Even high school practices will be tougher than NFL workouts" NFLcom 24 July 2011 
  54. ^ Coll, Steve, "Is Chaos a Friend of the NFL", The New Yorker, December 26, 2012 Citing the Times Retrieved 2012-12-27
  55. ^ a b c Connor, Tracy 30 August 2013 "NFL and players reach $765 million settlement over head injuries" US News Retrieved 15 December 2013 
  56. ^ "Judge scuttles NFL's $760M concussion settlement", MarketWatch citing NBC10 Philadelphia, January 14, 2014 Retrieved 2014-01-15
  57. ^ Breslow, Jason M "NFL Concussion Settlement Wins Final Approval from Judge" pbsorg PBS Retrieved 25 December 2015 
  58. ^ Breslow, Jason "New: 87 Deceased NFL Players Test Positive for Brain Disease" Frontline Retrieved 9 January 2016 
  59. ^ Pennington, Bill January 26, 2016 "Former Giants Safety Found To Have CTE" New York Times Retrieved January 26, 2016 
  60. ^ "Raiders great Ken Stabler had Stage 3 chronic traumatic encephalopathy" CBSSportscom Retrieved 2016-02-07 
  61. ^ Fainaru, Steve March 15, 2016 "Top NFL official acknowledges, for the first time, link between football, brain disease" Retrieved May 1, 2016 
  62. ^ Nightengale, Bob January 12, 2017 "Bo Jackson's startling hindsight: 'I would have never played football'" USA Today Gannett Company Retrieved January 13, 2017 
  63. ^ "Study: CTE Found In Nearly All Donated NFL Player Brains" nprorg Retrieved 2017-07-25 
  64. ^ a b Belson, Ken, "49ers’ Chris Borland, a Top NFL Rookie, Will Retire Because of Safety Concerns", New York Times, March 17, 2015 Cited in the article: "49ers LB Chris Borland to Retire from NFL" from the 49ers website The 49ers post gave Borland's NFL and college stats, including: "Borland 5-11, 248 was the second of the 49ers three, third-round draft picks 77th overall in the 2014 NFL Draft out of the University of Wisconsin In his only season with the 49ers, Borland appeared in 14 games eight starts and registered a team-high 128 tackles, two interceptions, one sack and one fumble recovery Borland finished his playing career at Wisconsin ranked 6th all-time in total tackles 420, 4th in tackles for loss 50 and tied for 8th in sacks 170 He played in 55 games 48 starts for the Badgers and also registered 18 passes defensed, 15 forced fumbles, eight fumble recoveries and three interceptions" Retrieved 2015-03-17
  65. ^ a b Fainaru-Wada, Mark, and Steve Fainaru, "SF's Borland quits over safety issues", ESPNcom, updated March 17, 2015 Retrieved 2015-03-17
  66. ^ Emerick, Tyler "Patrick Willis Explains Decision to Retire from NFL" 
  67. ^ Tarpley, AJ April 12, 2016 "AJ Tarpley: Why I Walked Away from Football at 23" Sports Illustrated The MMBQ Retrieved July 24, 2016 
  68. ^ Abdullah, Husain April 18, 2016 "The Right Decision" The Players' Tribune Retrieved July 24, 2016 
  69. ^ Monroe, Eugene July 21, 2016 "Leaving the Game I Love" The Players' Tribune Retrieved July 24, 2016 
  70. ^ "John Urschel tells Ravens he's retiring from NFL" NFLcom Retrieved 2017-07-28 
  71. ^ Schwarz, Alan 2011-03-02 "Hockey Enforcer Bob Probert Paid a Price, With Brain Trauma" wwwnytimescom Retrieved 2011-03-02 
  72. ^ Schwarz, Alan; Klein, Jeff Z December 18, 2009 "Brain Damage Found in Hockey Player" The New York Times 
  73. ^ Klein, Jeff Z October 5, 2011 "Former Star Had Disease Linked to Brain Trauma" New York Times 
  74. ^ Golen, Jimmy October 5, 2011 Brain study finds damage in Rick Martin Archived October 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Associated Press Retrieved October 5, 2011
  75. ^ "Derek Boogard – A Brain 'Going Bad'", New York Times, Dec 5, 2011 10:05 AM ET Part 3 of a three-part series chronicling Boogard's life and the posthumous research on his brain Retrieved 2011-12-05
  76. ^ Shinzawa, Fluto, "Grind of the enforcer difficult to fight through", Boston Globe, September 11, 2011 Retrieved 2011-09-11
  77. ^ Branch, John, "After a Life of Punches, Ex-NHL Enforcer Is a Threat to Himself", New York Times, June 1, 2016 Retrieved 2016-06-01
  78. ^ a b Tagami Ty 2010-10-16 "Chris Benoit's father: Murderous rampage resulted from brain damage, not steroids" Atlantic Journal Constitution Archived from the original on 2010-10-19 Retrieved 2010-10-18 
  79. ^ a b Sports Legacy Institute 2007-09-05 "Wrestler Chris Benoit Brain's Forensic Exam Consistent With Numerous Brain Injuries" ScienceDaily Retrieved 2012-04-30 
  80. ^ a b Garber, Greg 2009-12-08 "Andrew 'Test' Martin suffered from postconcussion brain damage, researchers say" ESPN Retrieved 2009-12-09 
  81. ^ "Daniel Bryan on concussions: You have a responsibility to yourself – ESPN Video" ESPNcom Retrieved 2016-02-11 
  82. ^ TheMontageKing MMA 2017-01-26, Most Concussed MMA Fighters, retrieved 2017-04-01 
  83. ^ Fowlkes, Ben, "Gary Goodridge, former MMA fighter and kickboxer, offers cautionary tale", Sports Illustrated, March 15, 2012 Accessed December 21, 2015
  84. ^ Hohler, Bob "First case of CTE diagnosed in MMA fighter", The Boston Globe, October 21, 2016 Accessed October 30, 2016 "He was only 25, but Jordan Parsons was a cage fighter, a professional mixed martial artist who on his best nights beat his opponents into submission On his worst nights, Parsons was sent spiraling to the canvas by devastating blows to his head Now, six months after he was struck and killed as a pedestrian by an alleged drunken driver, Parsons is the first fighter in the multibillion-dollar MMA industry to be publicly identified as having been diagnosed with the degenerative brain disease known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTE"
  85. ^ a b "First soccer, rugby players diagnosed with CTE", editioncnncom, 2014/02/28
  86. ^ Branch, John, "Brain Trauma Extends to the Soccer Field", The New York Times, February 26, 2014 Accessed February 26, 2014
  87. ^ washingtonpostcom, 2014/09/23
  88. ^ BBC News "Rugby 'linked to early onset dementia'", BBC News', August 3, 2013
  89. ^ Sheehan, Paul, "Concussion a concern from elite to schools", The Sydney Morning Herald, February 27, 2013 Accessed December 20, 2015
  90. ^ "Brisbane Lions defender Justin Clarke quits AFL at 22, after training accident leaves him with serious concussion and memory issues" ABC News Australian Broadcasting Corporation 31 March 2016 Retrieved 27 June 2016 
  91. ^ Ralph, Jon 1 April 2016 "Justin Clarke becomes the fifth player to retire because of concussion as player manager Peter Jess calls for blindside tackle ban" Herald Sun News Corp Australia Retrieved 27 June 2016 
  92. ^ "First Major League Baseball player diagnosed with CTE", editioncnncom, 2013/12/15
  93. ^ Kounang, Nadia May 25, 2016 "Late BMX biker Dave Mirra had CTE" CNN Retrieved May 25, 2016 
  94. ^ Machkovech, Sam 19 July 2016 "53 wrestlers file class-action civil suit against WWE over concussions, CTE" Ars Technica Retrieved 20 July 2016 
  95. ^ Conway, Tyler, "Autopsy of Former Ravens Quarterback Cullen Finnerty Reveals CTE", bleacherreportcom, August 8, 2013 Retrieved 2015-12-20
  96. ^ Gola, Hank "Ex-cop pens Cookie Gilchrist bio" New York Daily News Archived from the original on 30 January 2013 Retrieved 8 September 2012 
  97. ^ a b "Bobby Kuntz And Jay Roberts, Former CFL Players, Test Results Show They Had Brain Disease" Huffington Post CP 2011-07-26 Retrieved 2015-12-20 
  98. ^ Snyder, Matt "Report: Ryan Freel was suffering from CTE at time of death" CBSSportscom Retrieved 15 December 2013 
  99. ^ Ley, Tom "report: BMX Star Dave Mirra Had CTE When He Committed Suicide" deadspincom Retrieved 25 May 2016 
  100. ^ "League of Denial: The NFL's Concussion Crisis" PBS Retrieved 25 December 2015 
  101. ^ Staff "NFL Players Association to Support Brain Trauma Research at Boston University", Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy press release dated December 21, 2009 Accessed August 17, 2010
  102. ^ Support and Funding Archived July 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy Accessed August 17, 2010
  103. ^ Schwarz, Alan "NFL Donates $1 Million for Brain Studies", The New York Times, April 20, 2010 Accessed August 17, 2010
  104. ^ "Welch to donate brain for concussion study" Edmonton Journal Archived from the original on 2010-10-06 Retrieved 2008-12-18 
  105. ^ Staff "Three active NFL Pro Bowl players to donate brains to research", Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy press release dated September 14, 2009 Accessed August 17, 2010
  106. ^ Staff "20 more NFL stars to donate brains to research", Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy press release dated February 1, 2010 Accessed August 17, 2010
  107. ^ "A Study on the Association Between Football Exposure and Dementia in Retired Football Players" UNC College of Arts and Sciences 
  108. ^ Kusinski, Peggy 2011-02-19 "Dave Duerson Committed Suicide: Medical Examiner" NBC Chicago Retrieved 2011-02-20 
  109. ^ Schwarz, Alan February 20, 2011 "Before Suicide, Duerson Asked for Brain Study" The New York Times 
  110. ^ Schwarz, Alan March 2, 2011 "Hockey Brawler Paid Price, With Brain Trauma" The New York Times Retrieved March 14, 2011 
  111. ^ "Researchers Discover Brain Trauma in Sports May Cause a New Disease That Mimics ALS", BUSM press release, August 17th, 2010 3:41 pm Retrieved 2011-09-11
  112. ^ Jordan, Bryant August 12, 2013 "Obama Introduces New PTSD and Education Programs" militarycom Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  113. ^ "Obama administration to research TBI, PTSD in new efforts Read more: Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium" fiercegovernmentcom Archived from the original on 2 May 2014 Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  114. ^ "DoD, VA Establish Two Multi-Institutional Consortia to Research PTSD and TBI" vagov Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  115. ^ a b "Fact Sheet: Largest federal grant in VCU's history" spectrumvcuedu Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  116. ^ a b "VCU to lead major study of concussions" grpvacom Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  117. ^ a b "Brain trust - the US consortia tacking military PTSD and brain injury" army-technologycom Retrieved 2 May 2014 unreliable source
  118. ^ a b c "DOD partners to combat brain injury" armymil Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  119. ^ "RTI to research mild traumatic brain injury effects in US soldiers" army-technologycom Retrieved 2 May 2014 unreliable source
  120. ^ Warden D Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars J Head Trauma Rehabil 2006; 21 5: 398-402
  121. ^ "DoD Worldwide Numbers for TBI" dvbicdcoemil Retrieved 4 Feb 2013 
  122. ^ Scholten JD, Sayer NA, Vanderploeg RD, Bidelspach DE, Cifu DX 2012 "Analysis of US Veterans Health Administration comprehensive evaluations for traumatic brain injury in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans" Brain Inj 26 10: 1177–1184 PMID 22646489 doi:103109/026990522012661914 
  123. ^ Taylor BC, Hagel EM, Carlson KF, Cifu DX, Cutting A, Bidelspach DE, Sayer NA 2012 "Prevalence and costs of co-occurring traumatic brain injury with and without psychiatric disturbance and pain among Afghanistan and Iraq War Veteran VA users" Med Care 50 4: 342–346 PMID 22228249 doi:101097/MLR0b013e318245a558 
  124. ^ "Fact Sheet: The Obama Administration’s Work to Honor Our Military Families and Veterans" whitehousegov Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  125. ^ "Fact Sheet: VCU will lead $62 million study of traumatic brain injuries in military personnel" newsvcuedu Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  126. ^ About Us Archived December 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University Retrieved 2015-12-21
  127. ^ McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Kutcher JS, Jordan BD, Gardner A 2013 "What is the evidence for chronic concussion-related changes in retired athletes: behavioral, pathological and clinical outcomes" Br J Sports Med 47 5: 327–330 PMID 23479493 doi:101136/bjsports-2013-092248 
  128. ^ "CTE prevalent in deceased players, study shows" ESPN 2015-10-15 Retrieved 2016-01-03 

External linksedit

  • McGrath, Ben, "The NFL and the concussion crisis", The New Yorker, January 31, 2011 Includes an account of The New York Times' and Alan Schwarz's editorial focus on CTE
  • Jahnke, Art, "Looking For Trouble", Bostonia, Fall 2012
  • Ward Joe, Williams Josh, Manchester Sam, "110 NFL Brains", The New York Times, July 25, 2017
  • Interview with Dr Janigro on S100B in football players
  • sciencedailycom, 2013/03
  • "Concussion blood test"dead link, sportsinjuryhandbookcom
  • "Retired NFL players lose brain function", livesciencecom
  • PBS Frontline, "League of Denial", October 9, 2013
  • League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth by Mark Fainaru-Wada and Steve Fainaru

chronic traumatic encephalopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (cte), chronic traumatic encephalopathy brain, chronic traumatic encephalopathy diagnosis, chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a national football league player, chronic traumatic encephalopathy meaning, chronic traumatic encephalopathy nfl, chronic traumatic encephalopathy pronunciation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy research, chronic traumatic encephalopathy symptoms

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy Information about

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

  • user icon

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy beatiful post thanks!


Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy viewing the topic.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy what, Chronic traumatic encephalopathy who, Chronic traumatic encephalopathy explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts



A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...
Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...

Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...