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Chester Brown

chester brown, chester brown band
Chester William David Brown born 16 May 1960 is a Canadian cartoonist

Brown has gone through several stylistic and thematic periods He gained notice in alternative comics circles in the 1980s for the surreal, scatological Ed the Happy Clown serial After bringing Ed to an abrupt end, he delved into confessional autobiographical comics in the early 1990s and was strongly associated with fellow Toronto-based cartoonists Seth and Joe Matt, and the contemporary autobiographical comics trend Two graphic novels came from this period: The Playboy 1992 and I Never Liked You 1994 Surprise mainstream success in the 2000s came with Louis Riel 2003, a historical-biographical graphic novel about rebel Métis leader Louis Riel Paying for It 2011 drew controversy as a polemic in support of decriminalizing prostitution, a theme he explored further with Mary Wept Over the Feet of Jesus 2016, a book of adaptations of stories from the Bible that Brown believes promote pro-prostitution attitudes among early Christians

Brown draws from a range of influences, including monster and superhero comic books, underground comix, and comic strips such as Harold Gray's Little Orphan Annie His later works employ a sparse drawing style and flat dialogue Rather than the traditional method of drawing complete pages, Brown draws individual panels without regard for page composition and assembles them into pages after completion Since the late 1990s Brown has had a penchant for providing detailed annotations for his work and extensively altering and reformatting older works

Brown at first self-published his work as a minicomic called Yummy Fur beginning in 1983; Toronto publisher Vortex Comics began publishing the series as a comic book in 1986 The content tended towards controversial themes: a distributor and a printer dropped it in the late 1980s, and it has been held up at the Canada–United States border Since 1991, Brown has associated himself with Montreal publisher Drawn and Quarterly Following Louis Riel Brown ceased serializing his work to publish graphic novels directly He has received grants from the Canada Council to complete Louis Riel and Paying for It

Contents

  • 1 Life and career
    • 11 Early life
    • 12 Toronto 1979–1986
    • 13 Vortex and Ed the Happy Clown 1986–1989
    • 14 Autobio and Drawn and Quarterly 1990–1992
    • 15 Vancouver and Underwater 1992–1997
    • 16 Louis Riel and frequenting of prostitutes 1998–2003
    • 17 Libertarianism and Paying for It 2004–present
  • 2 Personal life
    • 21 Religion
    • 22 Politics
    • 23 Personal relations
  • 3 Work
    • 31 Thematic subjects
    • 32 Art style
      • 321 Working method
      • 322 Drawing influences
  • 4 Bibliography
    • 41 Series
    • 42 Books
    • 43 Title changes
    • 44 Illustration
    • 45 Collaborations
  • 5 Recognition
    • 51 Awards
    • 52 Nominations
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
    • 71 Notes
    • 72 Works cited
  • 8 External links

Life and career

Early life

Chester William David Brown was born on 16 May 1960 at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Quebec, Canada He grew up in Châteauguay, a Montreal suburb with a large English-speaking minority His grandfather was history professor Chester New, after whom Chester New Hall is named at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario He has a brother, Gordon, who is two years his junior His mother suffered from schizophrenia, and died in 1976 after falling down the stairs while in the Montreal General Hospital

Though he grew up in a predominantly French-speaking province and had his first mainstream success with his biography of French-speaking Métis rebel leader Louis Riel, Brown says he doesn't speak French He said he had little contact with francophone culture when he was growing up, and the French speakers he had contact with spoke with him in English

Brown described himself as a "nerdy teeneager" attracted to comic books from a young age, especially ones about superheroes and monsters He aimed at a career in superhero comics, and after graduating from high school in 1977 headed to New York City, where he had unsuccessful but encouraging interviews with Marvel and DC Comics He moved to Montreal where he attended Dawson College The program did not aim at a comics career, and he dropped out after a little more than a year He tried to find work in New York, but was rejected again He discovered the alternative comics scene that was developing in the early 1980s, and grasped its feeling freedom to produce what he wanted At 19 he moved to Toronto, where he got a job in a photography lab and lived frugally in rooming houses

Toronto 1979–1986

At around twenty, Brown's interests moved away from superhero and monster comic books towards the work of Robert Crumb and other underground cartoonists, Heavy Metal magazine, and Will Eisner's graphic novel A Contract with God 1978 He started drawing in an underground-inspired style, and submitted his work to publishers Fantagraphics Books and Last Gasp; he got an encouraging rejection when he submitted to Art Spiegelman and Françoise Mouly's Raw magazine He became friends with film archivist Reg Hartt, and the two unsuccessfully planned to put out a comics anthology called Beans and Wieners as a showcase for local Toronto talent

In 1983 Brown's girlfriend Kris Nakamura introduced him to the small-press publisher John W Curry or "jwcurry", whose example inspired the local small-press community Nakamura convinced Brown that summer to print his unpublished work as minicomics, which he did under his Tortured Canoe imprint The sporadically self-published Yummy Fur lasted seven issues as a minicomic Brown soon found himself at the centre of Toronto's small-press scene While he found it difficult at first, Brown managed to get the title into independent bookstores, the emerging comic shops, and other countercultural retailers, and also sold it through the growing North American zine network Yummy Fur had respectable sales through several reprintings and repackaging

Brown and a number of other cartoonists featured in a show called Kromalaffing at the Grunwald Art Gallery in early 1984 He had become a part of Toronto's avant-garde community, along with other artists, musicians and writers, centred around Queen Street West In 1986, at the urging of Brown's future friend Seth, Vortex Comics publisher Bill Marks picked up Yummy Fur as a regular, initially bimonthly comic book Brown quit his day job to work full-time on Yummy Fur

Vortex and Ed the Happy Clown 1986–1989

Starting publication in December 1986, the first three issues of Yummy Fur reprinted the contents of the seven issues of the earlier minicomic, and Brown quit his job at the copy shop Brown began to weave together some of the earlier unrelated strips into an ongoing surreal black comedy called Ed the Happy Clown The bizarre misfortunes of the title character include being inundated in the faeces of a man unable to stop defaecating, being chased by cannibalistic pygmies, befriending a vengeful vampire, and having the head of his penis replaced by the head of a miniature Ronald Reagan from another dimension

A counterpoint to the at-times blasphemous Ed serial, Brown also began to run straight adaptation of the Gospels, beginning with the Gospel of Mark in a subdued style What appeared a natural target of satire for the author of Ed was instead a continuing attempt of Brown's to find what he really believed, having been raised a Christian Baptist The adaptations later continued with the Gospel of Matthew and the apocryphal "The Twin" from the Gnostic text Pistis Sophia, and Brown went through periods of agnosticism and Gnosticism

The offensive content of Ed caused it to be dropped by one printer, and is suspected to be behind Diamond Comic Distributors' decision to stop distributing Yummy Fur starting with issue #9 After The Comics Journal announced they would be investigating the issue, Diamond started distributing it again

In 1989 the first Ed collection appeared, collecting the Ed stories from the first twelve issues of Yummy Fur with an introduction by American Splendor writer Harvey Pekar and drawn by Brown At this point, Brown had grown to lose interest in the Ed story as he gravitated toward the autobiographical approach of Pekar, Joe Matt, and Julie Doucet, and the simpler artwork of Seth He brought Ed to an abrupt end in Yummy Fur #18 to turn to autobiography

Autobio and Drawn and Quarterly 1990–1992

The 19th issue of Yummy Fur began his Brown's autobiographical period First came the strip "Helder", about a violent tenant in Brown's boarding house; then "Showing 'Helder'", about the creation of "Helder" and the reactions of Brown's friends to the work-in-progress With "Showing 'Helder'" Brown breaks from his earlier syle by giving the panels no borders and arranging them organically on the page—a style that was to characterize his work of this period He found his friends were uncomfortable with his writing about their lives, and soon turned to his adolescence for source material

Brown began the first installment of what was to become the graphic novel The Playboy in Yummy Fur #21, under the title Disgust The revealing, confessional story tells of the teenage Brown's feelings of guilt over his obsessive masturbating over the Playmates of Playboy magazine, and the difficulties he had relating to women even into adulthood Critical and fan reception was strong, though it drew some criticism from those who saw it glorifying pornography Playboy's publisher Hugh Hefner wrote Brown a letter of concern that Brown could feel such guilt in a post-sexual revolution world It appeared in a collected edition titled The Playboy in 1992

Around this time, Brown had become friends with the cartoonists Seth and Joe Matt The three became noted for doing confessional autobio comics in the early 1990s, and for depicting each other in their works In 1993, they did an interview together in The Comics Journal's autobiographical comics issue Seth had joined the new Montreal-based comics publisher Drawn and Quarterly, which had also started publishing Julie Doucet D&Q's Chris Oliveros had been courting Brown to join as well, but Brown had felt loyal to Bill Marks for giving him his first break When his contract came up in 1991, however, Oliveros offered Brown nearly double the royalty he was getting from Vortex Brown moved to D&Q starting with Yummy Fur #25

Vancouver and Underwater 1992–1997

The dialogue in Underwater gradually becomes comprehensible as its protagonist acquires language

In 1992, Brown began a relationship with musician Sook-Yin Lee, and in 1993 moved to Vancouver to be with her He stayed there with her until 1995, when Lee began as VJ at MuchMusic in Toronto, and the two moved back there together

Brown moved away from autobio after the conclusion of Fuck, and for his next major project, Chris Oliveros convinced him to change the title, believing the title Yummy Fur was no longer a fitting one for the direction that Brown's work had taken, and that the title made the book harder to sell His next work, Underwater, would appear under its own title, while continuing the Gospel of Matthew adaptation as a backup feature

Underwater was an ambitious work Its lead character, Kupifam, was an infant who was surrounded by an encoded gibberish-like language, which she comes to understand in bits and pieces Fans and critics gave the series a lukewarm reception, with its glacial pacing and obscure narrative Eventually, Brown came to feel he had gotten in over his head with the scope of the project In early 1998, he decided to leave it in an unfinished state

Partway through the series, in 1996, Brown and Lee broke up They continued to live with each other, and have continued to be close friends Brown came to decide that he no longer wanted to have exclusive relations with women, but also realized he lacked the social skills to pick up girls for casual sex He spent the next few years celibate

Louis Riel and frequenting of prostitutes 1998–2003

Brown's father died in 1998 as he was putting together his collection of short strips, The Little Man He lost interest in Underwater, and had been reading about Métis resistance leader Louis Riel, and decided he wanted to do a biography on him He wanted to do it as an original graphic novel, but Chris Oliveros convinced him to serialize it first Drawn and Quarterly put out the ten issues of Louis Riel from 1999 until 2003, and with help from a CAD$16,000 grant from the Canadian Council for the Arts, the finished annotated collection appeared in 2003, to much acclaim and healthy sales In Canada it became a bestseller, a first for a Canadian graphic novel

In 1999, after three years of celibacy, Brown decided he would start frequenting prostitutes His open nature prevented him from hiding this fact from his friends, and the fact soon became widely known After completing Louis Riel, he embarked upon another autobiographical graphic novel that would detail his experiences as a john This time, the work would not be serialized, and would wait until 2011 to be published as Paying for It

In the early 2000s, Brown moved out from the place he shared with Lee and got himself a condominium, where he lived by himself, and was free to bring prostitutes home Around this time, Joe Matt moved back to the US, and Seth moved to Guelph, Ontario, breaking up the "Toronto Three"

Libertarianism and Paying for It 2004–present

While reading up on issues surrounding Louis Riel, Brown became increasingly interested in property rights His reading eventually took him to believe that countries with strong property rights prospered, while those without them did not This path gradually led him to espouse the ideology of libertarianism He joined the Libertarian Party of Canada and ran as the party's candidate in the riding of Trinity—Spadina in Toronto in the 2008 and 2011 federal elections

During the long wait between Louis Riel and Paying for It, Brown allowed Drawn and Quarterly to reprint Ed the Happy Clown as a serial comic book, with explanatory notes that were becoming both more common and more detailed in Brown's work In 2007 Brown provided six weeks worth of strips to Toronto's NOW magazine as part of the "Live With Culture" ad campaign The strip features a male zombie and a living human girl participating in various cultural activities, culminating in the two going to a movie theatre to watch Bruce McDonald's yet-unmade Yummy Fur adaptation

Brown's next graphic novel, Paying for It, came out during the 2011 election, in which he was running Again he finished with the help of a Canada Council grant It was a polemic promoting the decriminalization of prostitution, and attracted praise for its artistry and bare-all honesty, and criticism for its subject matter and Brown's perceived naïveté where brushes aside concerns about human trafficking and dismisses drug addiction as a myth At about this time, Brown finally stated he didn't intend to finish his Gospel of Matthew, which had been on hiatus since 1997

In 2016 Brown followed up Paying for It with Mary Wept Over the Feet of Jesus, made up of adaptations of stories from the Bible that Brown believes promote pro-prostitution attitudes among early Christians, and argues for the decriminalization of prostitution Brown declared his research determined that Mary, mother of Jesus, was a prostitute, that early Christians practised prostitution, and that Jesus' Parable of the Talents should be read in a pro-prostitution light Brown describes himself as a Christian who is "not at all concerned with imposing 'moral' values or religious laws on others" and believes that Biblical figures such as Abel and Job "find favour with God because they oppose his will or challenge him in some way"

Personal life

Religion

Brown was brought up in a Baptist household In his early twenties he began adapting the Gospels, and later said that this "was a matter of trying to figure out whether even believed the Christian claims—whether or not Jesus was divine" Subsequently, Brown has shifted between belief and non-belief in Christianity; as of 2016 he identified as a Christian

Politics

In the 1980s Brown expressed sympathy for left-wing politics, although he has stated his understanding of politics was not deep He considered himself an anarchist until, while researching Louis Riel, he became interested in issues of property rights, especially influenced by his reading of Tom Bethell's The Noblest Triumph, a book which argues that the West owes its prosperity to having established strong property rights Brown thus gained an interest in libertarianism–a belief that government should protect property rights although, he says, not copyrights, and otherwise should mostly keep out of people's lives After attending a few meetings of the Libertarian Party of Canada, he was asked to run for Parliament, and collected the 100 signatures necessary to appear on the ballot

Brown ran as the Libertarian Party's candidate for the riding of Trinity—Spadina in the 2008 federal election He came in fifth out of seven candidates He stood in the same riding for the same party in the Canadian federal election, 2011, coming in fifth out of six candidates The 2011 election coincided with the release of Paying for It, in which Brown talks about his frequenting prostitutes He was worried his promotion of that topic in the media would make the Libertarian Party uncomfortable with having him run, but his official Party agent and the Ontario representative assured him that, as libertarians, they believed in individual freedom, and would continue to support his candidacy

Personal relations

A longtime friend of fellow cartoonists Joe Matt and Seth, Brown has been regularly featured in their autobiographical comics over the years, and collaborated with them on various projects The three were often mentioned together, and have been called "the Three Musketeers of alternative comics" and the "Toronto Three", forming "a kind of gutter rat pack trying to make it through their drawing boards in 1990s Toronto" Brown dedicated The Playboy to Seth, and Paying for It to Matt Seth dedicated his graphic novel George Sprott to Brown "Best Cartoonist, Best Friend"

Brown had a long-term relationship with the musician, actress and media personality Sook-Yin Lee from 1992 until 1996 She is depicted in several of his comics He moved to Vancouver for two years to be with her, and moved back to Toronto with her when she became a VJ for MuchMusic He also drew the cover for her 1996 solo album Wigs 'n Guns Brown's relationship with Lee is the last boyfriend/girlfriend relationship he had, as he explains in Paying for It They remain good friends, and Brown has contributed artwork to her productions as recently as 2009's Year of the Carnivore

Work

Thematic subjects

Throughout his early years as a cartoonist he mostly experimented with drawing on the darker side of his subconscious, basing his comedy on free-form association, much like the surrealist technique Automatism An example of such methods in Brown's work can be found in short one-pagers where he randomly selects comic panels from other sources and then mixes them up, often altering the dialogue This produced an experimental, absurdist effect in his early strips

Brown first discusses mental illness in his strip "My Mother Was A Schizophrenic" In it, he puts forward the anti-psychiatric idea that what we call "schizophrenia" isn't a real disease at all, but instead a tool our society uses to deal with people who display socially unacceptable beliefs and behaviour Inspired by the evangelical tracts of Jack T Chick, Brown left Xeroxes of these strips at bus stops and phone booths around Toronto so its message would reach a wider audience It first appeared in Underwater #4, and is also reprinted in the collection The Little Man

Brown's Louis Riel book was inspired by the alleged mental instability of Riel, and Brown's own anarchist politics, and he began his research for the book in 1998 Over the course of researching for the book, he shifted his politics over the course of several years until he was a libertarian Regarding anarchy, Brown has said, "I'm still an anarchist to the degree that I think we should be aiming towards an anarchist society but I don't think we can actually get there We probably do need some degree of government"

Art style

Brown's drawing style has evolved and changed a lot throughout his career He's been known to switch between using Rapidograph pens, dip pens, brushes, pencils and markers for his black-and-white cartooning, and has used paints for some colour covers notably in Underwater

Working method

Brown does not follow the tradition of drawing his comics by the page – he draws them one panel at a time, and then arranges them on the page In the case of his acclaimed graphic novels The Playboy and I Never Liked You, this allowed him to rearrange the panels on the page as he saw fit In the case of I Never Liked You, this resulted in a different page count in the book collection than was in the Yummy Fur serialization The panels were slightly rearranged again when the "New Definitive Edition" of I Never Liked You was released in 2002 Brown depicted himself making comics in this way in the story Showing Helder in Yummy Fur #20 also collected in The Little Man Despite drawing his panels individually, he says his "brain doesn't tend to think in terms of one image at a time", so that he has difficulty coming up with one-image covers

He has used a number of different drawing tools, including Rapidograph technical pens, markers, crowquill pens and ink brushes, the latter of which he has called his favourite tool, for its "fluid grace" For much of Ed the Happy Clown, he had artwork printed from photocopies of his pencils, which was faster for him than inking the work, and produced a more spontaneous feel, but in the end he turned away from this method, feeling it was "too raw"

Drawing influences

In an interview with Seth, Brown says his earliest childhood cartoon was an imitation of Doug Wright's Little Nipper He frequently mentions Steve Gerber as amongst his foremost influences of his teenage years From about the age of 20, Brown discovered the work of Robert Crumb and other underground artists, as well as class comic strip artists such as Harold Gray, whose influence is most evident in Brown's Louis Riel

Brown often talks of contemporaries Seth, Joe Matt and Julie Doucet's influence on his work, especially during his autobiographical period He also had been reading the Little Lulu Library around this time, and credit's the cartooning of Little Lulu's John Stanley and Seth with his desire to simplify his style during this period

The stiff, stylized look of Fletcher Hanks' comics, reprints from Fantagraphics of which Brown had been reading around the time, was the primary influence on the style Brown used in Paying for It

Bibliography

Series

Comic book series by Chester Brown
Title Date Publisher Issues Notes
Yummy Fur mini-comic 1983–1986 self-published 7 #1–6 compiled in one volume in February 1987 with an extra one-page strip
Yummy Fur 1986–1995 Vortex Comics #1–24
Drawn and Quarterly #25–32
32
Underwater 1995–1998 Drawn and Quarterly 11 Left incomplete
Louis Riel 1999–2003 Drawn and Quarterly 10
Ed the Happy Clown 2004–2006 Drawn and Quarterly 9 Reprinted material from Yummy Fur with extra background information

Books

Books by Chester Brown
Title Year Publisher ISBN Notes
Ed the Happy Clown: A Yummy Fur Book 1989 Vortex Comics 978-0-921451-04-4
  • forward by Harvey Pekar
  • incomplete
Ed the Happy Clown: The Definitive Ed Book 1992 Vortex Comics 978-0-921451-08-2
  • abridged
  • altered ending
The Playboy 1992 Drawn and Quarterly 978-0-9696701-1-7
I Never Liked You 1994 Drawn and Quarterly 978-0-9696701-6-2
The Little Man: Short Strips 1980–1995 1998 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-896597-13-3
I Never Liked You Second Edition 2002 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-896597-14-0
  • black page backgrounds changed to white
  • annotations
Louis Riel 2004 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-894937-89-4
Paying for It 2011 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-77046-048-5
  • introduction by Robert Crumb
Ed the Happy Clown: A Graphic Novel 2012 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-77046-075-1
  • annotated
Mary Wept Over the Feet of Jesus 2016 Drawn and Quarterly 978-1-77046-234-2

Title changes

Many of his books have undergone title changes, sometimes at the behest of his publisher, sometimes without his permission Ed the Happy Clown: the Definitive Ed Book was given the Definitive title, despite the fact that he "didn't want to put that as the subtitle of the second edition Vortex did it for marketing reasons" The Playboy was originally titled Disgust and then The Playboy Stories, and I Never Liked You was called Fuck the German translation retains that title Underwater was originally intended to appear in Yummy Fur, but Brown's new publisher felt they could attract more readers with a different title Paying For It carries the sense of a double entendre that Brown dislikes–he would have preferred to call the book I Pay For Sex

Illustration

Brown has also done a certain amount of illustration work In 1998, he did the cover to Sphinx Productions' Comic Book Confidential #1; in 2005 he did the cover to True Porn 2 from Alternative Comics; and he illustrated the cover for Penguin Books' Deluxe Classics edition of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D H Lawrence Brown illustrated the cover to the 11 July 2004, issue of The New York Times Magazine, an issue whose theme was graphic novels He has done the cover for Sook-Yin Lee's 1996 solo album Wigs 'n' Guns to which he also contributed lyrics for one song, and the poster for her film, Year of the Carnivore

Collaborations

Brown provided the illustrations for the story "A Tribute to Bill Marks" in Harvey Pekar's American Splendor #15 in 1990, and "How This Forward Got Written" in The New American Splendor Anthology in 1991

He inked Seth's pencils for the story "Them Changes" in Dennis Eichhorn's Real Stuff #6 in 1992, and shared artwork duties with Sook-Yin Lee on the story "The Not So Great Escape" in Real Stuff #16 in 1993

He also inked Steve Bissette's pencils for the story "It Came From  Higher Space!" in Alan Moore's 1963 #3 in 1993

A jam piece with Dave Sim was included in the Cerebus World Tour Book in 1995

Recognition

Over the years, Brown has received four Harvey Awards and numerous Harvey and Ignatz award nominations "The autobiographical comics from Yummy Fur" placed No 38 on the Comics Journal's list of the 100 best comics of the century Brown was inducted into the Canadian Comic Book Creator Hall of Fame, on 18 June 2011, at the Joe Shuster Awards in Calgary, Alberta, Canada Brown was one of the cartoonists to appear in the first volume of Fantagraphics' two-volume The Best Comics of the Decade 1990 ISBN 978-1-56097-036-1

Awards

Awards won by Chester Brown
Year Organization Award for Award
1990 Harvey Awards Chester Brown Best Cartoonist
1990 Harvey Awards Ed the Happy Clown Best Graphic Album
for the first edition
1990 UK Comic Art Award Ed the Happy Clown Best Graphic Novel/Collection
for the first edition
1999 Urhunden Prizes Ed the Happy Clown Foreign Album
2004 Harvey Awards Louis Riel Best Writer
2004 Harvey Awards Louis Riel Best Graphic Album of Previously Published Work

Nominations

See also

  • Chester Brown: Conversations by Dominick Grace and Eric Hoffman, with notes by Chester Brown, University Press of Mississippi, 2013
  • Alternative comics
  • The Beguiling
  • It's a Good Life, If You Don't Weaken
  • Biography portal
  • Comics portal
  • Libertarianism portal

References

  1. ^ a b Epp 2002
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Bell 2006, p 144
  3. ^ Epp 2002; Bell 2006, p 164
  4. ^ a b Brown 2002, p 191
  5. ^ a b Grace & Hoffman 2013b, p xxxii
  6. ^ Interview with Dave Sim Part 1
  7. ^ a b Juno 1997, p 132
  8. ^ a b c Bell 2006, p 146
  9. ^ a b c d e f Weisblott 2008
  10. ^ Juno 1997, p 131
  11. ^ a b Bell 2006, p 145
  12. ^ Juno 1997, p 135
  13. ^ Wolk 2007, p 149
  14. ^ a b Bell 2006, p 154
  15. ^ Grace & Hoffman 2013a, pp xvi–xvii
  16. ^ Mackay 2005
  17. ^ a b c d e Brown, Ed the Happy Clown #5, notes page 1
  18. ^ Davis 1989
  19. ^ Brown, Ed the Happy Clown #8, notes page 2
  20. ^ Levin 1993, p 47
  21. ^ Grace & Hoffman 2013a, p xvi
  22. ^ Køhlert 2012, p 381
  23. ^ Pustz 1999, p 92
  24. ^ Grace & Hoffman 2013a, p xviii
  25. ^ Grace & Hoffman 2013a, pp xviii–xix
  26. ^ Grace & Hoffman 2013a, p xix
  27. ^ a b Grace & Hoffman 2013, p xx
  28. ^ a b Bell 2006, p 150
  29. ^ Verstappen 2008
  30. ^ Bell 2006, p 158
  31. ^ Brown 2011, p 15; Brown 2011, pp 262–264
  32. ^ a b c Brown, Chester; Grace, Dominick; Hoffman, Eric 2013 Chester Brown: Conversations Jackson, Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi pp xxii ISBN 9781621039693 
  33. ^ Interview Archived 24 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine with Heidi MacDonald in The Pulse 2004-04-20 retrieved 2011-04-10
  34. ^ Provincial Profiles, 2001–2002: Grants to Ontario Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Canada Council for the Arts, August 2002 page 29
  35. ^ Baker & Atkinson 2004
  36. ^ Bell 2006, p 166
  37. ^ "Trinity-Spadina 2011 federal election results: Chow crushes opposition « West Annex News" Westannexnewswordpresscom 1 May 2011 Retrieved 2011-05-05 
  38. ^ "Chester Brown's electoral history at parlgcca" 
  39. ^ Wolk 2007, p 148
  40. ^ Park 2011
  41. ^ Review Archived 11 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine of Zombies Take Toronto at walrusmagazinecom Retrieved 2011-04-10
  42. ^ a b Wagner 2011
  43. ^ Weisblott 2011
  44. ^ Provincial and Territorial Profiles, 2005–2006: Grants to Ontario Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Canada Council for the Arts, August 2006 page 30
  45. ^ Mackay 2011; Heer 2011
  46. ^ Kohler 2011; Garner 2011, p 2
  47. ^ Randle 2011; Brown 2011, pp 250–251; Mautner 2011
  48. ^ Rogers 2011, part 3
  49. ^ Donachie 2016
  50. ^ Lehoczky 2016
  51. ^ Juno 1997, p 143; Hwang 1998
  52. ^ Juno 1997, p 143
  53. ^ Hwang 1998
  54. ^ a b Seth Interviews Chester Brown, hosted at sequentialspiltinkorg retrieved 2011-05-15
  55. ^ Walker 2011
  56. ^ Lehoczky, Etelka 2016-04-16 "God And Sex Workers — Plus Cartoons — In 'Mary Wept'" NPR Archived from the original on 2016-04-17 Retrieved 2016-05-02 
  57. ^ "Time to ask your west-downtown Toronto federal candidates some questions" Gleaner Community Newspapers 4 April 2011 Retrieved 2011-04-13 
  58. ^ "Trinity-Spadina 2011 federal election results: Chow crushes opposition" West Annex News 3 May 2011 Retrieved 2012-03-03 
  59. ^ Rogers 2011, part 5
  60. ^ "Fred Hembeck's Dateline" The Ephemerist 
  61. ^ "Artists honoured for comics hailing nostalgia, everyday life" CBC News Retrieved 2018-01-30 
  62. ^ Matheson 2004
  63. ^ Daniel Epstein "Chronicling the revolutionary:Chester Brown on Louis Riel" 
  64. ^ a b c Grammel 1990, p 35
  65. ^ Tousley 2005
  66. ^ Rogers 2011, part 2
  67. ^ Juno 1997, p 136
  68. ^ Rogers 2011, part 1
  69. ^ inside front cover of Yummy Fur #1 Vortex Comics 1986
  70. ^ Bell 2006, p 147
  71. ^ Arnold 2004
  72. ^ Reprodukt product page for Fuck Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ Brown 2011, p 259
  74. ^ Sterling, Mike 25 January 2010 "COMIC BOOK CONFIDENTIAL #1 SPHINX PRODUCTIONS, 1988" Mike Sterling's Progressive Ruin Retrieved 2011-04-10 
  75. ^ Penguin Books' product page for Lady Chatterley's Lover Deluxe Classics edition, 2007 ISBN 978-0-14-303961-7
  76. ^ "Cover Story on Graphic Novels in NY Times Magazine: Will They Replace Traditional Novels" ICv2 13 July 2004 Retrieved 2011-05-26 
  77. ^ "Chester Brown on the NY Times Magazine Cover" Inappropriate Laughter 20 January 2010 Archived from the original on 31 August 2011 Retrieved 26 May 2011 
  78. ^ Carruthers
  79. ^ Balkissoon 2010
  80. ^ "Annotated 1963 Annotations" Retrieved 2011-05-19 
  81. ^ Sim, Dave et al Cerebus World Tour Book 1995, pages 47–65 Aardvark-Vanaheim, 1995 ISSN 0712-7774
  82. ^ "Nominations for the 2011 Joe Shuster Awards" 
  83. ^ a b "1990 Harvey Award Winners" The Harvey Awards official website Archived from the original on 28 September 2011 Retrieved 16 November 2011 
  84. ^ Hammarlund 2009; Hahn 2006
  85. ^ a b "2004 Harvey Award Winners" The Harvey Awards official website Archived from the original on 7 September 2011 Retrieved 2011-11-16 
  86. ^ a b c Harvey Awards official website
  87. ^ a b c Ignatz Awards official website

Notes

  1. ^ "It's really just a code Simple letter substitution" – Brown in 2008
  2. ^ "I was an anarchist when I began the strip and I knew the story would make the government look bad  But in doing all the research for this book , I learned a lot about general political theory I came to realize that anarchy is completely unworkable, which I sort of suspected all along" – Brown in 2004
  3. ^ "It suggests that not only am I paying for sex but I'm also paying for being a john in some non-monetary way Many would think that there's an emotional cost – that johns are sad and lonely  I haven't been 'paying for it' in any of those ways I'm very far from being sad or lonely, I haven't caught an S-T-D, I haven't been arrested, I haven't lost my career, and my friends and family haven't rejected me" – Brown in 2011

Works cited

  • Arnold, Andrew D 12 April 2004 "Keeping It 'Riel'" Time magazine Archived from the original on 13 May 2011 Retrieved 1 May 2011 
  • Baker, John F; Atkinson, Nathalie 17 May 2004 "The World Needs More Canada" Publishers Weekly 251 20 Retrieved 2012-02-15 
  • Balkissoon, Denise 11 June 2010 "Sook-Yin Lee: Candid with the camera — except for one thing" The Toronto Star Retrieved 2011-05-25 
  • Bell, John 2006 Invaders from the North: How Canada Conquered the Comic Book Universe Dundurn Press Ltd ISBN 978-1-55002-659-7 
  • Brown, Chester 2002 I Never Liked You 2nd ed Drawn and Quarterly ISBN 978-1-896597-14-0 
Brown, Chester Ed the Happy Clown Drawn and Quarterly Nine issues February 2005 – September 2006
notes pages unnumbered, counted from first page of notes
  • Brown, Chester 2011 Paying For It Drawn and Quarterly ISBN 978-1-77046-048-5 
  • Carruthers, Sean "Wigs 'n' Guns" Retrieved 2011-05-19 
  • Davis, Erik January 1989 "Ed's Big Boy" Spin 4 10: 13 Retrieved 2011-04-07 
  • Donachie, Mike 2016-04-14 "Mary Wept Over The Feet of Jesus: Chester Brown tackles prostitution in Biblical times" Metro News Metro International Archived from the original on 2016-05-02 Retrieved 2016-04-30 
  • Epp, Darell 29 January 2002 "Two-Handed Man interviews cartoonist Chester Brown" twohandedmancom Archived from the original on 9 May 2008 Retrieved 2011-04-23 
  • Garner, Dwight 24 May 2011 "A Graphic Memoir That Earns the Designation" The New York Times Retrieved 2012-04-28 
  • Grace, Dominick; Hoffman, Eric 2013 "Introduction" In Grace, Dominick; Hoffman, Eric Chester Brown: Conversations University Press of Mississippi pp vii–xxxi ISBN 978-1-61703-868-6 
  • Grace, Dominick; Hoffman, Eric 2013 "Chronology" In Grace, Dominick; Hoffman, Eric Chester Brown: Conversations University Press of Mississippi pp xxxii–xxxiv ISBN 978-1-61703-868-6 
  • Grammel, Scott April 1990 "Chester Brown interview" The Comics Journal Fantagraphics Books 135: 66–90 
  • Hahn, Joel 2006 "Urhunden Prize" Comic Book Awards Almanac Retrieved 2011-05-02 
  • Hammarlund, Ova 20 September 2009 "Seriepris until Joakim Pirinen och Jan Lööf" wwwserieframjandetse Seriefrämjandet Archived from the original on 22 November 2011 Retrieved 2011-05-02  in Swedish
  • Heer, Jeet 19 May 2011 "A Chester Brown Notebook" The Comics Journal Retrieved 2012-04-29 
  • Hwang, Francis 23 December 1998 "Graven Images" City Pages Archived from the original on 2012-10-04 Retrieved 2014-04-01 
  • Juno, Andrea 1997 "Interview with Chester Brown" Dangerous Drawings Juno Books pp 130–147 ISBN 0-9651042-8-1 
  • Kohler, Nicholas 2 May 2011 "Romantic love is the last thing he wants" Maclean's Archived from the original on 2011-05-04 Retrieved 2011-05-03 
  • Køhlert, Frederik Byrn 2012 "I Never Liked You: A Comic-Strip Narrative" In Beaty, Bart H; Weiner, Stephen Critical Survey of Graphic Novels: Independent and Underground Classics Salem Press pp 378–381 ISBN 978-1-58765-950-8 
  • Lehoczky, Etelka 2016-04-16 "God And Sex Workers — Plus Cartoons — In 'Mary Wept'" NPR Archived from the original on 2016-04-17 Retrieved 2016-05-02 
  • Levin, Bob October 1993 "Chester Brown" The Comics Journal 162: 45–49 
  • Mackay, Brad 18 July 2005 "Special Ed" Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Archived from the original on 2005-09-08 Retrieved 2011-11-14 
  • MacKay, Brad 30 April 2011 "Sex and the single cartoonist" The Globe and Mail Archived from the original on 2011-05-08 Retrieved 2011-05-01 
  • Matheson, Emmet 2004 "Chester Brown" Riel: a comic-book hero CBC Digital Archives Retrieved 2008-06-18 
  • Mautner, Chris 8 April 2011 "Robot Reviews: Paying for It" Comic Book Resources Retrieved 2011-04-11 
  • Park, Ed 2 May 2011 "Text Appeal" Toronto Standard Retrieved 2011-05-05  followup at The Comics Journal, Notes to a Note on the Notes of Chester Brown
  • Pustz, Matthew J 1999 Comic Book Culture: Fanboys and True Believers University Press of Mississippi ISBN 978-1-57806-201-0 
  • Randle, Chris 6 May 2011 "Book Review: Paying For It, by Chester Brown" The National Post Archived from the original on 30 January 2013 Retrieved 2011-05-07 
  • Rogers, Sean 9 May 2011 "A John's Gospel: The Chester Brown Interview" The Comics Journal Retrieved 2014-04-01  part 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • Sim, Dave 2003 "Getting Riel interview" Cerebus Aardvark-Vanaheim 295–297  Also available online: parts 1 2 and 3
  • Tousley, Nancy 1 March 2005 "Interview: Chester Brown: Louis Riel's comic-strip biographer" Canadian Art Archived from the original on 21 March 2012 Retrieved 2012-04-19 
  • Verstappen, Nicolas August 2008 "Chester Brown" du9org Retrieved 2014-04-01 
  • Wagner, Vit 29 April 2011 "Paying for It: A Comic-Strip Memoir About Being a John by Chester Brown" The Toronto Star Retrieved 2011-05-01 
  • Walker, Benjamen 17 May 2011 "The Difference Between Giving and Taking a conversation with Chester Brown" Interview: Audio Retrieved 2011-05-23 
  • Weisblott, Marc 17 September 2008 "Chester the Libertarian" Retrieved 2011-05-05 
  • Weisblott, Marc 14 April 2011 "Federal election candidate publishes comic book memoir about prostitutes" Yahoo! News Retrieved 2011-05-01 
  • Wolk, Douglas 2007 "Chester Brown: The Outsider" Reading Comics: How Graphic Novels Work and What They Mean Da Capo Press pp 147–155 ISBN 978-0-306-81509-6 

External links

  • Chester Brown at the Grand Comics Database
  • Chester Brown at the Comic Book DB
  • News Briefs featuring Chester Brown at Drawn and Quarterly's website
  • Timecom interview with Chester Brown
  • CBC Arts Online article about Chester Brown's Ed The Happy Clown series
  • Chester Brown induction into CBC Arts Online's Alternative Canadian Walk of Fame
  • Interview with Chester Brown on twohandedmancom
  • Audio interview of Brown by Seth
  • Brown's candidacy in Eye Weekly in 2008
  • Zombies Take Toronto

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