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Chromosome 2

chromosome 21, chromosome 23
Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans People normally have two copies of this chromosome Chromosome 2 is the second-largest human chromosome, spanning more than 242 million base pairs[5] the building material of DNA and representing almost 8% of the total DNA in human cells

Chromosome 2 contains the HOXD homeobox gene cluster[6]

Contents

  • 1 Evolution
  • 2 Genes
    • 21 Number of genes
    • 22 List of genes
      • 221 p-arm
      • 222 q-arm
  • 3 Related disorders and traits
  • 4 Cytogenetic band
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Evolution

Further information: Chimpanzee genome project

All members of Hominidae except humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans have 24 pairs of chromosomes[7] Humans have only 23 pairs of chromosomes Human chromosome 2 is a result of an end-to-end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes[8][9]

The evidence for this includes:

  • The correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes The closest human relative, the chimpanzee, has near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two separate chromosomes The same is true of the more distant gorilla and orangutan[10][11]
  • The presence of a vestigial centromere Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere in the q213–q221 region[12]
  • The presence of vestigial telomeres These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the q13 band, far from either end of the chromosome[13]

According to researcher Jacob W Ijdo, "We conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c81 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2"[13]

Genes

Number of genes

The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 2 Because researchers use different approaches to genome annotation their predictions of the number of genes on each chromosome vary for technical details, see gene prediction Among various projects, the collaborative consensus coding sequence project CCDS takes an extremely conservative strategy So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes[14]

Estimated by Protein-coding genes Non-coding RNA genes Pseudogenes Source Release date
CCDS 1,194 - - [2] 2016-09-08
HGNC 1,196 450 931 [15] 2017-05-12
Ensembl 1,292 1,598 1,029 [16] 2017-03-29
UniProt 1,274 - - [17] 2018-02-28
NCBI 1,281 1,446 1,207 [18][19][20] 2017-05-19

List of genes

See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 2

The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 2 For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right

p-arm

Partial list of the genes located on p-arm short arm of human chromosome 2:

  • ACTR2: encoding protein Actin-related protein 2
  • ADI1: encoding enzyme 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene dioxygenase
  • AFF3: encoding protein AF4/FMR2 family member 3
  • AFTPH: encoding protein Aftiphilin
  • ALMS1
  • ABCG5 and ABCG8: ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, members 5 and 8
  • C2orf18: encoding protein Transmembrane protein C2orf18
  • C2orf28: encoding protein Apoptosis-related protein 3
  • CAPG: capping acting protein
  • CCDC142: Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 142
  • CTLA4: cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4
  • DHX57: DExH-box helicase 57
  • DPYSL5: Dihydropyrimidinase like 5
  • ERLEC1: Endoplasmic reticulum lectin 1
  • EVA1A: encoding protein Eva-1 homolog A C elegans
  • FAM49A: Family with sequence similarity 49 member A
  • FAM98A: Family with sequence similarity 98 member A
  • FAM136A: Family with sequence similarity 136 member A
  • FBXO11: F-box protein 11
  • GEN1 encoding protein GEN1, Holliday junction 5' flap endonuclease
  • GFPT1: glutamine—fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1
  • GKN1: gastrokine 1
  • GPATCH11: G-patch domain containing protein 11
  • GTF2A1L: General transcription factor IIA subunit 1 like
  • HADHA: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase trifunctional protein, alpha subunit
  • HADHB: hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A thiolase/enoyl-Coenzyme A hydratase trifunctional protein, beta subunit
  • HSPC159: Galectin-related protein
  • LEPQTL1: Leptin, serum levels of
  • MEMO1: Mediator of cell motility 1
  • MPHOSPH10: M-phase phosphoprotein 10
  • MSH2: mutS homolog 2, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 1 E coli
  • MSH6: mutS homolog 6 E coli
  • MTHFD2: Bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase, mitochondrial
  • MTIF2: mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2
  • NRBP1: Nuclear receptor-binding protein 1
  • ODC1: Ornithine decarboxylase
  • OTOF: otoferlin
  • PARK3 encoding protein Parkinson disease 3 autosomal dominant, Lewy body
  • PCYOX1: prenylcysteine oxidase 1
  • PELI1: Ubiquitin ligase
  • PLGLB2: Plasminogen-related protein B
  • POLR1A: DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1
  • PREPL: Prolyl endopeptidase-like
  • PXDN: Peroxidasin homolog
  • QPCT: Glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase
  • RETSAT: All-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase
  • SH3YL1: SH3 and SYLF domain-containing 1
  • TGOLN2: Trans-Golgi network integral membrane protein 2
  • THADA: encoding protein Thyroid adenoma associated
  • TIA1: TIA1 cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein
  • TMEM150: Transmembrane protein 150A
  • TP53I3: Putative quinone oxidoreducatse
  • TPO: thyroid peroxidase
  • TTC7A: familial multiple intestinal atresia
  • WBP1: WW domain-binding protein 1
  • WDR35 IFT121: TULP4: intraflagellar transport 121

q-arm

Partial list of the genes located on q-arm long arm of human chromosome 2:

  • ABCA12: ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A ABC1, member 12
  • ACTR1B: encoding protein Beta-centractin
  • AGXT: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase oxalosis I; hyperoxaluria I; glycolicaciduria; serine-pyruvate aminotransferase
  • ALS2: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 juvenile
  • ALS2CR8: encoding protein Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 chromosomal region candidate gene 8 protein also known as calcium-response factor CaRF
  • ARMC9: encoding protein LisH domain-containing protein ARMC9
  • B3GNT7: encoding protein UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 7
  • BMPR2: bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II serine/threonine kinase
  • CCDC88A: Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 88A
  • CCDC93: Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 93
  • CCDC138: Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 138
  • CDCA7: Cell division cycle associated protein 1
  • CHPF: Chondroitin sulfate synthase 2
  • COL3A1: collagen, type III, alpha 1 Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, autosomal dominant
  • COL4A3: collagen, type IV, alpha 3 Goodpasture antigen
  • COL4A4: collagen, type IV, alpha 4
  • COL5A2: collagen, type V, alpha 2
  • DIS3L2: DIS3 mitotic control homolog-like 2
  • ECEL1: Endothelin converting enzyme like 1
  • EPC2: Enhancer of polycomb homolog 2
  • EPB41L5: encoding protein Erythrocyte membrane protein band 41 like 5
  • ERICH2: encoding protein Glutamate rich protein 2
  • FASTKD1: FAST kinase domain-containing protein 1
  • IMP4: U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein
  • INPP1: Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase
  • INPP4A: inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type A
  • ITM2C: Integral membrane protein 2C
  • KANSL3: KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 3
  • KIAA1211L: Uncharacterized Protein KIAA1211- Like
  • LANCL1: LanC like 1
  • MALL: MAL-like protein
  • MGAT5: mannosyl alpha-1,6--glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase
  • NABP1: Nucleic acid binding protein 1
  • NEURL3: encoding protein Neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3
  • NCL: Nucleolin
  • NR4A2: nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2
  • OLA1: Obg-like ATPase 1
  • PARD3B encoding protein Partitioning defective 3 homolog B
  • PAX3: paired box gene 3 Waardenburg syndrome 1
  • PAX8: paired box gene 8
  • POLR1B: DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA2
  • PRR21: Proline-rich protein 21
  • PRSS56: Putative serine protease 56
  • RIF1: replication timing regulatory factor 1
  • RNU4ATAC: RNA, U4atac small nuclear U12-dependent splicing
  • RPL37A: encoding protein 60S ribosomal protein L37a
  • SATB2: Homeobox 2
  • SDPR: Serum deprivation-response protein
  • SGOL2: Shugoshin-like 2
  • SH3BP4: SH3 domain-binding protein 4
  • SLC9A4: solute carrier family 9 member A4
  • SLC40A1: solute carrier family 40 iron-regulated transporter, member 1
  • SMPD4: Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4
  • SP140: encoding protein SP140 nuclear body protein
  • SPATS2L: spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2-like protein
  • SSB: Sjogren syndrome antigen B
  • SSFA2: Sperm-specific antigen 2
  • TBR1: T-box, brain, 1
  • THAP4: THAP domain-containing protein 4
  • TMBIM1: Transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif-containing protein 1
  • TNRC15: PERQ amino acid-rich with GYF domain-containing protein 2
  • TSGA10 encoding protein Testis specific 10
  • TTN: titin
  • UBXD2: UBX domain-containing protein 4
  • UXS1: UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 1
  • XIRP2: Xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2
  • ZNF142: zinc finger protein 142

Related disorders and traits

The following diseases and traits are related to genes located on chromosome 2:

  • 2p15-161 microdeletion syndrome
  • Autism[21]
  • Alport syndrome
  • Alström syndrome
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Crigler-Najjar types I/II
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies
  • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome
  • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, classical type
  • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, vascular type
  • Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
  • Gilbert's syndrome
  • Harlequin type ichthyosis
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Hemochromatosis type 4
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
  • Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis
  • Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis
  • Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 6
  • Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Nonsyndromic deafness
  • Primary hyperoxaluria
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension
  • Sitosterolemia knockout of either ABCG5 or ABCG8
  • Sensenbrenner syndrome
  • Synesthesia
  • Waardenburg syndrome

Cytogenetic band

G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 2G-banding ideogram of human chromosome 2 in resolution 850 bphs Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers eg Ensembl, UCSC Genome BrowserG-banding patterns of human chromosome 2 in three different resolutions 400,[22] 550[23] and 850[4] Band length in this diagram is based on the ideograms from ISCN 2013[24] This type of ideogram represents actual relative band length observed under a microscope at the different moments during the mitotic process[25] G-bands of human chromosome 2 in resolution 850 bphs[4]
Chr Arm[26] Band[27] ISCN
start[28]
ISCN
stop[28]
Basepair
start
Basepair
stop
Stain[29] Density
2 p 253 0 388 7000100000000000000♠1 7006440000000000000♠4,400,000 gneg
2 p 252 388 566 7006440000100000000♠4,400,001 7006690000000000000♠6,900,000 gpos 50
2 p 251 566 954 7006690000100000000♠6,900,001 7007120000000000000♠12,000,000 gneg
2 p 243 954 1193 7007120000010000000♠12,000,001 7007165000000000000♠16,500,000 gpos 75
2 p 242 1193 1312 7007165000010000000♠16,500,001 7007190000000000000♠19,000,000 gneg
2 p 241 1312 1565 7007190000010000000♠19,000,001 7007238000000000000♠23,800,000 gpos 75
2 p 233 1565 1789 7007238000010000000♠23,800,001 7007277000000000000♠27,700,000 gneg
2 p 232 1789 1908 7007277000010000000♠27,700,001 7007298000000000000♠29,800,000 gpos 25
2 p 231 1908 2027 7007298000010000000♠29,800,001 7007318000000000000♠31,800,000 gneg
2 p 223 2027 2296 7007318000010000000♠31,800,001 7007363000000000000♠36,300,000 gpos 75
2 p 222 2296 2415 7007363000010000000♠36,300,001 7007383000000000000♠38,300,000 gneg
2 p 221 2415 2609 7007383000010000000♠38,300,001 7007415000000000000♠41,500,000 gpos 50
2 p 21 2609 2966 7007415000010000000♠41,500,001 7007475000000000000♠47,500,000 gneg
2 p 163 2966 3220 7007475000010000000♠47,500,001 7007526000000000000♠52,600,000 gpos 100
2 p 162 3220 3294 7007526000010000000♠52,600,001 7007547000000000000♠54,700,000 gneg
2 p 161 3294 3548 7007547000010000000♠54,700,001 7007610000000000000♠61,000,000 gpos 100
2 p 15 3548 3757 7007610000010000000♠61,000,001 7007639000000000000♠63,900,000 gneg
2 p 14 3757 3935 7007639000010000000♠63,900,001 7007684000000000000♠68,400,000 gpos 50
2 p 133 3935 4114 7007684000010000000♠68,400,001 7007713000000000000♠71,300,000 gneg
2 p 132 4114 4248 7007713000010000000♠71,300,001 7007733000000000000♠73,300,000 gpos 50
2 p 131 4248 4353 7007733000010000000♠73,300,001 7007748000000000000♠74,800,000 gneg
2 p 12 4353 4860 7007748000010000000♠74,800,001 7007831000000000000♠83,100,000 gpos 100
2 p 112 4860 5307 7007831000010000000♠83,100,001 7007918000000000000♠91,800,000 gneg
2 p 111 5307 5545 7007918000010000000♠91,800,001 7007939000000000000♠93,900,000 acen
2 q 111 5545 5724 7007939000010000000♠93,900,001 7007960000000000000♠96,000,000 acen
2 q 112 5724 6022 7007960000010000000♠96,000,001 7008102100000000000♠102,100,000 gneg
2 q 121 6022 6261 7008102100001000000♠102,100,001 7008105300000000000♠105,300,000 gpos 50
2 q 122 6261 6395 7008105300001000000♠105,300,001 7008106700000000000♠106,700,000 gneg
2 q 123 6395 6559 7008106700001000000♠106,700,001 7008108700000000000♠108,700,000 gpos 25
2 q 13 6559 6812 7008108700001000000♠108,700,001 7008112200000000000♠112,200,000 gneg
2 q 141 6812 7036 7008112200001000000♠112,200,001 7008118100000000000♠118,100,000 gpos 50
2 q 142 7036 7334 7008118100001000000♠118,100,001 7008121600000000000♠121,600,000 gneg
2 q 143 7334 7602 7008121600001000000♠121,600,001 7008129100000000000♠129,100,000 gpos 50
2 q 211 7602 7826 7008129100001000000♠129,100,001 7008131700000000000♠131,700,000 gneg
2 q 212 7826 8050 7008131700001000000♠131,700,001 7008134300000000000♠134,300,000 gpos 25
2 q 213 8050 8169 7008134300001000000♠134,300,001 7008136100000000000♠136,100,000 gneg
2 q 221 8169 8437 7008136100001000000♠136,100,001 7008141500000000000♠141,500,000 gpos 100
2 q 222 8437 8497 7008141500001000000♠141,500,001 7008143400000000000♠143,400,000 gneg
2 q 223 8497 8646 7008143400001000000♠143,400,001 7008147900000000000♠147,900,000 gpos 100
2 q 231 8646 8735 7008147900001000000♠147,900,001 7008149000000000000♠149,000,000 gneg
2 q 232 8735 8795 7008149000001000000♠149,000,001 7008149600000000000♠149,600,000 gpos 25
2 q 233 8795 9078 7008149600001000000♠149,600,001 7008154000000000000♠154,000,000 gneg
2 q 241 9078 9361 7008154000001000000♠154,000,001 7008158900000000000♠158,900,000 gpos 75
2 q 242 9361 9585 7008158900001000000♠158,900,001 7008162900000000000♠162,900,000 gneg
2 q 243 9585 9928 7008162900001000000♠162,900,001 7008168900000000000♠168,900,000 gpos 75
2 q 311 9928 10435 7008168900001000000♠168,900,001 7008177100000000000♠177,100,000 gneg
2 q 312 10435 10599 7008177100001000000♠177,100,001 7008179700000000000♠179,700,000 gpos 50
2 q 313 10599 10733 7008179700001000000♠179,700,001 7008182100000000000♠182,100,000 gneg
2 q 321 10733 11091 7008182100001000000♠182,100,001 7008188500000000000♠188,500,000 gpos 75
2 q 322 11091 11225 7008188500001000000♠188,500,001 7008191100000000000♠191,100,000 gneg
2 q 323 11225 11538 7008191100001000000♠191,100,001 7008196600000000000♠196,600,000 gpos 75
2 q 331 11538 11925 7008196600001000000♠196,600,001 7008202500000000000♠202,500,000 gneg
2 q 332 11925 12060 7008202500001000000♠202,500,001 7008204100000000000♠204,100,000 gpos 50
2 q 333 12060 12283 7008204100001000000♠204,100,001 7008208200000000000♠208,200,000 gneg
2 q 34 12283 12641 7008208200001000000♠208,200,001 7008214500000000000♠214,500,000 gpos 100
2 q 35 12641 13014 7008214500001000000♠214,500,001 7008220700000000000♠220,700,000 gneg
2 q 361 13014 13237 7008220700001000000♠220,700,001 7008224300000000000♠224,300,000 gpos 75
2 q 362 13237 13297 7008224300001000000♠224,300,001 7008225200000000000♠225,200,000 gneg
2 q 363 13297 13595 7008225200001000000♠225,200,001 7008230100000000000♠230,100,000 gpos 100
2 q 371 13595 13893 7008230100001000000♠230,100,001 7008234700000000000♠234,700,000 gneg
2 q 372 13893 13998 7008234700001000000♠234,700,001 7008236400000000000♠236,400,000 gpos 50
2 q 373 13998 14400 7008236400001000000♠236,400,001 7008242193529000000♠242,193,529 gneg

References

  1. ^ "Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium" National Center for Biotechnology Information 2013-12-24 Retrieved 2017-03-04 
  2. ^ a b "Search results - 2[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND "has ccds"[Properties] AND alive[prop] - Gene" NCBI CCDS Release 20 for Homo sapiens 2016-09-08 Retrieved 2017-05-28 
  3. ^ Tom Strachan; Andrew Read 2 April 2010 Human Molecular Genetics Garland Science p 45 ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2 
  4. ^ a b c Genome Decoration Page, NCBI Ideogram data for Homo sapience 850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38p3 Last update 2014-06-03 Retrieved 2017-04-26
  5. ^ Hillier; et al 2005 "Generation and annotation of the DNAD sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4" Nature 434 7034: 724–31 Bibcode:2005Natur434724H doi:101038/nature03466 PMID 15815621 
  6. ^ Vega Homo sapiens genome browser: HoxD cluster on Chromosome 2
  7. ^ Meyer M, Kircher M, Gansauge MT, Li H, Racimo F, Mallick S, et al October 2012 "A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual" Science 338 6104: 222–6 Bibcode:2012Sci338222M doi:101126/science1224344 PMC 3617501  PMID 22936568 
  8. ^ It has been hypothesized that Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes by Alec MacAndrew; accessed 18 May 2006
  9. ^ Evidence of Common Ancestry: Human Chromosome 2 video 2007
  10. ^ Yunis and Prakash; Prakash, O 1982 "The origin of man: a chromosomal pictorial legacy" Science 215 4539: 1525–30 Bibcode:1982Sci2151525Y doi:101126/science7063861 PMID 7063861 
  11. ^ Human and Ape Chromosomes; accessed 8 September 2007
  12. ^ Avarello; et al 1992 "Evidence for an ancestral alphoid domain on the long arm of human chromosome 2" Human Genetics 89 2: 247–9 doi:101007/BF00217134 PMID 1587535 
  13. ^ a b Ijdo, Jacob W; et al 1991 "Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere-telomere fusion" Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88 20: 9051–5 Bibcode:1991PNAS889051I doi:101073/pnas88209051 PMC 52649  PMID 1924367 
  14. ^ Pertea M, Salzberg SL 2010 "Between a chicken and a grape: estimating the number of human genes" Genome Biol 11 5: 206 doi:101186/gb-2010-11-5-206 PMC 2898077  PMID 20441615 
  15. ^ "Statistics & Downloads for chromosome 2" HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee 2017-05-12 Retrieved 2017-05-19 
  16. ^ "Chromosome 2: Chromosome summary - Homo sapiens" Ensembl Release 88 2017-03-29 Retrieved 2017-05-19 
  17. ^ "Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM" UniProt 2018-02-28 Retrieved 2018-03-16 
  18. ^ "Search results - 2[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND "genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop] - Gene" NCBI 2017-05-19 Retrieved 2017-05-20 
  19. ^ "Search results - 2[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND "genetype miscrna"[Properties] OR "genetype ncrna"[Properties] OR "genetype rrna"[Properties] OR "genetype trna"[Properties] OR "genetype scrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snrna"[Properties] OR "genetype snorna"[Properties] NOT "genetype protein coding"[Properties] AND alive[prop] - Gene" NCBI 2017-05-19 Retrieved 2017-05-20 
  20. ^ "Search results - 2[CHR] AND "Homo sapiens"[Organism] AND "genetype pseudo"[Properties] AND alive[prop] - Gene" NCBI 2017-05-19 Retrieved 2017-05-20 
  21. ^ Swaminathan, Nikhil "Largest Ever Autism Study Identifies Two Genetic Culprits" Scientific American Retrieved 25 January 2018 
  22. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI Ideogram data for Homo sapience 400 bphs, Assembly GRCh38p3 Last update 2014-03-04 Retrieved 2017-04-26
  23. ^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI Ideogram data for Homo sapience 550 bphs, Assembly GRCh38p3 Last update 2015-08-11 Retrieved 2017-04-26
  24. ^ International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature 2013 ISCN 2013: An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature 2013 Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers ISBN 978-3-318-02253-7 
  25. ^ Sethakulvichai, W; Manitpornsut, S; Wiboonrat, M; Lilakiatsakun, W; Assawamakin, A; Tongsima, S 2012 "Estimation of band level resolutions of human chromosome images" PDF In Computer Science and Software Engineering JCSSE, 2012 International Joint Conference on: 276–282 doi:101109/JCSSE20126261965 
  26. ^ "p": Short arm; "q": Long arm
  27. ^ For cytogenetic banding nomenclature, see article locus
  28. ^ a b These values ISCN start/stop are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature 2013 Arbitrary unit
  29. ^ gpos: Region which is positively stained by G banding, generally AT-rich and gene poor; gneg: Region which is negatively stained by G banding, generally CG-rich and gene rich; acen Centromere var: Variable region; stalk: Stalk

External links

  • National Institutes of Health "Chromosome 2" Genetics Home Reference Retrieved 2017-05-06 
  • "Chromosome 2" Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990–2003 Retrieved 2017-05-06 

chromosome 2 abnormality, chromosome 2 deletion, chromosome 2 duplication syndrome, chromosome 20, chromosome 21, chromosome 21 disorders, chromosome 22, chromosome 22 deletion, chromosome 22 disorders, chromosome 23


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