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Chelsea Manning

chelsea manning, chelsea manning photos
Chelsea Elizabeth Manning born Bradley Edward Manning, December 17, 1987 is a United States Army soldier who was convicted by court-martial in July 2013 of violations of the Espionage Act and other offenses, after disclosing to WikiLeaks nearly three-quarters of a million classified or unclassified but sensitive military and diplomatic documents Manning was sentenced in August 2013 to 35 years imprisonment, with the possibility of parole in the eighth year, and to be dishonorably discharged from the Army Manning is a trans woman who, in a statement the day after sentencing, said she had felt female since childhood, wanted to be known as Chelsea, and desired to begin hormone replacement therapy From early life and through much of her Army life, Manning was known as Bradley; she was diagnosed with gender identity disorder while in the Army

Assigned in 2009 to an Army unit in Iraq as an intelligence analyst, Manning had access to classified databases In early 2010, she leaked classified information to WikiLeaks and confided this to Adrian Lamo, an online acquaintance Lamo informed Army Counterintelligence, and Manning was arrested in May that same year The material included videos of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike, and the 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; 251,287 US diplomatic cables; and 482,832 Army reports that came to be known as the Iraq War Logs and Afghan War Diary Much of the material was published by WikiLeaks or its media partners between April and November 2010

Manning was ultimately charged with 22 offenses, including aiding the enemy, which was the most serious charge and could have resulted in a death sentence She was held at the Marine Corps Brig, Quantico in Virginia, from July 2010 to April 2011 under Prevention of Injury status—which entailed de facto solitary confinement and other restrictions that caused domestic and international concern—before being transferred to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where she could interact with other detainees She pleaded guilty in February 2013 to 10 of the charges The trial on the remaining charges began on June 3, 2013, and on July 30 she was convicted of 17 of the original charges and amended versions of four others, but was acquitted of aiding the enemy She is serving a 35-year sentence at the maximum-security US Disciplinary Barracks at Fort Leavenworth

Reaction to Manning's disclosures, arrest, and sentence was mixed Denver Nicks, one of her biographers, writes that the leaked material, particularly the diplomatic cables, was widely seen as a catalyst for the Arab Spring that began in December 2010, and that Manning was viewed as both a 21st-century Tiananmen Square Tank Man and an embittered traitor Reporters Without Borders condemned the length of the sentence, saying that it demonstrated how vulnerable whistleblowers are

Contents

  • 1 Background
    • 11 Early life
    • 12 Parents' divorce, move to Wales
    • 13 Return to the United States
  • 2 Military service
    • 21 Enlistment in the Army
    • 22 Move to Fort Drum, deployment to Iraq
    • 23 Contact with gender counselor
    • 24 State of mind over release of material
    • 25 Release of material to WikiLeaks
    • 26 Email to supervisor, recommended discharge
  • 3 Publication of leaked material
    • 31 WikiLeaks
    • 32 Reykjavik13
    • 33 Baghdad airstrike
    • 34 Afghan War logs, Iraq War logs
    • 35 Diplomatic cables, Guantanamo Bay files
    • 36 Granai airstrike
  • 4 Manning and Adrian Lamo
    • 41 First contact
    • 42 Chats
    • 43 Lamo approaches authorities, chat logs published
  • 5 Legal proceedings
    • 51 Arrest and charges
    • 52 Detention
    • 53 Evidence presented at Article 32 hearing
    • 54 Guilty plea, trial, sentence
    • 55 Request for presidential pardon
    • 56 United States Army Court of Criminal Appeals
    • 57 Petition for release
  • 6 Reaction to disclosures
  • 7 Non-military tributes
  • 8 Gender transition
    • 81 2010
    • 82 2013
    • 83 2014
    • 84 2015
    • 85 2016
  • 9 Prison life
    • 91 Writing
    • 92 Suicide attempts
    • 93 Hunger strike
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
    • 111 Notes
    • 112 Citations
    • 113 Further reading
  • 12 External links

Background

Early life

Born Bradley Edward Manning in 1987 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, she was the second child of Susan Fox, originally from Wales, and Brian Manning, an American Brian had joined the United States Navy in 1974 at the age of 19, and served for five years as an intelligence analyst Brian met Susan in a local Woolworths while stationed in Wales at RAF Brawdy Manning's older sister was born in 1976 The couple returned to the United States in 1979, settling first in California After their move near Crescent, Oklahoma they bought a two-story house with an above-ground swimming pool and 5 acres 2 hectares of land, where they kept pigs and chickens

Manning's sister Casey, 11 years her senior, told the court-martial that both their parents were alcoholics, and that their mother had drunk continually while pregnant with Chelsea Captain David Moulton, a Navy psychiatrist, told the court that Manning's facial features showed signs of fetal alcohol syndrome Casey became Manning's principal caregiver, waking at night to make a bottle for the baby The court heard that Manning was fed only milk and baby food until the age of two As an adult she reached 5 ft 2 in 157 m and weighed around 105 pounds 48 kg

Manning's father took a job as an information technology IT manager for a rental car agency, which required travel The family lived several miles out of town and Manning's mother was unable to drive She spent her days drinking, while Manning was left largely to fend for herself, playing with Legos or on the computer Brian would stock up on food before his trips, and leave pre-signed checks that Casey mailed to pay the bills A neighbor said that whenever Manning's elementary school went on field trips, she would give her own son extra food or money so he could make sure Manning had something to eat Friends and neighbors considered the Mannings a troubled family

Parents' divorce, move to Wales

Those who knew Manning said that even as a child, she always had a mind of her own She was an atheist who was openly opposed to religion, for example, remaining silent during the part of the Pledge of Allegiance that refers to God In a 2011 interview Manning's father said, "People need to understand that he's a young man that had a happy life growing up" He also said that Manning excelled at the saxophone, science, and computers, creating her first website at the age of ten Manning taught herself how to use PowerPoint, won the grand prize three years in a row at the local science fair, and in sixth grade, took top prize at a statewide quiz bowl

High Street, Haverfordwest, Wales, where Manning went to secondary school

A childhood friend of Manning's, speaking about a conversation they had when Manning was 13, said "he told me he was gay" The friend also said that Manning's home life was not good and that her father was very controlling Around this time, Manning's parents divorced She and her mother Susan moved out of the house to a rented apartment in Crescent, Oklahoma Susan's instability continued and in 1998 she attempted suicide; Manning's sister drove their mother to the hospital, with the 11-year-old Manning sitting in the back of the car trying to make sure their mother was still breathing

Manning's father remarried in 2000, the same year as his divorce His new wife was also named Susan and had a son from a previous relationship Manning apparently reacted badly when the son changed his surname to Manning too; she started taking running jumps at the walls, telling her mother: "I'm nobody now"

In November 2001, Manning and her mother left the United States and moved to Haverfordwest, Wales, where her mother had family Manning attended the town's Tasker Milward secondary school A schoolfriend there told Ed Caesar for The Sunday Times that Manning's personality was "unique, extremely unique Very quirky, very opinionated, very political, very clever, very articulate" Manning's interest in computers continued, and in 2003, she and a friend set up a website, angeldynecom, a message board that offered games and music downloads

Manning became the target of bullying at the school because she was the only American and was viewed as effeminate Manning had identified to two friends in Oklahoma as gay, but was not open about it at school in Wales The students would imitate her accent, and apparently abandoned her once during a camping trip; her aunt told The Washington Post that Manning awoke to an empty camp site one morning, after everyone else had packed up their tents and left without her

Return to the United States

Fearing that her mother was becoming too ill to cope, in 2005 at the age of 17 Manning returned to the United States She moved in with her father in Oklahoma City, where he was living with his second wife and her child Manning got a job as a developer with a software company, Zoto, and was apparently happy for a time, but was let go after four months Her boss told The Washington Post that on a few occasions Manning had "just locked up" and would simply sit and stare, and in the end communication became too difficult The boss told the newspaper that "nobody's been taking care of this kid for a really long time"

By then, Manning was living as an openly gay man Her relationship with her father was apparently good, but there were problems between Manning and her stepmother In March 2006, Manning reportedly threatened her stepmother with a knife during an argument about Manning's failure to get another job; the stepmother called the police and Manning was asked to leave the house Manning drove to Tulsa in a pickup truck her father had given her, at first sleeping in it, then moving in with a friend from school The two got jobs at Incredible Pizza in April Manning moved on to Chicago before running out of money and again having nowhere to stay Her mother arranged for Brian's sister, Debra, a lawyer in Potomac, Maryland, to take Manning in Nicks writes that the 15 months Manning spent with her aunt were among the most stable of her life She had a boyfriend, took several low-paid jobs, and spent a semester studying history and English at Montgomery College, but left after failing an exam

Military service

Enlistment in the Army

Manning's father spent weeks in the fall of 2007 asking her to consider joining the Army Hoping to gain a college education through the GI Bill, and perhaps to study for a PhD in physics, she enlisted in September that year She told her Army supervisor later that she had also hoped joining such a masculine environment would resolve her gender identity disorder

Manning began basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, on October 2, 2007 She wrote that she soon realized she was neither physically nor mentally prepared for it Six weeks after enlisting, she was sent to the discharge unit She was allegedly being bullied, and in the opinion of another soldier, was having a breakdown The soldier told The Guardian: "The kid was barely five foot He was a runt, so pick on him He's crazy, pick on him He's a faggot, pick on him The guy took it from every side He couldn't please anyone" Denver Nicks writes that Manning, who was used to being bullied, fought back—if the drill sergeants screamed at her, she would scream at them—to the point where they started calling her "General Manning"

The decision to discharge her was revoked, and she started basic training again in January 2008 After graduating in April, she moved to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in order to attend Advanced Individual Training AIT for Military Occupational Specialty MOS 35F, intelligence analyst, receiving a TS/SCI security clearance Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information According to Nicks, this security clearance, combined with the digitization of classified information and the government's policy of sharing it widely, gave Manning access to an unprecedented amount of material Nicks writes that Manning was reprimanded while at Fort Huachuca for posting three video messages to friends on YouTube, in which she described the inside of the "Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility" SCIF where she worked Upon completion of her initial MOS course, Manning received the Army Service Ribbon and the National Defense Service Medal

Move to Fort Drum, deployment to Iraq

Manning in September 2009

In August 2008, Manning was sent to Fort Drum in Jefferson County, New York, where she joined the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and trained for deployment to Iraq In the fall of 2008 while stationed there, she met Tyler Watkins, who was studying neuroscience and psychology at Brandeis University, near Boston Watkins was her first serious relationship, and she posted happily on Facebook about it, regularly traveling 300 miles 480 km to Boston on visits

Watkins introduced her to a network of friends and the university's hacker community She also visited Boston University's "hackerspace" workshop, known as "Builds", and met its founder, David House, the MIT researcher who was later allowed to visit her in jail In November 2008, she gave an anonymous interview to a high-school reporter during a rally in Syracuse in support of gay marriage:

"I was kicked out of my home and I once lost my job The world is not moving fast enough for us at home, work, or the battlefield I've been living a double life I can't make a statement I can't be caught in an act I hope the public support changes I do hope to do that before ETS "

Nicks writes that Manning would travel back to Washington, DC, for visits An ex-boyfriend helped her find her way around the city's gay community, introducing her to lobbyists, activists, and White House aides Back at Fort Drum, she continued to display emotional problems and, by August 2009, had been referred to an Army mental-health counselor A friend told Nicks that Manning could be emotionally fraught, describing an evening they had watched two movies together—The Last King of Scotland and Dancer in the Dark—after which Manning cried for hours By September 2009 her relationship with Watkins was in trouble; they reconciled for a short time, but it was effectively over

After four weeks at the Joint Readiness Training Center JRTC in Fort Polk, Louisiana, Manning was deployed to Forward Operating Base Hammer, near Baghdad, arriving in October 2009 From her workstation there, she had access to SIPRNet the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network and JWICS the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System Two of her superiors had discussed not taking her to Iraq; it was felt she was a risk to herself and possibly others, according to a statement later issued by the Army—but the shortage of intelligence analysts held sway In November 2009, she was promoted from Private First Class to Specialist

Contact with gender counselor

In November 2009 Manning wrote to a gender counselor in the United States, said she felt female, and discussed having surgery The counselor told Steve Fishman of New York Magazine in 2011 that it was clear Manning was in crisis, partly because of her gender concerns, but also because she was opposed to the kind of war in which she found herself involved

She was by all accounts unhappy and isolated Because of the military's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy known as DADT and in effect until September 20, 2011, Manning was unable to live as an openly gay man without risk of being discharged But she apparently made no secret of her orientation: her friends said she kept a fairy wand on her desk When she told her roommate she was attracted to men, he responded by suggesting they not speak to each other Manning's working conditions included 14- to 15-hour night shifts in a tightly packed, dimly lit room

On December 20, 2009, during a counseling session with two colleagues to discuss her poor time-keeping, Manning was told she would lose her one day off a week for persistent lateness She responded by overturning a table, damaging a computer that was sitting on it A sergeant moved Manning away from the weapons rack, and other soldiers pinned her arms behind her back and dragged her out of the room Several witnesses to the incident believed her access to sensitive material ought to have been withdrawn at that point The following month, January 2010, she began posting on Facebook that she felt hopeless and alone

State of mind over release of material

Manning told Amnesty International

These documents were important because they relate to two connected counter-insurgency conflicts in real-time from the ground Humanity has never had this complete and detailed a record of what modern warfare actually looks like Once you realize that the co-ordinates represent a real place where people live that the dates happened in our recent history; that the numbers are actually human lives—with all the love, hope, dreams, hatred, fear, and nightmares that come with them—then it's difficult to ever forget how important these documents are

Release of material to WikiLeaks

Manning said her first contact with WikiLeaks took place in January 2010, when she began to interact with them on IRC and Jabber She had first noticed them toward the end of November 2009, when they posted 570,000 pager messages from the September 11 attacks

Items of historical significance of two wars Iraq and Afghanistan Significant Activity, Sigacts, between 0001 January 2004 and 2359 31 December 2009 extracts from CSV documents from Department of Defense and CDNE database

These items have already been sanitized of any source identifying information

You might need to sit on this information for 90 to 180 days to best send and distribute such a large amount of data to a large audience and protect the source

This is one of the most significant documents of our time removing the fog of war and revealing the true nature of 21st century asymmetric warfare

Have a good day

“ ” Manning, January 9, 2010

On January 5, 2010, Manning downloaded the 400,000 documents that became known as the Iraq War logs On January 8 she downloaded 91,000 documents from the Afghanistan database, the Afghan War logs She saved the material on CD-RW, and smuggled it through security by labeling the CD-RW media "Lady Gaga" She then copied it onto her personal computer The next day she wrote a message in a readmetxt file see right, which she told the court was initially intended for The Washington Post

Manning copied the files from her laptop to an SD card for her camera so that she could take it with her to the United States while on R&R leave Army investigators later found the SD card in Manning's basement room in her aunt's home in Potomac, Maryland On January 23 Manning flew to the United States via Germany for two weeks of leave It was during this visit that she first went out dressed as a woman, wearing a wig and makeup After her arrest, her former partner, Tyler Watkins, told Wired that Manning had said during the visit that she had found some sensitive information and was considering leaking it

Manning contacted The Washington Post and The New York Times to ask if they were interested in the material; the Post reporter did not sound interested and the Times did not return the call Manning decided instead to pass it to WikiLeaks, and on February 3 sent them the Iraq and Afghan War logs via Tor She returned to Iraq on February 11, with no acknowledgement from WikiLeaks that they had received the files

On or around February 18 she passed WikiLeaks a diplomatic cable, dated January 13, 2010, from the US Embassy in Reykjavík, Iceland They published it within hours, which suggested to Manning that they had received the other material too She found the Baghdad helicopter attack "Collateral murder" video in a Judge Advocate's directory, and passed it to WikiLeaks on or around February 21 In late March she sent them a video of the May 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; this was the video later removed and apparently destroyed by Daniel Domscheit-Berg when he left the organization Between March 28 and April 9 she downloaded the 250,000 diplomatic cables, and uploaded them to a WikiLeaks dropbox on April 10

Manning told the court that, during her interaction with WikiLeaks on IRC and Jabber, she developed a friendship with someone there, believed to be Julian Assange although neither knew the other's name, which she said made her feel she could be herself Army investigators found 14 to 15 pages of encrypted chats, in unallocated space on her MacBook's hard drive, between Manning and someone believed to be Assange She wrote in a statement that the more she had tried to fit in at work, the more alienated she became from everyone around her The relationship with WikiLeaks had given her a brief respite from the isolation and anxiety

Email to supervisor, recommended discharge

On April 24, 2010, Manning sent an email to her supervisor, Master Sergeant Paul Adkins—with the subject line "My Problem"—saying she was suffering from gender identity disorder She attached a photograph of herself dressed as a woman and with the filename breannajpg She wrote:

This is my problem I've had signs of it for a very long time It's caused problems within my family I thought a career in the military would get rid of it It's not something I seek out for attention, and I've been trying very, very hard to get rid of it by placing myself in situations where it would be impossible But, it's not going away; it's haunting me more and more as I get older Now, the consequences of it are dire, at a time when it's causing me great pain in itself

Adkins discussed the situation with Manning's therapists, but did not pass the email to anybody above him in his chain of command; he told Manning's court-martial that he was concerned the photograph would be disseminated among other staff Captain Steven Lim, Manning's company commander, said he first saw the email after Manning's arrest, when information about hormone replacement therapy was found in Manning's room on base; at that point Lim learned that Manning had been calling herself Breanna

Manning sent this photograph of herself in a wig and makeup to her supervisor in April 2010

Manning told former "grey hat" hacker Adrian Lamo that she had set up Twitter and YouTube accounts as Breanna to give her female identity a digital presence, writing to Lamo: "I wouldn't mind going to prison for the rest of my life , or being executed so much, if it wasn't for the possibility of having pictures of me plastered all over the world press as boy the CPU is not made for this motherboard" On April 30 she posted on Facebook that she was utterly lost, and over the next few days wrote that she was "not a piece of equipment," and was "beyond frustrated" and "livid" after being "lectured by ex-boyfriend despite months of relationship ambiguity "

On May 7, according to Army witnesses, Manning was found curled in a fetal position in a storage cupboard; she had a knife at her feet and had cut the words "I want" into a vinyl chair A few hours later she had an altercation with a female intelligence analyst, Specialist Jihrleah Showman, during which she punched Showman in the face The brigade psychiatrist recommended a discharge, referring to an "occupational problem and adjustment disorder" Manning's supervisor removed the bolt from her weapon, making it unable to fire, and she was sent to work in the supply office, although at this point her security clearance remained in place As punishment for the altercation with Showman, she was demoted from Specialist E-4 to Private First Class E-3 three days before her arrest on May 27

Ellen Nakashima writes that, on May 9, Manning contacted Jonathan Odell, a gay American novelist in Minneapolis, via Facebook, leaving a message that she wanted to speak to him in confidence; she said she had been involved in some "very high-profile events, albeit as a nameless individual thus far" On May 19, according to Army investigators, she emailed Eric Schmiedl, a mathematician she had met in Boston, and told him she had been the source of the Baghdad airstrike video Two days later, she began the series of chats with Adrian Lamo that led to her arrest

Publication of leaked material

WikiLeaks

Julian Assange and Daniel Domscheit-Berg at the Chaos Communication Congress, Berlin, December 2009

WikiLeaks was set up in late 2006 as a disclosure portal, initially using the Wikipedia model, where volunteers would write up restricted or legally threatened material submitted by whistleblowers It was Julian Assange—an Australian Internet activist and journalist, and the de facto editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks—who had the idea of creating what Ben Laurie called an "open-source, democratic intelligence agency" The open-editing aspect was soon abandoned, but the site remained open for anonymous submissions

According to Daniel Domscheit-Berg, a former WikiLeaks spokesperson, part of the WikiLeaks security concept was that they did not know who their sources were The New York Times wrote in December 2010 that the US government was trying to discover whether Assange had been a passive recipient of material from Manning, or had encouraged or helped her to extract the files; if the latter, Assange could be charged with conspiracy Manning told Lamo in May 2010 that she had developed a working relationship with Assange, communicating directly with him using an encrypted Internet conferencing service, but knew little about him WikiLeaks did not identify Manning as their source Army investigators found pages of chats on Manning's computer between Manning and someone believed to be Julian Assange Nicks writes that, despite this, no decisive evidence was found of Assange offering Manning any direction

Reykjavik13

Further information: Information published by WikiLeaks

On February 18, 2010, WikiLeaks posted the first of the material from Manning, the diplomatic cable from the US Embassy in Reykjavík, a document now known as Reykjavik13 On March 15 WikiLeaks posted a 32-page report written in 2008 by the US Department of Defense about WikiLeaks itself, and on March 29 it posted US State Department profiles of politicians in Iceland

Baghdad airstrike

Further information: July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike Play media Manning said she gave WikiLeaks the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike video in early 2010

WikiLeaks named the Baghdad airstrike video "Collateral Murder," and Assange released it on April 5, 2010, during a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, DC The video showed two American helicopters firing on a group of ten men in the Amin District of Baghdad Two were Reuters employees there to photograph an American Humvee under attack by the Mahdi Army Pilots mistook their cameras for weapons The helicopters also fired on a van, targeted earlier by one helicopter, that had stopped to help wounded members of the first group Two children in the van were wounded and their father was killed Pilots also engaged a building where retreating insurgents were holed up The Washington Post wrote that it was this video, viewed by millions, that put WikiLeaks on the map According to Nicks, Manning emailed a superior officer after the video aired and tried to persuade her that it was the same version as the one stored on SIPRNet Nicks writes that it seemed as though Manning wanted to be caught

Afghan War logs, Iraq War logs

Further information: Afghan War documents leak and Iraq War documents leak

WikiLeaks and three media partners—The New York Times, The Guardian, and Der Spiegel—began publishing the 91,731 documents that became known as the Afghan War logs on July 25, 2010 This was followed on October 22, 2010, by 391,832 classified military reports covering the period January 2004 to December 2009; these became known as the Iraq War logs Nicks writes that the publication of the former was a watershed moment, the "beginning of the information age exploding upon itself"

Diplomatic cables, Guantanamo Bay files

Further information: United States diplomatic cables leak and Guantanamo Bay files leak

Manning was also responsible for the "Cablegate" leak of 251,287 State Department cables, written by 271 American embassies and consulates in 180 countries, dated December 1966 to February 2010 The cables were passed by Assange to his three media partners, plus El País and others, and published in stages from November 28, 2010, with the names of sources removed WikiLeaks said it was the largest set of confidential documents ever to be released into the public domain The rest of the cables were published unredacted by WikiLeaks on September 1, 2011, after David Leigh and Luke Harding of The Guardian published the passphrase for a file that was still online; Nicks writes that one Ethiopian journalist had to leave his country and the US government said it had to relocate several sources Manning was also the source of the Guantanamo Bay files leak, obtained by WikiLeaks in 2010 and published by The New York Times on April 24, 2011

Granai airstrike

Further information: Granai airstrike

Manning said she gave WikiLeaks a video, in late March 2010, of the Granai airstrike in Afghanistan The airstrike occurred on May 4, 2009, in the village of Granai, Afghanistan, killing 86 to 147 Afghan civilians The video was never published; Julian Assange said in March 2013 that Daniel Domscheit-Berg had taken it with him when he left WikiLeaks, and had apparently destroyed it

Manning and Adrian Lamo

First contact

Adrian Lamo left and Wired's Kevin Poulsen right in 2001 The person in the middle, Kevin Mitnick, had no involvement in the Manning case

On May 20, 2010, Manning contacted Adrian Lamo, a former "grey hat" hacker convicted in 2004 of having accessed The New York Times computer network two years earlier without permission Lamo had been profiled that day by Kevin Poulsen in Wired magazine; the story said Lamo had been involuntarily hospitalized and diagnosed with Asperger syndrome Poulsen, by then a reporter, was himself a former hacker who had used Lamo as a source several times since 2000 Indeed it was Poulsen who, in 2002, had told The New York Times that Lamo had gained unauthorized access to its network; Poulsen then wrote the story up for SecurityFocus Lamo would hack into a system, tell the organization, then offer to fix their security, often using Poulsen as a go-between

Lamo said Manning sent him several encrypted emails on May 20 He said he was unable to decrypt them but replied anyway and invited the emailer to chat on AOL IM Lamo said he later turned the emails over to the FBI without having read them

Chats

In a series of chats between May 21 and 25, Manning—using the handle "bradass87"—told Lamo that she had leaked classified material She introduced herself as an Army intelligence analyst, and within 17 minutes, without waiting for a reply, alluded to the leaks

May 21, 2010:

1:41:12 PM bradass87: hi

1:44:04 PM bradass87: how are you

1:47:01 PM bradass87: im an army intelligence analyst, deployed to eastern baghdad, pending discharge for "adjustment disorder" in lieu of "gender identity disorder"

1:56:24 PM bradass87: im sure you're pretty busy

1:58:31 PM bradass87: if you had unprecedented access to classified networks 14 hours a day 7 days a week for 8+ months, what would you do

Lamo replied several hours later He said: "I'm a journalist and a minister You can pick either, and treat this as a confession or an interview never to be published & enjoy a modicum of legal protection" They talked about restricted material in general, then Manning made her first explicit reference to the leaks: "This is what I do for friends" She linked to a section of the May 21, 2010, version of Wikipedia's article on WikiLeaks, which described the WikiLeaks release in March that year of a Department of Defense report on WikiLeaks itself She added "the one below that is mine too"; the section below in the same article referred to the leak of the Baghdad airstrike "Collateral Murder" video Manning said she felt isolated and fragile, and was reaching out to someone she hoped might understand

May 22, 2010:

11:49:02 AM bradass87: im in the desert, with a bunch of hyper-masculine trigger happy ignorant rednecks as neighbors and the only safe place i seem to have is this satellite internet connection

11:49:51 AM bradass87: and i already got myself into minor trouble, revealing my uncertainty over my gender identity which is causing me to lose this job and putting me in an awkward limbo

11:52:23 AM bradass87: at the very least, i managed to keep my security clearance

11:58:33 AM bradass87: and little does anyone know, but among this "visible" mess, theres the mess i created that no-one knows about yet

12:15:11 PM bradass87: hypothetical question: if you had free reign over classified networks for long periods of time say, 8–9 months and you saw incredible things, awful things things that belonged in the public domain, and not on some server stored in a dark room in Washington DC what would you do

12:21:24 PM bradass87: say a database of half a million events during the iraq war from 2004 to 2009 with reports, date time groups, lat-lon locations, casualty figures or 260,000 state department cables from embassies and consulates all over the world, explaining how the first world exploits the third, in detail, from an internal perspective

12:26:09 PM bradass87: lets just say someone i know intimately well, has been penetrating US classified networks, mining data like the ones described and been transferring that data from the classified networks over the "air gap" onto a commercial network computer sorting the data, compressing it, encrypting it, and uploading it to a crazy white haired aussie who can't seem to stay in one country very long

12:31:43 PM bradass87: crazy white haired dude = Julian Assange

12:33:05 PM bradass87: in other words ive made a huge mess :’

Manning said she had started to help WikiLeaks around Thanksgiving in November 2009—which fell on November 26 that year—after WikiLeaks had released the 9/11 pager messages; the messages were released on November 25 She told Lamo she had recognized that the messages came from an NSA database, and that seeing them had made her feel comfortable about stepping forward Lamo asked what kind of material Manning was dealing with; Manning replied: "uhm crazy, almost criminal political backdealings the non-PR-versions of world events and crises " Although she said she dealt with Assange directly, Manning also said Assange had adopted a deliberate policy of knowing very little about her, telling Manning: "lie to me"

May 22, 2010:

1:11:54 PM bradass87: and its important that it gets out i feel, for some bizarre reason

1:12:02 PM bradass87: it might actually change something

1:13:10 PM bradass87: i just dont wish to be a part of it at least not now im not ready i wouldn't mind going to prison for the rest of my life, or being executed so much, if it wasn't for the possibility of having pictures of me plastered all over the world press as boy

1:14:11 PM bradass87: i've totally lost my mind i make no sense the CPU is not made for this motherboard

1:39:03 PM bradass87: i cant believe what im confessing to you :’

Lamo again assured her that she was speaking in confidence Manning wrote: "but im not a source for you im talking to you as someone who needs moral and emotional fucking support," and Lamo replied: "i told you, none of this is for print"

Manning said the incident that had affected her the most was when 15 detainees had been arrested by the Iraqi Federal Police for printing anti-Iraqi literature She was asked by the Army to find out who the "bad guys" were, and discovered that the detainees had followed what Manning said was a corruption trail within the Iraqi cabinet She reported this to her commanding officer, but said "he didn't want to hear any of it"; she said the officer told her to help the Iraqi police find more detainees Manning said it made her realize, "i was actively involved in something that i was completely against "

She explained that "i cant separate myself from others i feel connected to everybody like they were distant family," and cited Carl Sagan, Richard Feynman and Elie Wiesel She said she hoped the material would lead to "hopefully worldwide discussion, debates, and reforms if not than we're doomed as a species" She said she had downloaded the material onto music CD-RWs, erased the music and replaced it with a compressed split file Part of the reason no one noticed, she said, was that staff were working 14 hours a day, seven days a week, and "people stopped caring after 3 weeks"

May 25, 2010:

02:12:23 PM bradass87: so it was a massive data spillage facilitated by numerous factors both physically, technically, and culturally

02:13:02 PM bradass87: perfect example of how not to do INFOSEC

02:14:21 PM bradass87: listened and lip-synced to Lady Gaga's Telephone while exfiltratrating possibly the largest data spillage in american history

02:17:56 PM bradass87: weak servers, weak logging, weak physical security, weak counter-intelligence, inattentive signal analysis a perfect storm

02:22:47 PM bradass87: i mean what if i were someone more malicious

02:23:25 PM bradass87: i could've sold to russia or china, and made bank

02:23:36 PM info@adrianlamocom: why didn't you

02:23:58 PM bradass87: because it's public data

02:24:46 PM bradass87: it belongs in the public domain

02:25:15 PM bradass87: Information should be free

Lamo approaches authorities, chat logs published

Shortly after the first chat with Manning, Lamo discussed the information with Chet Uber of the volunteer group ProjectVIGILANT, which researches cybercrime, and with Timothy Webster, a friend who had worked in Army counterintelligence Both advised Lamo to go to the authorities His friend reported the conversation to United States Army Counterintelligence, and Lamo was contacted by counterintelligence agents shortly thereafter He told them he believed Manning was endangering lives He was largely ostracized by the hacker community afterwards Nicks argues, on the other hand, that it was thanks to Lamo that the government had months to ameliorate any harm caused by the release of the diplomatic cables

Lamo met with FBI and Army investigators on May 25 in California, and showed them the chat logs On or around that date he also passed the story to Kevin Poulsen of Wired, and on May 27 gave him the chat logs and Manning's name under embargo He met with the FBI again that day, at which point they told him Manning had been arrested in Iraq the day before Poulsen and Kim Zetter broke the news of the arrest in Wired on June 6 Wired published around 25 percent of the chat logs on June 6 and 10, and the full logs in July 2011, after the material about Manning's gender identity disorder had appeared elsewhere

Legal proceedings

Arrest and charges

Further information: List of charges in United States v Manning

Manning was arrested by the US Army Criminal Investigation Division CID, on May 27, 2010, and transferred four days later to Camp Arifjan in Kuwait She was charged with several offenses in July, replaced by 22 charges in March 2011, including violations of Articles 92 and 134 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice UCMJ, and of the Espionage Act The most serious charge was "aiding the enemy," a capital offense, although prosecutors said they would not seek the death penalty Another charge, which Manning's defense called a "made up offense" but of which she was found guilty, read that Manning "wantonly to be published on the internet intelligence belonging to the US government, having knowledge that intelligence published on the internet is accessible to the enemy"

Detention

While in Kuwait, Manning was placed on suicide watch after her behavior caused concern She was moved from Kuwait to the Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, on July 29, 2010, and classified as a maximum custody detainee with Prevention of Injury POI status POI status is one stop short of suicide watch, entailing checks by guards every five minutes Her lawyer, David Coombs, a former military attorney, said Manning was not allowed to sleep between 5 am 7 am on weekends and 8 pm, and was made to stand or sit up if she tried to She was required to remain visible at all times, including at night, which entailed no access to sheets, no pillow except one built into her mattress, and a blanket designed not to be shredded Manning complained that she regarded it as pretrial punishment

Her cell was 6 × 12 ft 18 x 36 m with no window, containing a bed, toilet and sink The jail had 30 cells built in a U shape, and although detainees could talk to one another, they were unable to see each other Her lawyer said the guards behaved professionally, and had not tried to harass or embarrass Manning She was allowed to walk for up to one hour a day, meals were taken in the cell, and she was shackled during visits There was access to television when it was placed in the corridor, and she was allowed to keep one magazine and one book Because she was in pretrial detention, she received full pay

On January 18, 2011, after Manning had an altercation with the guards, the commander of Quantico classified her as a suicide risk Manning said the guards had begun issuing conflicting commands, such as "turn left, don't turn left," and upbraiding her for responding to commands with "yes" instead of "aye" Shortly afterwards, she was placed on suicide watch, had her clothing and eyeglasses removed, and was required to remain in her cell 24 hours a day The suicide watch was lifted on January 21 after a complaint from her lawyer, and the brig commander who ordered it was replaced On March 2 she was told that her request for removal of POI status—which entailed among other things sleeping wearing only boxer shorts—had been denied Her lawyer said Manning joked to the guards that, if she wanted to harm herself, she could do so with her underwear or her flip-flops The comment resulted in Manning being ordered to strip naked in her cell that night and sleep without clothing On the following morning only, Manning stood naked for inspection Following her lawyer's protest and media attention, Manning was issued a sleeping garment on or before March 11

The detention conditions prompted national and international concern Juan E Mendez, United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture, told The Guardian that the US government's treatment of Manning was "cruel, inhuman and degrading" In January 2011 Amnesty International asked the British government to intervene because of Manning's status as a British citizen by descent, although Manning's lawyer said Manning did not regard herself as a British citizen The controversy claimed a casualty in March that year when State Department spokesman Philip J Crowley criticized Manning's treatment and resigned two days later In early April, 295 academics most of them American legal scholars signed a letter arguing that the treatment was a violation of the US Constitution On April 20 the Pentagon transferred Manning to the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a new medium-security facility at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where she was placed in an 80-square-foot cell with a window and a normal mattress, able to mix with other pretrial detainees and keep personal objects in her cell

Evidence presented at Article 32 hearing

In April 2011, a panel of experts, having completed a medical and mental evaluation of Manning, ruled that she was fit to stand trial An Article 32 hearing, presided over by Lieutenant Colonel Paul Almanza, was convened on December 16, 2011, at Fort Meade, Maryland; the hearing resulted in Almanza's recommending that Manning be referred to a general court-martial She was arraigned on February 23, 2012, and declined to enter a plea

During the Article 32 hearing, the prosecution, led by Captain Ashden Fein, presented 300,000 pages of documents in evidence, including chat logs and classified material The court heard from two Army investigators, Special Agent David Shaver, head of the digital forensics and research branch of the Army's Computer Crime Investigative Unit CCIU; and Mark Johnson, a digital forensics contractor from ManTech International, who works for the CCIU They testified that they had found 100,000 State Department cables on a workplace computer Manning had used between November 2009 and May 2010; 400,000 military reports from Iraq and 91,000 from Afghanistan on an SD card found in her basement room in her aunt's home in Potomac, Maryland; and 10,000 cables on her personal MacBook Pro and storage devices that they said had not been passed to WikiLeaks because a file was corrupted They also recovered 14 to 15 pages of encrypted chats, in unallocated space on Manning's MacBook hard drive, between Manning and someone believed to be Julian Assange Two of the chat handles, which used the Berlin Chaos Computer Club's domain cccde, were associated with the names Julian Assange and Nathaniel Frank

Johnson said he found SSH logs on the MacBook that showed an SFTP connection, from an IP address that resolved to Manning's aunt's home, to a Swedish IP address with links to WikiLeaks Also found was a text file named "Readme", attached to the logs and apparently written by Manning to Assange, which called the Iraq and Afghan War logs "possibly one of the most significant documents of our time, removing the fog of war and revealing the true nature of 21st century asymmetric warfare" The investigators testified they had also recovered an exchange from May 2010 between Manning and Eric Schmiedl, a Boston mathematician, in which Manning said she was the source of the Baghdad helicopter attack "Collateral Murder" video Johnson said there had been two attempts to delete material from the MacBook The operating system had been re-installed in January 2010, and on or around January 31, 2010, an attempt had been made to erase the hard drive by doing a "zero-fill," which involves overwriting material with zeroes The material was recovered after the overwrite attempts from unallocated space

Manning's lawyers argued that the government had overstated the harm the release of the documents had caused, and had overcharged Manning to force her to give evidence against Assange The defense also raised questions about whether Manning's confusion over her gender identity affected her behavior and decision making

Guilty plea, trial, sentence

Main article: United States v Manning
United States v Manning
Court United States Army Military District of Washington
Full case name United States of America v Manning, Bradley E, PFC
Decided July 30, 2013
Case history
Prior actions Article 32 hearing, opened December 16, 2011
Formally charged, February 23, 2012
Article 39 pretrial hearing, opened April 24, 2012
Court membership
Judge sitting Colonel Denise Lind

The judge, Army Colonel Denise Lind, ruled in January 2013 that any sentence would be reduced by 112 days because of the treatment Manning received at Quantico On February 28, Manning pleaded guilty to 10 of the 22 charges Reading for over an hour from a 35-page statement, she said she had leaked the cables "to show the true cost of war" Prosecutors pursued a court-martial on the remaining charges

The trial began on June 3, 2013 Manning was convicted on July 30, on 17 of the 22 charges in their entirety, including five counts of espionage and theft, and an amended version of four other charges; she was acquitted of aiding the enemy The sentencing phase began the next day

Captain Michael Worsley, a military psychologist who had treated Manning before her arrest, testified that Manning had been left isolated in the Army, trying to deal with gender-identity issues in a "hyper-masculine environment" David Moulton, a Navy forensic psychiatrist who saw Manning after the arrest, said Manning had narcissistic traits, and showed signs of both fetal alcohol syndrome and Asperger syndrome He said that, in leaking the material, Manning had been "acting out grandiose ideation"

A defense psychiatrist, testifying to Manning's motives, suggested a different agenda:

Well, Pfc Manning was under the impression that his leaked information was going to really change how the world views the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and future wars, actually This was an attempt to crowdsource an analysis of the war, and it was his opinion that if through crowdsourcing, enough analysis was done on these documents, which he felt to be very important, that it would lead to a greater good that society as a whole would come to the conclusion that the war wasn't worth it that really no wars are worth it

On August 14, Manning apologized to the court: "I am sorry that my actions hurt people I'm sorry that they hurt the United States I am sorry for the unintended consequences of my actions When I made these decisions I believed I was going to help people, not hurt people At the time of my decisions I was dealing with a lot of issues"

Manning's offenses carried a maximum sentence of 90 years The government asked for 60 years as a deterrent to others, while Manning's lawyer asked for no more than 25 years She was sentenced on August 21 to 35 years in prison, reduction in rank to private private E-1 or PVT, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and a dishonorable discharge She was given credit for 1,293 days of pretrial confinement, including 112 days for her treatment at Quantico, and will be eligible for parole after serving one-third of the sentence There may also be additional credit for good behavior, which means she could be released after eight years She is confined at the United States Disciplinary Barracks USDB at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

On April 14, 2014, Manning's request for clemency was denied, as a result of which the case will go to the United States Army Court of Criminal Appeals for further review

Request for presidential pardon

On September 3, 2013, Manning's lawyer applied for a presidential pardon for his client Coombs filed a Petition for Pardon/Commutation of Sentence to President Obama through the pardon attorney at the Department of Justice and Secretary of the Army John M McHugh In the petition, which was filed with the legal name "Bradley Manning" and used male-gender pronouns, Coombs contended that Manning's disclosures did not cause any "real damage," and that the documents in question did not merit protection as they were not sensitive The request for a pardon included a supporting letter from Amnesty International which said that Manning's leaks had exposed violations of human rights Coombs's letter touched on Manning's role as a whistleblower, asking that Manning be granted a full pardon or that her sentence be reduced to time served

United States Army Court of Criminal Appeals

In April 2015, Amnesty International posted online a letter from Manning in which she wrote, "I am now preparing for my court-martial appeal before the first appeals court The appeal team, with my attorneys Nancy Hollander and Vince Ward, are hoping to file our brief before the court in the next six months We have already had success in getting the court to respect my gender identity by using feminine pronouns in the court filings she, her, etc"

Petition for release

After the election of Donald Trump in November 2016, Manning made a formal petition to President Obama to reduce her 35-year sentence to the six years of time she has served

Reaction to disclosures

The publication of the leaked material, particularly the diplomatic cables, attracted in-depth coverage worldwide, with several governments blocking websites that contained embarrassing details Alan Rusbridger, editor of The Guardian, said: "I can't think of a time when there was ever a story generated by a news organisation where the White House, the Kremlin, Chávez, India, China, everyone in the world was talking about these things I've never known a story that created such mayhem that wasn't an event like a war or a terrorist attack"

Billboard erected in Washington, DC, by the Private Manning Support Network

United States Navy Admiral Michael Mullen, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said the leaks had placed the lives of American soldiers and Afghan informants in danger Journalist Glenn Greenwald argued that Manning was the most important whistleblower since Daniel Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers in 1971 In an impromptu questioning session after a fundraiser, captured on a cell phone video, President Barack Obama said that Manning "broke the law", which was later criticized as "unlawful command influence" on Manning's upcoming trial

Manning and WikiLeaks were credited as catalysts for the Arab Spring that began in December 2010, when waves of protesters rose up against rulers across the Middle East and North Africa, after the leaked cables exposed government corruption In Tunisia, where the uprisings began on December 17, 2010, one of the leaked cables—published around 10 days earlier—showed that the President's daughter and her husband had their ice cream flown in from Saint-Tropez

A Washington Post editorial asked why an apparently unstable Army private had been able to access and transfer sensitive material in the first place According to a biographer, Manning's sexuality came into play by illustrating for the far right that gay people were unfit for military service, while the American mainstream thought of Manning as a gay soldier driven mad by bullying

Non-military tributes

In 2011, Manning was awarded a "Whistleblowerpreis" by the German Section of the International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms and the Federation of German Scientists In 2012, she was awarded "People's Choice Award" awarded by Global Exchange In 2013, she was awarded the Sean MacBride Peace Prize by the International Peace Bureau In 2014, she was awarded the Sam Adams Award by Sam Adams Associates for Integrity in Intelligence

Icelandic and Swedish Pirate Party MPs nominated Manning and fellow whistleblower Edward Snowden for the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize In a statement to the Nomination Committee, the Pirate Party members said Manning and Snowden "have inspired change and encouraged public debate and policy changes that contributed to a more stable and peaceful world" In 2013, Roots Action launched a petition nominating Manning for the prize that received more than 100,000 supporting signatures

In April 2015 a bronze statute of Manning, Edward Snowden, and Julian Assange was erected in Berlin's Alexanderplatz Germany's Green Party sponsored the statue created by Italian sculptor David Dormino

Gender transition

How Chelsea Manning sees herself By Alicia Neal, in cooperation with Chelsea herself, commissioned by the Chelsea Manning Support Network, 23 April 2014

2010

In an article written by Manning, she says her first public appearance as female was in February 2010 while on leave from her military duties; Manning was exhilarated to blend in as a woman

2013

On August 22, 2013, the day after sentencing, Manning's attorney issued a press release to the Today show announcing that his client was a female, and asked that she be referred to by her new name of Chelsea and feminine pronouns Manning's statement included the following:

As I transition into this next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me I am Chelsea Manning I am a female Given the way that I feel, and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible I hope that you will support me in this transition I also request that, starting today, you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun except in official mail to the confinement facility I look forward to receiving letters from supporters and having the opportunity to write back

The news media split in its reaction to Manning's request; some organizations used the new name and pronouns, and others continued to use the former ones Advocacy groups such as GLAAD, the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association, and the Human Rights Campaign HRC encouraged media outlets to refer to Manning by her self-identified name and pronoun

2014

In April 2014, the Kansas District Court considered a petition from Manning for a legal name change The petition was granted that month An Army spokesman stated that while the Army will update personnel records to acknowledge the name change, the military will continue to regard Manning as a male Manning is seeking hormone therapy and the right to live as a woman while confined, consistent with her gender dysphoria, which has been confirmed by two Army medical specialists Such treatment is provided in civilian federal prisons when it is found to be medically necessary, but it is not available in military prisons The Pentagon policy considers transgender individuals ineligible to serve

In July, the Federal Bureau of Prisons rejected a request by the Army to transfer Manning from the USDB to a civilian facility for treatment of her gender dysphoria Instead, the Army will keep Manning in military custody and begin rudimentary gender treatment, which could include allowing her to wear female undergarments and possibly receive hormone treatments No decision was announced regarding whether or not Manning will be transferred from the all-male USDB to a female facility

On August 12, 2014, the ACLU and Manning's civilian attorney David Coombs said Manning was not receiving treatment for her gender identity condition as previously approved by Secretary of Defense Hagel They notified the USDB, Hagel and other Defense Department officials that a lawsuit would be filed if they did not confirm by September 4 that treatment would be provided On August 22, Army spokeswoman Lt Col Alayne Conway told NBC News, "The Department of Defense has approved a request by Army leadership to provide required medical treatment for an inmate diagnosed with gender dysphoria" Although Conway would not discuss "the medical needs of an individual," she did say, "In general terms, the initial stages of treatment for individuals with gender dysphoria include psychotherapy and elements of the 'real life experience' therapy Treatment for the condition is highly individualized and generally is sequential and graduated" The Army declined to say when treatment might begin

In September, Manning filed a lawsuit in federal district court in Washington, DC, against Secretary of Defense Hagel, claiming she had "been denied access to medically necessary treatment" for gender disorder She sued to be allowed to grow her hair longer and use cosmetics, and to receive hormone treatments "to express her female gender"

2015

On February 12, 2015, USA Today reported that the commandant of the USDB wrote in a February 5 memo, "After carefully considering the recommendation that hormone treatment is medically appropriate and necessary, and weighing all associated safety and security risks presented, I approve adding hormone treatment to Inmate Manning's treatment plan" According to USA Today, Manning remained a soldier, and the decision to administer hormone therapy was a first for the Army Manning was not allowed to grow her hair longer Her ACLU attorney said that the delay in approving her hormone treatment "came with a significant cost to Chelsea and her mental health"

On March 5, in response to Manning's request for an order compelling the military to use pronouns that conform to her chosen gender identity, the US Army Court of Criminal Appeals ruled, "Reference to appellant in all future formal papers filed before this court and all future orders and decisions issued by this court shall either be neutral, eg, Private First Class Manning or appellant, or employ a feminine pronoun"

On March 14, the digital library host Cryptome posted an unsigned public copy of a court document, filed March 10, wherein the parties to Manning's September 2014 lawsuit against Secretary of Defense Hagel agreed to stay proceedings for seven months, after which time they would address how the litigation should proceed in light of Manning's status at that time The document revealed that the Army was then providing Manning with weekly psychotherapy, including psychotherapy specific to gender dysphoria; cross-sex hormone therapy; female undergarments; the ability to wear prescribed cosmetics in her daily life at the USDB; and speech therapy

In April 2015, Amnesty International posted online a letter from Manning in which she disclosed,

I finally began my prescribed regime of hormones to continue my overdue gender transition in February It's been such an amazing relief for my body and brain to finally come into alignment with each other My stress and anxiety levels have tapered off quite considerably Overall, things are beginning to move along nicely

2016

On September 13, 2016, the ACLU announced that the army will be granting Manning's request for gender transition surgery, a first for a transgender inmate

Prison life

In March 2015, Bloomberg News reported that Manning can be visited only by those she had named before her imprisonment, and not by journalists She cannot be photographed or give interviews on camera Manning is not allowed to browse the web, but consults print news and has access to new gender theory texts

In April 2015, Amnesty International posted online a letter from Manning in which she described her daily life "My days here are busy and very routine," Manning wrote "I am taking college correspondence courses for a bachelor's degree I also work out a lot to stay fit, and read newspapers, magazines and books to keep up-to-date on current events around the world and learn new things"

Also that month, Cosmopolitan published the first interview with Manning in prison, conducted by mail Cosmo reported that Manning is optimistic about recent progress but says not being allowed to grow her hair long is "painful and awkward … I am torn up I get through each day okay, but at night, when I'm alone in my room, I finally burn out and crash" Manning said it was "very much a relief" to announce that she is a woman, and did not fear the public response "Honestly, I'm not terribly worried about what people out there might think of me I just try to be myself" According to Cosmo, Manning has her own cell with "two tall vertical windows that face the sun," and can see "trees and hills and blue sky and all the things beyond the buildings and razor wire" Manning denies being harassed by other inmates, and claims some have become confidantes

Writing

In February 2015, Katharine Viner, editor-in-chief of Guardian US, announced that Manning had joined The Guardian as a contributing opinion writer on war, gender, and freedom of information Viner added that Manning would not be paid in this capacity In 2014, The Guardian had published two op-eds by Manning: "How to make Isis fall on its own sword" September 16 and "I am a transgender woman and the government is denying my civil rights" December 8 Manning's debut under the new arrangement, "The CIA's torturers and the leaders who approved their actions must face the law," appeared on March 9, 2015

In April 2015, Manning began communicating via Twitter, under the handle @xychelsea, by using a voice phone to dictate to intermediaries, who then tweet on her behalf

Suicide attempts

On July 5, 2016, Manning was taken to a hospital after what media sources characterized as a suicide attempt The following week, Manning confirmed through an attorney statement that she attempted to end her own life On July 28, 2016, the ACLU announced that Manning was under investigation and facing several possible charges related to her suicide attempt She was not allowed to have legal representation at the disciplinary hearing for these charges At the hearing, held on September 22, she was sentenced to 14 days in solitary confinement, with seven of those days suspended indefinitely Manning emerged from solitary confinement on October 12, after serving seven days; she said that she was not given the opportunity to appeal the ruling before being placed in solitary

In an article following her recovery, entitled "Moving On", Chelsea reflected on her change in identity, wishing people to see her no longer as "Chelsea Manning, formerly Bradley Manning, a US Army Soldier convicted" but as a person She used a selfie from 2008 to accompany the article

In November 2016, Manning disclosed that she made a second suicide attempt on October 4, 2016, on the first night of her solitary confinement

Hunger strike

On September 9, 2016, Manning began a hunger strike in protest of what she described as bullying from prison authorities and the US government On September 13, the ACLU announced that Manning had ended the five-day hunger strike after the Army agreed to provide gender transition surgery

See also

  • Information technology portal
  • LGBT portal
  • Transgender portal
  • United States Army portal
  • Classified information in the United States
  • Information security
  • Information sensitivity
  • McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950
  • Reception of WikiLeaks
  • Source journalism
Material associated with Manning
  • 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike leaked video footage
  • Afghan War documents leak
  • Granai airstrike#Video of the airstrike
  • Guantanamo Bay files leak
  • Iraq War documents leak
  • United States diplomatic cables leak
    • Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak
    • Reactions to the United States diplomatic cables leak

References

Notes

Note: Sources that are used repeatedly or are central to the article are presented in shortened form in this section, as are books; for full citations for those sources, see the References section below Other sources are cited in full in this section
  1. ^ a b c Tate, Julie and Londoño, Ernesto "Bradley Manning found not guilty of aiding the enemy, convicted on other charges", The Washington Post, July 30, 2013
    • Londoño, Ernesto; Rolfe, Rebecca; and Tate, Julie "Verdict in Bradley Manning case", The Washington Post, July 30, 2013
    • Savage, Charlie "Manning Acquitted of Aiding the Enemy", The New York Times, July 30, 2013
    • Pilkington, Ed "Bradley Manning verdict: cleared of 'aiding the enemy' but guilty of other charges", The Guardian, July 31, 2013: "the soldier was found guilty in their entirety of 17 out of the 22 counts against him, and of an amended version of four others"
  2. ^ a b c d Tate, Julie "Judge sentences Bradley Manning to 35 years", The Washington Post, August 21, 2013
    • For possible release after eight years, see Sledge, Matt "Bradley Manning Sentenced To 35 Years In Prison For WikiLeaks Disclosures ", Huffington Post, August 21, 2013
  3. ^ Lewis, Paul "Bradley Manning given 35-year prison term for passing files to WikiLeaks", The Guardian, August 21, 2013
  4. ^ a b Londoño, Ernesto "Convicted leaker Bradley Manning changes legal name to Chelsea Elizabeth Manning" The Washington Post Retrieved April 27, 2014 
  5. ^ Manning, Chelsea E May 27, 2015 "The years since I was jailed for releasing the 'war diaries' have been a rollercoaster" The Guardian Retrieved May 28, 2015 
  6. ^ "21 Transgender People Who Influenced American Culture" Time Magazine 
  7. ^ Manning, Chelsea E "The Next Stage of My Life", press release, August 22, 2013: "As I transition into this next phase of my life, I want everyone to know the real me I am Chelsea Manning I am a female Given the way that I feel, and have felt since childhood, I want to begin hormone therapy as soon as possible I also request that, starting today, you refer to me by my new name and use the feminine pronoun except in official mail to the confinement facility Thank you, Chelsea E Manning"
    • Stamp, Scott "Bradley Manning: I want to live as a woman", NBC Today, August 22, 2013
    • Blake, Aaron and Tate, Julie "Bradley Manning comes out as transgender: ‘I am a female’", The Washington Post, August 22, 2013
    • Coombs, David "Additional Clarification on PVT Manning's Request", The Law Offices of David E Coombs, August 26, 2013: " PVT Manning, who has experienced gender dysphoria and gone through a process of gender questioning and exploration for years, announced that she would like to begin to be known publicly by the name of Chelsea Elizabeth Manning "
    • Farrell, Henry; Finnemore, Martha November–December 2013 "The End of Hypocrisy: American Foreign Policy in the Age of Leaks" Foreign Affairs Retrieved October 26, 2013 subscription required help Chelsea Manning, an army private then known as Bradley Manning, turned over hundreds of thousands of classified cables to the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks 
  8. ^ Clark, Meredith 22 August 2013 "'I am Chelsea Manning'" Retrieved October 28, 2013 Dr David Moulton, the forensic psychologist assigned to review Manning's case, said that Manning was suffering from gender identity disorder, a diagnosis supported by a military sanity board 
  9. ^ a b "Secret US Embassy Cables" WikiLeaks November 28, 2010 Retrieved May 28, 2015 
  10. ^ "Iraq War logs" WikiLeaks October 22, 2010 Retrieved May 28, 2015 
  11. ^ "Afghan War diary" WikiLeaks July 25, 2010 Retrieved May 28, 2015 
  12. ^ Leigh and Harding 2011, pp 194ff, 211
    • For the Afghan and Iraq War logs, see Nicks 2012, p 137
    • For Manning's referring to the documents, see Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010, Hansen, July 13, 2011, and Manning, January 29, 2013
  13. ^ Nicks, September 23, 2010
    • For the initial charges, see "Soldier faces criminal charges", United States Division – Center, Media Release, July 6, 2010
    • Also see "Charge sheet", The Washington Post
    • For the additional charges, see Miklaszewski, Jim and Kube, Courtney "Manning faces new charges, possible death penalty", MSNBC, March 2, 2011
  14. ^ For the letter from the legal scholars, see Ackerman, Bruce and Benkler, Yochai "Private Manning's Humiliation", The New York Review of Books Retrieved April 5, 2011 see a later correction here
    • For the jail transfer, see "WikiLeaks Suspect Transferred to Fort Leavenworth", Associated Press, April 20, 2011
  15. ^ a b "Judge accepts Manning's guilty pleas in WikiLeaks case", CBS News, February 28, 2013
  16. ^ a b Hanna, John "Manning to Serve Sentence at Famous Leavenworth", Associated Press, August 21, 2013
  17. ^ For the comparisons, see Nicks 2012, p 3, and for the Arab Spring, pp 212–216
  18. ^ "Lengthy prison term for Bradley Manning", Reporters Without Borders, August 21, 2013
  19. ^
  20. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, pp 2–3
    • For the swimming pool and the house, see Nicks, September 23, 2010
    • For the meeting in Woolworths, see McKelvey, Tara "Bradley Manning's disrupted family life", BBC News, August 22, 2013
  21. ^ Tate, Julie "Manning apologizes, says he 'hurt the United States'", The Washington Post, August 14, 2013
  22. ^ For the diet, height and being small for her age, see Lewis, Paul "Bradley Manning trial revealed a lonely soldier with a troubled past", The Guardian, August 21, 2013
    • For height and weight, see Kirkland, Michael "Under the US Supreme Court: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks martyr", United Press International, March 13, 2011
  23. ^ For her mother not adjusting, Manning fending for herself, and the neighbor, see Thompson, August 8, 2010, p 1
    • For the pre-signed checks and the neighbor again, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
    • For the father stocking up on food, see "Interview Brian Manning" and "Interview Jordan Davis", PBS Frontline, March 2011
    • For the perception of friends and neighbors regarding the Manning family Frontline, March 2011
  24. ^ Nicks, September 23, 2010
    • For religion, see Thompson, August 8, 2010, p 1
    • For atheist, see Nicks 2012, p 90
  25. ^ For the interview with the father, see Smith, March 2011, from 02:25 mins transcript
    • For the quiz bowl, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
    • Also see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 4
  26. ^ Nicks 2012, pp 19–20
    • Smith, March 2011; "Interview Brian Manning" transcript; and "Interview Jordan Davis" transcript, PBS Frontline, March 7, 2011
    • Also see Hansen, July 13, 2011, at "11:36:34 AM bradass87"
  27. ^ Lewis, Paul "Bradley Manning trial revealed a lonely soldier with a troubled past", The Guardian, August 21, 2013
  28. ^ a b Nakashima, May 4, 2011
  29. ^ a b For the views of her schoolfriend James Kirkpatrick, see Caesar, December 19, 2010
    • For the website, see angeldynecom, December 7, 2003
    • For Manning referring to the website as hers, see Hansen, July 13, 2011, at "11:40:25 AM bradass87"
  30. ^ For being the only American in the school and being imitated, see Leigh and Harding 2011, p 24
    • For not discussing being gay, see Nicks, 23 September 2010
    • For being abandoned during a camping trip, Nakashima, May 4, 2011
  31. ^ On her way through London to renew her passport, Manning arrived at the King's Cross underground station on the day of the 7 July 2005 London bombings, and said she heard the sirens and the screaming See Hansen, July 13, 2011, and Nicks 2012, pp 23–24
  32. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 3
    • For Zoto and Campbell, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
  33. ^ Nicks 2012, pp 24–25, 51–56
    • Also see:
    Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 3 Nakashima, May 4, 2011 For the jobs, see "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011
  34. ^ Nicks 2012, p 57
    • For the PhD in physics, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
    • Also see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 4
  35. ^ a b Reeve, Elspeth "A Portrait of the Mind of Bradley Manning", The Atlantic Wire, August 14, 2013
  36. ^ Manning, January 29, 2013, p 2
  37. ^ For concerns about her stability, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
    • For basic training and the video interview with the soldier, see Smith, Teresa et al "The madness of Bradley Manning", The Guardian, May 27, 2011; soldier's interview begins 07:10 mins
      • For a transcript of the interview, see "Bradley Manning: fellow soldier recalls 'scared, bullied kid'", The Guardian, May 28, 2011
    • For the drill sergeants and "General Manning," see Nicks 2012, p 62
  38. ^ For restarting basic training in January 2008, see Nicks 2012, p 73
    • For the top-security clearance, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011, and for the "TS/SCI security clearance," see Nicks 2012, p 116
    • For "unprecedented access to state secrets," see Nicks 2012, p 117; also see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 2
    • For the reprimand regarding YouTube, see Nicks, September 23, 2010; also see Nicks 2012, p 75
  39. ^ "Bradley Manning", The Wall Street Journal Retrieved August 31, 2014
  40. ^ Nicks 2012, p 82
  41. ^ Leigh and Harding 2011, pp 27–28; Nicks 2012, p 83
  42. ^ For her introduction to the hacker community, see Leigh and Harding 2011, pp 27–28
    • For the anonymous interview, see Her, Phim "Teen hears peoples' stories at LGBTQ rally", syracusecom, November 17, 2008
    • That the interviewee was Manning, see Nicks, September 23, 2010, and Nick 2012, p 82
    • For Manning's reference to the interview on Facebook, see "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011
  43. ^ For the introduction to lobbyists and others, see Nicks 2012, p 85
    • For the emotional problems and referral to a counselor, see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 1, and Nicks 2012, p 114
  44. ^ For the films, see Nicks 2012, p 88
    • For the relationship with Watkins, see Nicks, September 23, 2010, and Nicks 2012, p 122
  45. ^ For her time in Fort Polk, and for "risk to himself and possibly others", see Nicks 2012, pp 114–115; for Forward Operating Base Hammer, see pp 123–124
    • For "risk to himself", also see Nakashima, May 4, 2011, and "Accused WikiLeaker Bradley Manning's Dream of Becoming President", Newsweek, April 12, 2012 excerpt from Nicks 2012
  46. ^ "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011
  47. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 5
  48. ^ For the fairy wand, see Thompson, August 8, 2010, p 2
    • For the roommate, see Rushe, Dominic and Williams, Matt "Bradley Manning pre-trial hearing – Monday 19 December", The Guardian, December 19, 2011
  49. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 4
  50. ^ Nicks 2012, pp 133–134
    • Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011
    • Williams, Matt "Bradley Manning hearing told of lax security at military intelligence unit", The Guardian, December 18, 2011
    • Lewis, Paul "Bradley Manning flipped a table during counseling, defence tells hearing", The Guardian, August 12, 2013
  51. ^ "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011, and Blake, Heidi; Bingham, John; and Rayner, Gordon "Bradley Manning, suspected source of WikiLeaks documents, raged on his Facebook page", The Daily Telegraph, July 30, 2010
  52. ^ Chelsea Manning: ‘Why speaking out is worth the risk’
  53. ^ Hansen, July 13, 2011
    • Manning, January 29, 2013, p 11
  54. ^ a b c Nicks 2012, pp 137–138; also see Zetter, December 19, 2011
  55. ^ Shanker, Tom July 8, 2010 "Loophole May Have Aided Theft of Classified Data" The New York Times Retrieved November 15, 2014 
  56. ^ a b Manning, January 29, 2013, p 13
  57. ^ Manning, January 29, 2013, p 16
  58. ^ a b c d e f For the army investigators' testimony, see Zetter, December 19, 2011
    • For more from the army investigators, including the reference to Eric Schmiedl, see Dishneau, David and Jelinek, Pauline "Witness: Manning said leak would lift 'fog of war'", Associated Press, December 19, 2011
    • Also see "Investigators link WikiLeaks suspect to Assange", Agence France-Presse, December 20, 2011
  59. ^ Nicks 2012, pp 131–135, 137–138
    • For her living as a woman, see Nicks 2012, p 146
    • For the details of her leave, see "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011
  60. ^ Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010
  61. ^ Manning, January 29, 2013, pp 15–16
  62. ^ a b Myers, Steven Lee "Charges for Soldier Accused of Leak", The New York Times, July 6, 2010
    • For Manning calling Reykjavik13 a "test document," see Hansen, July 13, 2011 and Nicks, September 23, 2010
  63. ^ Manning, January 29, 2013, p 18
  64. ^ Hansen, July 13, 2011
    • Manning, January 29, 2013, pp 18–22
  65. ^ a b Manning, January 29, 2013, p 33
    • But note: WikiLeaks tweeted on January 8, 2010, that they had obtained "encrypted videos of US bomb strikes on civilians," and linked to a story about the airstrike; see "Have encrypted videos ", Twitter, January 8, 2010 archived from the original, May 8, 2012 The tweet said: "Have encrypted videos of US bomb strikes on civilians http://bitly/wlafghan2 we need super computer time http://ljsforg/"
      • Note: bitly is on Wikipedia's spam blacklist, which is why the first link is not live It leads to Shachtman, Noah "Afghan Airstrike Video Goes Down the Memory Hole", Wired, June 23, 2009
    • For Domscheit-Berg destroying the video, see Dorling, Philip "WikiLeaks has more US secrets, Assange says", The Age, March 5, 2013
  66. ^ Manning, January 29, 2013, p 31
  67. ^ a b Manning, January 29, 2013, p 23
  68. ^ a b Nicks 2012, pp 162–163
    • Email from Manning to Lim, US Army Records Management and Declassification Agency, April 24, 2010
  69. ^ Lewis, Paul "Bradley Manning supervisor 'ignored photo of soldier dressed as woman'", The Guardian, August 13, 2013
  70. ^ Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hansen, July 13, 2011; also see Nicks 2012, pp 171–184
  72. ^ Nicks 2012, p 164, and "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011
  73. ^ For the storage cupboard, the psychiatrist, and the recommended discharge, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
    • For the same incident, see Nicks 2012, pp 161–163
    • For the altercation with the intelligence analyist, see Sanchez, Raf "Bradley Manning 'attacked female soldier and sent picture of himself as a woman'", The Daily Telegraph, December 18, 2011
    • Also see O'Kane, Maggie et al "Bradley Manning: the bullied outsider who knew US military's inner secrets", and "WikiLeaks accused Bradley Manning 'should never have been sent to Iraq'", The Guardian, May 27, 2011
  74. ^ Dishneau, David and Jelinek, Pauline "Witness: Manning said leak would lift 'fog of war'", Associated Press, December 19, 2011
    • Also see Nicks 2012, p 164
  75. ^ a b Leigh and Harding 2011, pp 52–56
  76. ^ For WikiLeaks security, see Domscheit-Berg 2011, p 165
    • For the US government trying to determine whether Assange encouraged Manning, see Savage, Charlie "US Tries to Build Case for Conspiracy by WikiLeaks", The New York Times, December 15, 2010
    • For Manning's chats with Lamo, see Hansen, July 13, 2011
  77. ^ Nicks 2012, p 155
  78. ^ For the publishing sequence, see Leigh and Harding 2011, p 70
    • For the leak of the Defense Dept report on WikiLeaks, see Kravets, David "Secret Document Calls Wikileaks ‘Threat’ to US Army", Wired, March 15, 2010
    • For the Defense Dept report itself, see Assange, Julian "US intelligence planned to destroy WikiLeaks", WikiLeaks release on March 15, 2010, of Horvath, Michael D "Wikileaksorg – An Online Reference to Foreign Intelligence Services, Insurgents, or Terrorist Groups", United States Army Counterintelligence Center, Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Program, March 18, 2008
  79. ^ "Unedited version" Nytimescom Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  80. ^ "edited version" Nytimescom Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  81. ^ Also see Open Secrets: WikiLeaks, War and American Diplomacy, The New York Times, 2011
  82. ^ a b Nicks 2012, pp 157–161
    • For the video putting WikiLeaks on the map, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011
  83. ^ For Nicks's analysis, see Nicks 2012, pp 191–193; for the number of documents in the Afghan and Iraq War logs and Cablegate, and for the publication dates, see pp 204, 206
    • Note: there were 91,731 documents in all in the Afghan War logs; around 77,000 had been published as of May 2012
  84. ^ Leigh and Harding, 2011, p 70 for the publishing sequence; pp 194ff for the material WikiLeaks published
    • For Manning's chat with Adrian Lamo, see Hansen, July 13, 2011
  85. ^ For the Ethiopian journalist and the relocation of sources, see Nicks 2012, p 208
    • For the inadvertent publication of the passphrase, see:
      • Greenwald, Glenn "Facts and myths in the WikiLeaks/Guardian saga", Salon, September 2, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012
      • Stöcker, Christian "A Dispatch Disaster in Six Acts", Der Spiegel, September 1, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012
      • Mackey, Robert et al "All Leaked US Cables Were Made Available Online as WikiLeaks Splintered", The New York Times, September 1, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012
  86. ^ Leigh, David "Guantánamo leaks lift lid on world's most controversial prison", The Guardian, April 25, 2011; and Nicks 2012, p 153
  87. ^ a b For Poulsen's relationship with Lamo, see Last, January 11, 2011
    • For more on the relationship, see Greenwald, June 18, 2010
    • For Wiredcom's response to Greenwald, see Hansen, Poulsen, December 28, 2010
  88. ^ For Poulsen's article about Lamo, see Poulsen, May 20, 2010
    • For Lamo's conviction, see Shachtman, Noah, "Adrian Lamo Cuts Deal With Feds", Wired, January 9, 2004
  89. ^ Hulme, George V "With Friends Like This", InformationWeek, July 8, 2002
  90. ^ Greenwald, June 18, 2010
    • Greenwald, Glenn Email exchange between Glenn Greenwald and Kevin Poulsen, June 14–17, 2010
    • Greenwald wrote: "Lamo told me that Manning first emailed him on May 20 and, according to highly edited chat logs released by Wired, had his first online chat with Manning on May 21; in other words, Manning first contacted Lamo the very day that Poulsen's Wired article on Lamo's involuntary commitment appeared the Wired article is time-stamped 5:46 pm on May 20

      "Lamo, however, told me that Manning found him not from the Wired article—which Manning never mentioned reading—but from searching the word 'WikiLeaks' on Twitter, which led her to a tweet Lamo had written that included the word 'WikiLeaks' Even if Manning had really found Lamo through a Twitter search for 'WikiLeaks,' Lamo could not explain why Manning focused on him, rather than the thousands of other people who have also mentioned the word 'WikiLeaks' on Twitter, including countless people who have done so by expressing support for WikiLeaks"

  91. ^ Hansen, July 13, 2011
    • For the section and revision of the Wikipedia article Manning linked to, see "US Intelligence report on Wikileaks", Wikipedia, May 21, 2010
  92. ^ Nicks 2012, p 179
  93. ^ Dishneau, David "Ex-agent says he alerted DoD in WikiLeaks case", Associated Press, August 4, 2010
  94. ^ Caesar, December 19, 2010
    • For more on Lamo approaching the authorities, see Zetter, Kim "In WikiLeaks Case, Bradley Manning Faces the Hacker Who Turned Him In", Wired, December 2011
  95. ^ Nicks 2012, p 232
  96. ^ For the first Wired story, see Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010
    • For the sequence of events, see Greenwald, June 18, 2010
  97. ^ Hansen and Poulsen, December 28, 2010
    • For the full chat log, see Hansen, July 13, 2011
  98. ^ Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010
  99. ^ Poulsen and Zetter, June 16, 2010
  100. ^ Nicks 2012, p 247
    • "Charge sheet" Retrieved December 26, 2010
    • For the number of documents involved, and the penalty if convicted, see "WikiLeaks: Bradley Manning faces 22 new charges", CBS News, March 2, 2011
    • For date of arrest and transfer to Kuwait, see "AE 494 Ruling Speedy_Trialpdf", US Army Records Management and Declassification Agency, Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room Retrieved June 8, 2013
  101. ^ "see p5" Documentcloudorg Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  102. ^ Alexa O'Brien June 30, 2013 "US v Pfc Manning | Criminal Elements and Definitions for Wanton Publication and State Dept, CIA, FBI, and Classified Witnesses" alexaobriencom Retrieved September 30, 2013 
  103. ^ Pilkington, Ed "Bradley Manning: how keeping himself sane was taken as proof of madness", The Guardian, November 30, 2012
  104. ^ a b For a description of the jail, see Nakashima, Ellen "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011
    • For Manning's lawyer's description, see "A Typical Day for PFC Bradley Manning", The Law Offices of David E Coombs, December 18, 2010; archived from the original on April 6, 2012
    • For Manning's description, see Manning, March 10, 2011, particularly pp 10–11
    • For the books she requested, see Nicks, Denver "Bradley Manning's Life Behind Bars", The Daily Beast, December 17, 2010 The list was: Decision Points by George W Bush; Critique of Practical Reason and Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant; Propaganda by Edward Bernays; The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins; A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn; The Art of War by Sun Tzu; The Good Soldiers by David Finkel; and On War by Gen Carl von Clausewitz
  105. ^ Manning, March 10, 2011, p 7
  106. ^ Marshall, Serena "Court-Martial for Bradley Manning in Wikileaks Case", ABC News, December 22, 2011, p 2
  107. ^ Court, Army 2011-01-21 "Manning's lawyer David Coombs suicide watch timeline" Armycourtmartialdefenseinfo Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  108. ^ Nicks 2012, pp 240–242
    • For Manning's letter, see Manning, March 10, 2011, pp 7–8
    • Also see Broom, Kyle "Prevention of Injury POI", a short dramatization of the account given by Manning in her letter to the army; for more details, see ImDb Retrieved April 8, 2012
  109. ^ Manning, March 10, 2011, p 9ff
    • Nakashima, Ellen "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011
    • For a sleep garment having been supplied, see Nakashima, Ellen "WikiLeaks suspect's treatment 'stupid,' US official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011
    • Also see "Editorial; The Abuse of Private Manning", The New York Times, March 15, 2011
  110. ^ Pilkington, Ed "Bradley Manning's treatment was cruel and inhuman, UN torture chief rules", The Guardian, March 12, 2012
  111. ^ Pilkington, Ed; Chris McGreal & Steven Morris "Bradley Manning is UK citizen and needs protection, government told", The Guardian, February 1, 2011
    • For Manning's view of her nationality, see Coombs, David E "Clarification Regarding PFC Manning's Citizenship", Law Offices of David E Coombs, February 2, 2011: "There has been some discussion regarding PFC Bradley Manning's citizenship PFC Manning does not hold a British passport, nor does he consider himself a British citizen He is an American, and is proud to be serving in the United States Army His current confinement conditions are troubling to many both here in the United States and abroad This concern, however, is not a citizenship issue"
  112. ^ Nakashima, Ellen "WikiLeaks suspect's treatment 'stupid,' US official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011
    • Tapper, Jake and Radia, Kirit "Comments on Prisoner Treatment Cause State Department Spokesman to Lose His Job", ABC News, March 13, 2011
  113. ^ They argued that it was a violation of the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, and the Fifth Amendment's guarantee against punishment without trial See Ackerman, Bruce and Benkler, Yochai "Private Manning's Humiliation", The New York Review of Books Retrieved April 10, 2011
  114. ^ Pilkington, Ed "Bradley Manning's jail conditions improve dramatically after protest campaign", The Guardian, May 4, 2011
    • For the new jail, see "Joint Regional Correction Facility", wwwdefensegov Retrieved May 10, 2012
  115. ^ "Panel Says WikiLeaks Suspect Is Competent to Stand Trial", Associated Press, April 29, 2011
  116. ^ Rizzo, Jennifer "Bradley Manning charged", CNN, February 23, 2012
  117. ^ Rath, Arun "What Happened At Bradley Manning's Hearing This Week", PBS Frontline, December 22, 2011
  118. ^ For the government overcharging Manning, see Zetter, Kim "Army Piles on Evidence in Final Arguments in WikiLeaks Hearing", Wired, December 22, 2011
    • For the gender issues, see Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011
  119. ^ Tate, Julie and Nakashima, Ellen "Judge refuses to dismiss charges against WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning", The Washington Post, January 8, 2013
  120. ^ O'Brien, Alexa "Bradley Manning's full statement", Salon, March 1, 2013
  121. ^ a b Kube, Courtney; DeLuca, Matthew; McClam, Erin "I'm sorry that I hurt the United States': Bradley Manning apologizes in court", NBC News, August 14, 2013
    • Courson, Paul "Bradley Manning apologizes, tells court he must pay price", CNN, August 14, 2013
  122. ^ Hartmann, Margaret "Ahead of His Sentencing, Bradley Manning Says, ‘I’m Sorry I Hurt the United States’", New York Times magazine, August 15, 2013
  123. ^ O'Brien, Alex 18 August 2013 "The ethical consistency of Bradley Manning's apology" The Guardian Retrieved 22 July 2014 
  124. ^ a b Sledge, Matt "Bradley Manning Sentenced To 35 Years In Prison For WikiLeaks Disclosures ", Huffington Post, August 21, 2013
  125. ^ Cavaliere, Victoria "Army General upholds Manning's prison sentence in WikiLeaks case", Reuters, April 18, 2014
  126. ^ Coombs, David September 3, 2013 "Re: Pardon/Commutation Request For Private Bradley E Manning"  Missing or empty |url= help
  127. ^ "Bradley Manning seeks presidential pardon", CBS News, September 4, 2013
    • "Manning seeks presidential pardon for leaking classified information", Associated Press, September 4, 2013
  128. ^ a b c Sunde, Kristin Hulaas "Whistleblower Chelsea Manning thanks Amnesty activists for their support", Amnesty International, April 8, 2015
  129. ^ Savage, Charlie November 14, 2016 "Chelsea Manning Asks Obama to Cut Sentence to Time Served" The New York Times Retrieved November 14, 2016 
  130. ^ Brooke 2011, p 223
  131. ^ Jaffe, Greg and Partlow, Joshua "Mullen says leak put troops and Afghans in danger; WikiLeaks documents include names of informants helping US", The Washington Post, July 30, 2010
  132. ^ Fishman, July 3, 2011, p 8
  133. ^ "Video Of Obama On Bradley Manning: 'He Broke The Law'", Forbes, April 22, 2011
    • "Did Obama taint Manning's right to fair trial", NBC News, April 26, 2011
  134. ^ Horne, Nigel "Tunisia: WikiLeaks had a part in Ben Ali's downfall", The Week, January 15, 2011
    • Malinowski, Tom "Whispering at Autocrats", Foreign Policy, January 25, 2011
    • Walker, Peter "Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts'", The Guardian, May 13, 2011
    • "Introduction", Annual Report 2011, Amnesty International
    • Rosenbach, Marcel and Schmitz, Gregor Peter "US Determined to Punish Bradley Manning", Der Spiegel, December 15, 2011
    • Also see Rosenbach, Marcel and Schmitz, Gregor Peter "US Determined to Punish Bradley Manning", Der Spiegel, December 15, 2011
    • For more on Manning and the protests, see "In the year of the protester, Bradley Manning is the great dissenter", The Irish Times, December 24, 2011
    • Nicks 2012, pp 212–216
  135. ^ For the ice cream from Saint-Tropez, see Brooke 2011, p 225
    • For the ice cream and the WikiLeaks connection, also see Horne, Nigel "Tunisia: WikiLeaks had a part in Ben Ali's downfall", The Week, January 15, 2011
    • For the cable mentioning the ice cream, see "A Selection From the Cache of Diplomatic Dispatches", The New York Times
    • For the date of the ice cream cable's publication, see Black, Ian "WikiLeaks cables: Tunisia blocks site reporting 'hatred' of first lady", The Guardian, December 7, 2010
  136. ^ "The right response to WikiLeaks", The Washington Post, editorial, November 30, 2010
  137. ^ Nicks 2012, p 196: "To the far right he was clear evidence that gays were unfit for military service And in the American mainstream, the leaks were explained away as the actions of a disaffected homosexual who had come to hate the army after being bullied into madness"
  138. ^ "Whistleblowerpreis | Whistleblower-Netzwerk" Whistleblower-netde Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  139. ^ "People to People Blog » And the 2012 People's Choice Winner is" Globalexchangeorg 2012-04-02 Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  140. ^ "IPB Awards MacBride Peace Prize 2013 to US Whistleblower Bradley Manning" Geneva: International Peace Bureau 13 July 2013 
  141. ^ "Chelsea Manning awarded 2014 Sam Adams Prize for Integrity in Intelligence – RT News" Rtcom Retrieved 2014-06-02 
  142. ^ "Pirate Party members nominate Snowden, Manning for Nobel Peace Prize" RT 4 February 2014 Retrieved 16 July 2014 
  143. ^ "Petition Passes 100K Signatures Backing Bradley Manning Nobel Prize Nomination" CBS 12 August 2013 Retrieved 17 July 2014 
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  145. ^ Neal, Alicia August 23, 2014 "How Chelsea Manning sees herself By Alicia Neal, in cooperation with Chelsea herself, commissioned by the Chelsea Manning Support Network, 23 April 2014" Chelsea Manning Support Network Retrieved September 10, 2014 
  146. ^ Manning, Chelsea 19 August 2016 Facing my fear: being in public as a woman for the very first time The Guardian, Retrieved 19 August 2016
  147. ^ Bayetti Flores, Verónica August 22, 2013 "Manning announces she is transitioning" Feministing Retrieved August 28, 2013 
  148. ^ Carmon, Irin August 27, 2013 "Who is still calling Chelsea Manning 'he'" MSNBC Retrieved August 29, 2013 
  149. ^ O'Connor, Maureen August 22, 2013 "Why Is It So Hard to Call Chelsea Manning 'She'" New York magazine Retrieved August 28, 2013 
  150. ^ Heffernan, Dani August 22, 2013 "Reporting On Private Chelsea Manning With Consistent Respect For Gender Identity" GLAAD Retrieved August 28, 2013 
  151. ^ "NLGJA Encourages Journalists to be Fair and Accurate About Manning's Plans to Live as a Woman" National Lesbian and Gay Journalists Association August 22, 2013 Retrieved August 28, 2013 
  152. ^ Krehely, Jeff August 22, 2013 "Pvt Chelsea E Manning Comes Out, Deserves Respectful Treatment by Media and Officials" HRC Blog Human Rights Campaign Retrieved September 19, 2013 journalists and other officials should use her chosen name of Chelsea and refer to her with female pronouns Using the name Bradley or male pronouns is nothing short of an insult Media, having reported on her wishes, must respect them as is the standard followed by the AP Stylebook 
  153. ^ "Chelsea Manning granted name change from Bradley" British Broadcasting Corporation 23 April 2014 Retrieved 14 December 2015 
  154. ^ "Chelsea Manning petitioning Kansas court for legal name change" theguardiancom Associated Press March 21, 2014 Retrieved March 21, 2014 
  155. ^ "Army Regulation 40-501, Standards of Medical Fitness, Chapters 2-27n and 3-35" PDF Retrieved April 2, 2014 
  156. ^ Baldor, Lolita C "APNewsBreak: Manning to begin Gender Treatment", Associated Press, July 17, 2014
  157. ^ Associated Press August 12, 2014 "Attorney: Manning not receiving hormone therapy" MilitaryTimes Retrieved August 12, 2014 
  158. ^ Tracy Connor August 22, 2014 "Chelsea Manning Says Military Still Denying Gender Treatment" NBC News Retrieved August 24, 2014 
  159. ^ Bill Mears September 23, 2014 "Chelsea Manning sues to get transgender medical treatment" CNN Retrieved September 23, 2014 
  160. ^ Tom Vanden Brook February 12, 2015 "Military approves hormone therapy for Chelsea Manning" USA Today Retrieved February 12, 2015 
  161. ^ Jethro Mullen February 13, 2015 "Report: US Army approves hormone therapy for Chelsea Manning" CNN Retrieved February 13, 2015 
  162. ^ Miranda Leitsinger March 5, 2015 "Army Must Refer to Chelsea Manning As a Woman, Not Man: Court" NBC News Retrieved March 5, 2015 
  163. ^ "Joint Status Report And Motion To Stay Proceedings For Seven Months" PDF Cryptomeorg March 10, 2015 Retrieved March 14, 2015 
  164. ^ a b "Chelsea Manning ends hunger strike after winning battle for gender surgery" The Guardian September 13, 2016 Retrieved September 13, 2016 
  165. ^ Greenhouse, Emily "What Chelsea Manning Has Won", Bloomberg Politics, March 10, 2015
  166. ^ Pesta, Abigail "Chelsea Manning Shares Her Transition to Living as a Woman—Behind Bars", Cosmopolitan, April 8, 2015
  167. ^ "Katharine Viner on Twitter: "Delighted to announce: Chelsea Manning joins @GuardianUS as a contributing opinion writer, writing on war, gender, freedom of information"" Twittercom 2015-02-10 Retrieved 2015-02-13 
  168. ^ "Katharine Viner on Twitter: "she's not being paid"" Twittercom 2015-02-10 Retrieved 2015-03-09 
  169. ^ Manning, Chelsea "How to make Isis fall on its own sword", The Guardian, September 16, 2014
  170. ^ Manning, Chelsea "I am a transgender woman and the government is denying my civil rights", The Guardian, December 8, 2014
  171. ^ Manning, Chelsea "The CIA's torturers and the leaders who approved their actions must face the law", The Guardian, March 9, 2015
  172. ^ Lamothe, Dan "Chelsea Manning, imprisoned for leaking secrets, to tweet from Fort Leavenworth", The Washington Post, April 3, 2015
  173. ^ Lamothe, Dan July 6, 2016 "Chelsea Manning, convicted in WikiLeaks case, hospitalized after reported suicide attempt" The Washington Post Retrieved July 6, 2016 
  174. ^ Pilkington, Ed July 11, 2016 "Chelsea Manning confirms she was hospitalized over suicide attempt" The Guardian Retrieved July 11, 2016 
  175. ^ Dustin Volz July 11, 2016 "Jailed US soldier Manning attempted suicide last week: lawyers" Yahoo! News Reuters Retrieved July 12, 2016 
  176. ^ Woolf, Nicky July 28, 2016 "Chelsea Manning faces charges, solitary confinement after suicide attempt" The Guardian Retrieved July 28, 2016 
  177. ^ Pilkington, Ed September 21, 2016 "Chelsea Manning readies for disciplinary hearing over suicide attempt" The Guardian Retrieved September 21, 2016 
  178. ^ Glenza, Jessica September 23, 2016 "Chelsea Manning gets 14 days in solitary confinement for suicide attempt" The Guardian Retrieved September 23, 2016 
  179. ^ Pilkington, Ed October 12, 2016 "Chelsea Manning emerges from solitary confinement after suicide attempt" The Guardian Retrieved October 12, 2016 
  180. ^ Manning, Chelsea 2016-07-18 "Moving On: Reflecting on my identity" Medium Retrieved 2016-08-02 
  181. ^ Savage, Charlie November 4, 2016 "Chelsea Manning Tried Committing Suicide a Second Time in October" The New York Times Retrieved November 4, 2016 
  182. ^ Pilkington, Ed September 9, 2016 "Chelsea Manning starts hunger strike, saying she is bullied in prison" The Guardian Retrieved September 10, 2016 

Citations

Most sources are cited in full in the Notes section Books and articles used multiple times are cited in short form in Notes and in long form below

Books

  • Brooke, Heather The Revolution Will Be Digitised William Heinemann, 2011
  • Domscheit-Berg, Daniel Inside WikiLeaks Doubleday, 2011
  • Fowler, Andrew The Most Dangerous Man in the World Skyhorse Publishing, 2011
  • Leigh, David and Harding, Luke WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy Guardian Books, 2011
  • Nicks, Denver Private: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks, and the Biggest Exposure of Official Secrets in American History Chicago Review Press, 2012

Key articles

  • Caesar, Ed "Bradley Manning: Wikileaker", The Sunday Times, December 19, 2010; archived from the original on April 7, 2012
  • Fishman, Steve "Bradley Manning's Army of One", New York Magazine, July 3, 2011
  • Greenwald, Glenn "The strange and consequential case of Bradley Manning, Adrian Lamo and WikiLeaks", Salon, June 18, 2010
  • Last, Jonathan V "The Left's Canonization of St Bradley Manning", CBS News, January 11, 2011
  • Manning, Bradley "Memorandum", released by David Coombs, March 10, 2011; archived from the original on April 6, 2012
  • Manning, Bradley "PFC Manning's statement redacted", January 29, 2013
  • Nakashima, Ellen "Bradley Manning is at the center of the WikiLeaks controversy But who is he", The Washington Post, May 4, 2011; archived from the original on April 7, 2012
  • Nicks, Denver "Private Manning and the Making of Wikileaks", This Land, September 23, 2010
  • PBS Frontline "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", March 2011; archived from the original on April 7, 2011
  • Smith, Martin "The Private Life of Bradley Manning", PBS Frontline, March 7, 2011 interview transcripts: "Brian Manning" and "Jordan Davis"
  • Thompson, Ginger "Early Struggles of Soldier Charged in Leak Case", The New York Times, August 8, 2010
  • Zetter, Kim "Jolt in WikiLeaks Case: Feds Found Manning-Assange Chat Logs on Laptop", Wired, December 19, 2011

Key articles on the Lamo–Manning chat log, in order of publication

  • Poulsen, Kevin "Ex-Hacker Adrian Lamo Institutionalized for Asperger's", Wired magazine, May 20, 2010
  • Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim "US Intelligence Analyst Arrested in WikiLeaks Video Probe", Wired magazine, June 6, 2010
  • Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim 'I Can't Believe What I'm Confessing to You': The WikiLeaks Chats", Wired magazine, June 10, 2010
  • Nakashima, Ellen "Messages from alleged leaker Bradley Manning portray him as despondent soldier", The Washington Post, June 10, 2010
  • Greenwald, Glenn Email exchange between Glenn Greenwald and Kevin Poulsen, June 14–17, 2010
  • Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim "Three Weeks After Arrest, Still No Charges in WikiLeaks Probe", Wired magazine, June 16, 2010
  • Jardin, Xeni "WikiLeaks: a somewhat less redacted version of the Lamo/Manning logs", Boing Boing, June 19, 2010
  • Greenwald, Glenn "The worsening journalistic disgrace at Wired", Salon, December 27, 2010
  • Hansen, Evan and Poulsen, Kevin "Putting the Record Straight on the Lamo-Manning Chat Logs", Wired magazine, December 28, 2010
  • Greenwald, Glenn "Wired's refusal to release or comment on the Manning chat logs", Salon, December 29, 2010
  • Firedoglake "Manning/WikiLeaks timeline", published as a complete version of the released excerpts Retrieved March 14, 2011; archived from the original on March 28, 2012
  • Hansen, Evan "Manning-Lamo Chat Logs Revealed", Wired magazine, July 13, 2011; archived from the original on March 28, 2012

Further reading

Articles

  • Khatchadourian, Raffi "No Secrets", The New Yorker, June 7, 2010
  • The Guardian "Afghanistan: The War Logs" Retrieved May 9, 2012
  • The Guardian "Iraq: The War Logs" Retrieved May 9, 2012
  • The New York Times "The War Logs Retrieved May 9, 2012
  • Wired "Bradley Manning" Retrieved May 8, 2012
  • Chelsea Manning June 15, 2014 "The Fog Machine of War" The New York Times p SR4 Retrieved June 14, 2014 

Books

  • Assange, Julian and O'Hagan, Andrew Julian Assange: The Unauthorised Autobiography Canongate, 2011
  • Madar, Chase The Passion of Bradley Manning OR Books, 2012
  • Mitchell, Greg and Gosztola, Kevin Truth and Consequences: The US vs Bradley Manning Sinclair Books, 2012

Audio/video

  • Broom, Kyle "Prevention of Injury POI", dramatization of Manning's account of detention; also see ImDb Retrieved April 8, 2012
  • Democracy Now! Bradley Manning video archive, 2011–present
  • Gavin, Patrick "Celeb video: I am Bradley Manning", Politico, June 19, 2013
  • Gonzales, Juan and Goodman, Amy "Glenn Greenwald on the Assange Extradition Ruling, the Jailing of Bradley Manning ", Democracy Now!, February 24, 2011
  • Miller, Michelle "Private", CBS News, April 26, 2012, interview with Denver Nicks, author of Private 2012, Manning's biography
  • Nicks, Denver "Private Manning Speaks", This Land, September 22, 2010
  • Price, Tim The Radicalisation of Bradley Manning play Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012
    • McGrath, John director "The Radicalisation of Bradley Manning", National Theatre Wales, April 12–28, 2012 Rob Humphreys, Director, the Open University in Wales, John McGrath Honorary Doctorate recipient 17 June 2015 Cardiff degee ceremony, Friday 12 June 14:30 YouTube ouLife on YouTube 48:50 minutes in Retrieved 9 August 2015 McGrath discusses the play in his Honorary Doctorate acceptance speech 

External links

  • Chelsea Manning at the Internet Movie Database

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