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Catalan language

catalan language, catalan language phrases
Latin Union
Andorra
Spain

Catalonia Balearic Islands Valencian Community Recognised minority
language in France recognized in the department of the Pyrénées-Orientales

Italy

co-official in the comune of Alghero in Sardinia

Spain

Aragon Regulated by Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Language codes ISO 639-1 ca ISO 639-2 cat ISO 639-3 cat Glottolog stan1289 Linguasphere 51-AAA-e This article contains IPA phonetic symbols Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters Catalan language

Catalan /ˈkætəlæn/; autonym: català or  is a Romance language named after Catalonia, in northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France It is the national and only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and Valencia where the language is known as Valencian, and there exist regional standards It also has semi-official status in the city of Alghero on the Italian island of Sardinia, where a variation of it is spoken It is also spoken with no official recognition in parts of the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon La Franja and Murcia Carche, and in the historic French region of Roussillon/Northern Catalonia, roughly equivalent to the department of Pyrénées-Orientales

According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia in 2013 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language The Generalitat de Catalunya spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories

Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin around the eastern Pyrenees in the 9th century During the Low Middle Ages it saw a golden age as the literary and dominant language of the Crown of Aragon, and was widely used all over the Mediterranean The union of Aragon with the other territories of Spain in 1479 marked the start of the decline of the language In 1659 Spain ceded Northern Catalonia to France, and Catalan was banned in both states in the early 18th century 19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival, which culminated in the 1913 orthographic standardization, and the officialization of the language during the Second Spanish Republic 1931–39 However, the Francoist dictatorship 1939–75 banned the language again

Since the Spanish transition to democracy 1975–1982, Catalan has been recognized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media, all of which have contributed to its increased prestige There is no parallel in Europe of such a large, bilingual, non-state speech community

Catalan dialects are relatively uniform, and are mutually intelligible They are divided into two blocks, Eastern and Western, differing mostly in pronunciation The terms "Catalan" and "Valencian" respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community are two varieties of the same language There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in Valencia

Catalan shares many traits with its neighboring Romance languages However, despite being mostly situated in the Iberian Peninsula today, Catalan differs more from Iberian Romance such as Spanish and Portuguese in terms of vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar than from Gallo-Romance Occitan, French, Gallo-Italic languages, etc still due to its historical origin and human and cultural links with the ancient Languedoc and its people Thus, the similarities are naturally most notable with eastern Occitan

Catalan has an inflectional grammar, with two genders masculine, feminine, and two numbers singular, plural Pronouns are also inflected for case, animacy and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and gender In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages

Contents

  • 1 Etymology and pronunciation
  • 2 History
    • 21 Middle Ages
    • 22 Start of the modern era
    • 23 French state: 18th to 20th centuries
    • 24 Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries
    • 25 Present day
  • 3 Classification and relationship with other Romance languages
    • 31 Relationship with other Romance languages
  • 4 Geographic distribution
    • 41 Catalan-speaking territories
    • 42 Number of speakers
      • 421 Level of knowledge of the Catalan language
      • 422 Social use
      • 423 Native language
  • 5 Phonology
    • 51 Vowels
    • 52 Consonants
    • 53 Phonological evolution
  • 6 Sociolinguistics
    • 61 Preferential subjects of study
  • 7 Dialects
    • 71 Overview
    • 72 Pronunciation
      • 721 Vowels
      • 722 Consonants
    • 73 Morphology
    • 74 Vocabulary
  • 8 Standards
  • 9 Status of Valencian
  • 10 Vocabulary
    • 101 Word choices
    • 102 Latin and Greek loanwords
    • 103 Word formation
  • 11 Writing system
  • 12 Grammar
    • 121 Gender and number inflection
    • 122 Determiners
    • 123 Personal pronouns
    • 124 Verbs
    • 125 Syntax
  • 13 Catalan names
  • 14 Sample text
  • 15 Loanwords in Catalan and English
  • 16 See also
  • 17 References
  • 18 Bibliography
  • 19 External links

Etymology and pronunciation

Main article: Catalonia § Etymology and pronunciation Catalan

The word Catalan derives from the territory of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology The main theory suggests that Catalunya Latin Gathia Launia derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia "Land of the Goths", since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived

In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain from French It is attested a language name since at least 1652 Catalan can be pronounced as /ˈkætəlæn/, /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/

The endonym is pronounced /kətəˈɫa/ in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and /kataˈɫa/ in the Western dialects In the Valencian Community, the term valencià /valensiˈa/ is frequently used instead The names "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two names for the same language See also status of Valencian below

History

Further information: History of Catalan Homilies d'Organyà 12th century Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn ca 1080–1095, one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan, predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century The Crown of Aragon in 1443

Middle Ages

Further information: Old Catalan and Phonological history of Catalan

By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south From the 8th century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their language with them This process was given definitive impetus with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988

In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements, with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by 1080 Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries

During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river, and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century The language also reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century

In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull 1232–1315, the Four Great Chronicles 13th–14th centuries, and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March 1397–1459 By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly standardized language Catalan was widely used as an official language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms "one of the 'great languages' of medieval Europe"

Martorell's outstanding novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc 1490 shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan

Start of the modern era

With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon 1479, the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature experienced a decline, the language came under the influence of Spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual

French state: 18th to 20th centuries

Official Decree Prohibiting the Catalan Language in France "Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010 See also: Language policy in France, Vergonha, and Patois

With the Treaty of the Pyrenees 1659, Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region

Shortly after the French Revolution 1789, the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the nonstandard languages of France patois, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque

Following the French capture of Algeria 1833, that region saw several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Minorca Their speech was known as patuet By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000 After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia as Pieds-Noirs or Alacant

Nowadays, France only recognizes French as an official language Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department and seeks to further promote it in public life and education

Spanish state: 18th to 20th centuries

See also: Nueva Planta decrees, Language politics in Spain under Franco, and Anti-Catalanism

The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries The Catalan defeat in the War of Spanish Succession 1714 initiated a series of measures imposing the use of Spanish in legal documentation

In parallel, however, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival Renaixença, which has continued up to the present day This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland 1833; followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer poetry, Oller realist novel, and Guimerà drama

In the 19th century, the region of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia

The Second Spanish Republic 1931–1939 saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted

Present day

Since the Spanish transition to democracy 1975–1982, Catalan has been institutionalizated as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large, bilingual, European, non-state speech community The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in all schools, but it is possible to use Spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use Spanish, or during the learning process of one or more recently arrived students There is also some intergenerational shift towards Catalan

In Andorra, Catalan has always been the sole official language Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several Andorranization policies have been enforced, like Catalan medium education

On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place In Northern Catalonia, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older as of 2004 Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30% of the primary education students, and by 15% of the secondary The cultural association La Bressola promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs

In the Alicante province Catalan is being replaced by Spanish, and in Alghero by Italian There are also well ingrained diglossic attitudes against Catalan in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands

Classification and relationship with other Romance languages

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria not on socio-functional ones Koryakov 2001 includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from Iberian Romance

The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal

According to Pèire Bèc, its specific classification is as follows:

  • Romance languages
    • Italo-Western languages
      • Western Romance languages
        • Gallo-Iberian languages
          • Gallo-Romance languages alternatively classified as Iberian Romance language
            • Occitano-Romance languages alternatively classified as East Iberian language
              • Catalan language

Catalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages

Relationship with other Romance languages

Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, and Spanish However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group Spanish and Portuguese in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with Occitan and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance French, Franco-Provençal, Gallo-Italian

According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is: 87% with Italian; 85% with Portuguese and Spanish; 76% with Ladin; 75% with Sardinian; and 73% with Romanian

Lexical comparison of 24 words among Western Romance languages:
17 cognates with Gallo-Romance, 5 isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word
Gloss Catalan Occitan Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian
cousin cosí cosin fradili cugino cousin primo primo văr
brother germà fraire fradi fratello frère hermano irmão frate
nephew nebot nebot nabodi nipote neveu sobrino sobrinho nepot
summer estiu estiu beranu estate été verano, estío verão, estio vară
evening vespre ser, vèspre sera sera soir tarde-noche tarde, serão seară
morning matí matin menjanu mattina matin mañana manhã, matina dimineață
frying pan paella padena paella padella poêle sartén frigideira, fritadeira tigaie
bed llit lièch, lèit letu letto lit cama, lecho cama, leito pat
bird ocell aucèl pilloni uccello oiseau ave, pájaro ave, pássaro pasăre
dog gos, ca gos, canh cani cane chien perro, can cão, cachorro câine
plum pruna pruna pruna prugna prune ciruela ameixa prună
butter mantega bodre burru, butiru burro beurre mantequilla, manteca manteiga unt
Gloss Catalan Occitan Sardinian Italian French Spanish Portuguese Romanian
piece tros tròç, petaç arrogu pezzo morceau, pièce pedazo, trozo pedaço, bocado bucată
gray gris gris grisu grigio gris gris, pardo cinza, gris gri
hot calent caud callenti caldo chaud caliente quente cald
too much massa tròp tropu troppo trop demasiado demais, demasiado prea
to want voler vòler bolli volere vouloir querer querer a voi
to take prendre prene, prendre pigai prendere prendre tomar, prender tomar, levar a prinde, a lua
to pray pregar pregar pregai pregare prier rezar/rogar rezar, orar, pregar a se ruga
to ask demanar/preguntar demandar dimandai, preguntai domandare demander pedir, preguntar pedir, perguntar a cere, a întreba
to search cercar/buscar cercar ciccai cercare chercher buscar procurar, buscar a cerceta, a căuta
to arrive arribar arribar arribai arrivare arriver llegar, arribar chegar a ajunge
to speak parlar parlar chistionnai, fueddai parlare parler hablar, parlar falar, palrear a vorbi
to eat menjar manjar pappai mangiare manger comer manyar in lunfardo papear in slang comer papar in slang a mânca
Catalan and Spanish cognates with different meanings
Latin Catalan Spanish
accostare acostar "to bring closer" acostar "to put to bed"
levare llevar "to remove;
wake up"
llevar "to take"
trahere traure "to remove" traer "to bring"
circare cercar "to search" cercar "to fence"
collocare colgar "to bury" colgar "to hang"
mulier muller "wife" mujer "woman or wife"

During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship 1939–1975, the Catalan language has often been degraded as a mere dialect of Spanish This view, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic validity Spanish and Catalan have important differences in their sound systems, lexicon, and grammatical features, placing the language in a number of respects closer to Occitan and French

There is evidence that, at least from the ad 2nd century, the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania Differentiation has arisen generally because Spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese share certain peripheral archaisms Spanish hervir, Asturian/Portuguese ferver vs Catalan bullir, Occitan bolir "to boil" and innovatory regionalisms Sp novillo, Ast nuviellu vs Cat torell, Oc taurèl "bullock", while Catalan has a shared history with the Western Romance innovative core, especially Occitan

Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are rare or only found in Catalan These include:

  • verbs: cōnfīgere ‘to fasten; transfix’ > confegir ‘to compose, write up’, congemināre > conjuminar ‘to combine, conjugate’, de-ex-somnitare > deixondar/-ir ‘to wake; awaken’, dēnsāre ‘to thicken; crowd together’ > desar ‘to save, keep’, īgnōrāre > enyorar ‘to miss, yearn, pine for’, indāgāre ‘to investigate, track’ > Old Catalan enagar ‘to incite, induce’, odiāre > OCat ujar ‘to exhaust, fatigue’, pācificāre > apaivagar ‘to appease, mollify’, repudiāre > rebutjar ‘to reject, refuse’;
  • nouns: brīsa > brisa ‘pomace’, buda > boga ‘reedmace’, catarrhu > cadarn ‘catarrh’, congesta > congesta ‘snowdrift’, dēlīrium > deler ‘ardor, passion’, fretu > freu ‘brake’, lābem > allau ‘avalanche’, ōra > vora ‘edge, border’, pistrice > pestriu ‘fish species’, prūna ‘live coal’ > espurna ‘spark’, tardātiōnem > tardaó > tardor ‘autumn’

The Gothic superstrate has had different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan For example, Catalan fang "mud" and rostir "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish lodo and asar, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan filosa "spinning wheel" and pols "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish rueca and sien, of Germanic origin

The same happens with Arabic loanwords Thus, Catalan alfàbia "large earthenware jar" and rajola "tile", of Arabic origin, contrast with Spanish tinaja and teja, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan oli "oil" and oliva "olive", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish aceite and aceituna However, the Arabic element in Spanish is generally much more prevalent

Situated between two large linguistic blocks Iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance, Catalan has many unique lexical choices, such as enyorar "to miss somebody", apaivagar "to calm down somebody", or rebutjar "reject"

Geographic distribution

Catalan-speaking territories

Main article: Catalan Countries Territories where Catalan is spoken
State Territory Catalan name Notes
Northern Catalonia Catalonia Alghero La
Franja Valencian
Community Carche Sardinia
Italy Aragon
Spain Murcia
Spain France Andorra Balearic Islands
Catalan-speaking territories in dark gray
Andorra Andorra Andorra A sovereign state where Catalan is the national and the sole official language The Andorrans speak a Western Catalan variety
France Northern Catalonia Catalunya Nord Roughly corresponding to the département of Pyrénées-Orientales
Spain Catalonia Catalunya In the Aran Valley northwest corner of Catalonia, in addition to Occitan, which is the local language, Catalan, Spanish and French are also spoken
Valencian Community Comunitat Valenciana Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century The Western Catalan variety spoken there is known as "Valencian"
La Franja La Franja A part of the Autonomous Community of Aragon, specifically a strip bordering Western Catalonia It comprises the comarques of Ribagorça, Llitera, Baix Cinca, and Matarranya
Balearic Islands Illes Balears Comprising the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Eivissa and Formentera
Carche El Carxe A small region of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, settled in the 19th century
Italy Alghero L'Alguer A city in the Province of Sassari, on the island of Sardinia, where the peculiar Alguerese dialect is spoken

These territories are sometimes referred to as the Països Catalans Catalan Countries, a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions

Number of speakers

The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used A 2004 study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–95 million by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 356% of the Catalan population According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012 The most important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in practice: together with the French language in Roussillon, with Italian in Alghero, with Spanish and French in Andorra and with Spanish in the rest of the territories

Territory State Understand 1 Can speak 2
 Catalonia  Spain 6,502,880 5,698,400
 Valencian Community  Spain 3,448,780 2,407,951
 Balearic Islands  Spain 852,780 706,065
Roussillon  France 203,121 125,621
 Andorra  Andorra 75,407 61,975
La Franja Aragon  Spain 47,250 45,000
Alghero Sardinia  Italy 20,000 17,625
Carche Murcia  Spain No data No data
Total Catalan-speaking territories 11,150,218 9,062,637
Rest of World No data 350,000
Total 11,150,218 9,412,637
1^ The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it 2^ Figures relate to all self-declared capable speakers, not just native speakers

Level of knowledge of the Catalan language

Area Speak Understand Read Write
Catalonia 847 974 905 623
Valencian Community 575 781 549 325
Balearic Islands 746 931 796 469
Roussillon 371 653 314 106
Andorra 789 960 897 611
Franja Oriental of Aragón 888 985 729 303
Alghero 676 899 509 284

% of the population 15 years old and older

Social use

Area At home Outside home
Catalonia 45 51
Valencian Community 37 32
Balearic Islands 44 41
Roussillon 1 1
Andorra 38 51
Franja Oriental of Aragón 70 61
Alghero 8 4

% of the population 15 years old and older

Native language

Area People Percentage
Catalonia 2 813 000 385%
Valencian Community 1 047 000 211%
Balearic Islands 392 000 361%
Andorra 26 000 338%
Franja Oriental of Aragon 33 000 702%
Roussillon 35 000 85%
Alghero 8 000 20%
TOTAL 4 353 000 312%

Phonology

Main article: Catalan phonology

The Catalan phonology varies depending on the dialect Notable features include:

  • Marked contrast of the vowel pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/, like in other Western Romance languages, except Spanish
  • Lack of nasalized vowels, unlike Portuguese or French
  • Lack of diphthongization of Latin short ĕ, ŏ, like in Galician and Portuguese, and unlike French, Spanish and Italian
  • Abundance of diphthongs containing /w/, like in Galician and Portuguese

In contrast with other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words; and those ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters Also, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, thus featuring many couplets like amic "male friend" vs amiga "female friend"

Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language The descriptions below are mostly for this variety For the differences in pronunciation of the different dialects, see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article

Vowels

Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan

Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/ Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction, and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/

In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > ; /o ɔ u/ > ; /i/ remains distinct The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article

Examples of vowel reduction processes in Central Catalan
The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second
Front vowels Back vowels
Word
pair
gel "ice"
gelat "ice cream"
pedra "stone"
pedrera "quarry"
banya "he bathes"
banyem "we bathe"
cosa "thing"
coseta "little thing"
tot "everything"
total "total"
IPA
transcription





Consonants

Catalan consonants
Bilabial Alveolar
/ Dental
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t c ~ k
voiced b d ɟ ~ ɡ
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced dz
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ
voiced v z ʒ
Approximant central j w
lateral l ʎ
Tap ɾ
Trill r

The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, shared with most modern Western Romance languages

  • /l/ has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects However, /l/ is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan and standard Eastern Catalan
  • /v/ occurs in Balearic, Alguerese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia It has merged with /b/ elsewhere
  • Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: /b/ > , /d/ > , /ɡ/ >
  • Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: /b/ >, /d/ > , /ɡ/ > Exceptions include /d/ after lateral consonants, and /b/ after /f/ In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops, except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited
  • There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/ Some sources describe them as "postalveolar" Others as "back alveolo-palatal", implying that the characters ⟨ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ⟩ would be more accurate However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use ⟨ɕ ʑ⟩ for other languages like Polish and Chinese
  • The distribution of the two rhotics /r/ and /ɾ/ closely parallels that of Spanish Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset, appears unless preceded by a consonant Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan generally featuring and Central Catalan dialects featuring a weakly trilled unless it precedes a vowel-initial word in the same prosodic unit, in which case appears
  • In careful speech, /n/, /m/, /l/ may be geminated Geminated /ʎ/ may also occur Some analyze intervocalic as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics

Phonological evolution

Main article: Phonological history of Catalan

Sociolinguistics

Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyse the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality including the one of other languages in contact

Preferential subjects of study

  • Dialects of Catalan
  • Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies
  • Process of linguistic normalisation
  • Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French
  • Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers
  • Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors

Dialects

Main article: Catalan dialects

Overview

Main dialects of Catalan

The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages; both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology Mutual intelligibility between dialects is very high, estimates ranging from 90% to 95% The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect

Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed a and e; which have merged to /ə/ in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as /a/ and /e/ in Western dialects There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary

Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects

Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona

Main dialectal divisions of Catalan
Block Western Catalan Eastern Catalan
Dialect Northwestern Valencian Central Balearic Northern/Rossellonese Alguerese
Area Spain France Italy
Provinces of Lleida, western half of Tarragona, La Franja Autonomous community of Valencia Provinces of Barcelona, eastern half of Tarragona, most of Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia

Pronunciation

Vowels

Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish Balearic has also instances of stressed /ə/ Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction, and the incidence of the pair /ɛ e/

In Eastern Catalan except Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: /a e ɛ/ > ; /o ɔ u/ > ; /i/ remains distinct There are a few instances of unreduced , in some words Alguerese has lowered to

In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: /a e ɛ/ follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however /o ɔ/ reduce to , with /u/ remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan

In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: /e ɛ/ > ; /o ɔ/ > ; /a u i/ remain distinct This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases

Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed /e/ and /ɛ/ Usually, words with /ɛ/ in Central Catalan correspond to /ə/ in Balearic and /e/ in Western Catalan Words with /e/ in Balearic almost always have /e/ in Central and Western Catalan as well As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of /ɛ/

Different incidence of stressed /e/, /ə/, /ɛ/
Word Western Majorcan Eastern
except Majorcan
set "thirst" /ˈset/ /ˈsət/ /ˈsɛt/
ven "he sells" /ˈven/ /ˈvən/ /ˈbɛn/
General differences in the pronunciation of unstressed vowels in different dialects
Word Western Catalan Eastern Catalan
Northwestern Valencian Majorcan Central Northern
mare "mother" /ˈmaɾe/ /ˈmaɾə/
cançó "song" /kanˈso/ /kənˈso/
posar "to put" /poˈzaɾ/ /puˈzaɾ/
ferro "iron" /ˈfɛro/ /ˈfɛru/
Detailed examples of vowel reduction processes in different dialects
Word pairs:
the first with stressed root,
the second with unstressed root
Western Majorcan Central
Front
vowels
gel "ice"
gelat "ice cream"



pera "pear"
perera "pear tree"



pedra "stone"
pedrera "quarry"



banya "he bathes"
banyem"we bathe"
Majorcan: banyam"we bathe"



Back
vowels
cosa "thing"
coseta "little thing"



tot "everything"
total "total"



Consonants

Morphology

Western Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -e in verbs of the 1st conjugation and -∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of Valencia, or -o in all verb conjugations in Northern Valencia and Western Catalonia
Eg parle, tem, sent Valencian; parlo, temo, sento Northwestern Catalan

Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is -o, -i, or -∅ in all conjugations
Eg parlo Central, parl Balearic, and parli Northern, all meaning 'I speak'

1st-person singular present indicative forms
Conjugation Eastern Catalan Western Catalan Gloss
Central Northern Balearic Valencian Northwestern
1st parlo parli parl parle or parlo parlo 'I speak'
2nd temo temi tem tem or temo temo 'I fear'
3rd pure sento senti sent sent or sento sento 'I feel', 'I hear'
inchoative poleixo poleixi poleix or polesc polisc or poleixo poleixo 'I polish'

Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -isc/-ixo, -ix, -ixen, -isca

Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are -eixo, -eix, -eixen, -eixi

Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words
Eg hòmens 'men', jóvens 'youth'

Eastern Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, loss of /n/ of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words
Eg homes 'men', joves 'youth'

Vocabulary

Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan Eastern and Western show some differences in word choices Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element

Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan
Gloss "mirror" "boy" "broom" "navel" "to exit"
Eastern Catalan mirall noi escombra melic sortir
Western Catalan espill xiquet granera llombrígol eixir

Standards

Main articles: Institut d'Estudis Catalans and Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans Written varieties
Catalan IEC Valencian AVL gloss
anglès anglés English
conèixer conéixer to know
treure traure take out
néixer nàixer to be born
càntir cànter pitcher
rodó redó round
meva meua my, mine
ametlla ametla almond
estrella estrela star
cop colp hit
llagosta llangosta lobster
homes hòmens men
servei servici service

Standard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers, is mostly based on Eastern Catalan, which is the most widely used dialect Nevertheless, the standards of Valencia and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia

The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic ⟨e⟩ accentuation, for instance: francès, anglès IEC – francés, anglés AVL Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent ⟨è⟩, without pronouncing this ⟨e⟩ as /ɛ/, in some words like: què 'what', or València Other divergences include the use of ⟨tl⟩ AVL in some words instead of ⟨tll⟩ like in ametla/ametlla 'almond', espatla/espatlla 'back', the use of elided demonstratives este 'this', eixe 'that' in the same level as reinforced ones aquest, aqueix or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in -ix- at the same level as -eix- or the priority use of -e morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative -ar verbs: jo compre instead of jo compro 'I buy'

In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing cantam as much as cantem 'we sing' but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be "cantam" in all fields Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: jo compr 'I buy', jo tem 'I fear', jo dorm 'I sleep'

In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article lo instead of el, special possessive pronouns and determinants la mia 'mine', lo sou/la sua 'his/her', lo tou/la tua 'yours', and so on, the use of -v- /v/ in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: cantava, creixiva, llegiva; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: manco instead of menys 'less', calqui u instead of algú 'someone', qual/quala instead of quin/quina 'which', and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns

In 2011, the Aragonese government passed a decree for the establishment of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon The new entity, designated as Acadèmia Aragonesa del Català, shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja

Status of Valencian

Main articles: Valencian, Valencian language controversy, Blaverism, and Anti-Catalanism Subdialects of Valencian

Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible ranging from 90% to 95%

Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language The official regulating body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL declares the linguistic unity between Valencian and Catalan varieties

he historical patrimonial language of the Valencian people, from a philological standpoint, is the same shared by the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Balearic islands, and Principality of Andorra Additionally, it is the patrimonial historical language of other territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon The different varieties of these territories constitute a language, that is, a "linguistic system" From this group of varieties, Valencian has the same hierarchy and dignity as any other dialectal modality of that linguistic system

Ruling of the Valencian Language Academy of 9 February 2005, extract of point 1

The AVL, created by the Valencian parliament, is in charge of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló Normes de Castelló Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV, which uses for Valencian an independent standard

Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between 2001 and 2004 showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly Furthermore, the data indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the position of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV, which uses for Valencian a standard independent from Catalan

This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004, the Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical

Vocabulary

Word choices

Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan Eastern and Western show some differences in word choices Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element

Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use However, from the 19th century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, even though nowadays there is a greater freedom of choice

Latin and Greek loanwords

Like other languages, Catalan has a large list of loanwords from Greek and Latin This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for example in Roís de Corella's writings

Word formation

The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages, where agglutination is common Many times, several affixes are appended to a preexisting lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example elèctric "electrical" vs electricitat Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in preveure "foresee"

There is greater regularity in the process of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English

Common types of word compounds in Catalan
Type Example Gloss
two nouns, the second assimilated to the first paper moneda "banknote paper"
noun delimited by an adjective estat major "military staff"
noun delimited by another noun and a preposition màquina d'escriure "typewriter"
verb radical with a nominal object paracaigudes "parachute"
noun delimited by an adjective, with adjectival value pit-roig "robin" bird

Writing system

The word novel·la "novel" in a dictionary The geminated L l·l is a distinctive character used in Catalan Billboard in Barcelona detail, showing the word il·lusió "illusion" Main article: Catalan orthography
Main forms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Modified forms À Ç È É Í Ï L·L Ò Ó Ú Ü

Catalan uses the Latin script, with some added symbols and digraphs The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based

Pronunciation of Catalan special characters and digraphs Central Catalan
Pronunciation Examples
ç /s/ feliç "happy"
gu /ɡ/ ~ before i and e guerra "war"
/ɡw/ elsewhere guant "glove"
ig in final position raig "trickle"
ix /ʃ/ in some dialects caixa "box"
l·l Normatively /l:/, but usually /l/ novel·la "novel"
ny /ɲ/ Catalunya "Catalonia"
qu /k/ before i and e qui "who"
/kw/ before other vowels quatre "four"
ss /s/
Intervocalic s is pronounced /z/
grossa "big-feminine"
casa "house"
tg, tj fetge "liver", mitjó "sock"
tx despatx "office"
tz dotze "twelve"
Letters and digraphs with contextually conditioned pronunciations Central Catalan
Notes Examples
c /s/ before i and e
corresponds to ç in other contexts
feliç "happy-masculine-singular" - felices "happy-feminine-plural"
caço "I hunt" - caces "you hunt"
g /ʒ/ before e and i
corresponds to j in other positions
envejar "to envy" - envegen "they envy"
final g + stressed i, and final ig before other vowels,
are pronounced
corresponds to j~g or tj~tg in other positions
boig "mad-masculine" - boja "mad-feminine" - boges "mad-feminine plural"
desig "wish" - desitjar "to wish" - desitgem "we wish"
gu /ɡ/ before e and i
corresponds to g in other positions
botiga "shop" - botigues "shops"
/ɡw/ before e and i
corresponds to gu in other positions
llengua "language" - llengües "languages"
qu /k/ before e and i
corresponds to q in other positions
vaca "cow" - vaques "cows"
/kw/ before e and i
corresponds to qu in other positions
obliqua "oblique-feminine" - obliqües "oblique-feminine plural"
x ~ initially and in onsets after a consonant
after i
otherwise, before stress, after
xarxa "net"
guix "chalk"
exacte "exact", fax "fax"

Grammar

Main article: Catalan grammar

The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages Features include:

  • Use of definite and indefinite articles
  • Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and articles are inflected for gender masculine and feminine, and number singular and plural There is no case inflexion, except in pronouns
  • Verbs are highly inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, and mood including a subjunctive
  • There are no modal auxiliaries
  • Word order is freer than in English

Gender and number inflection

Gender and number inflection of the word gat "cat"
Regular noun with definite article: el gat "the cat"
masculine feminine
singular el gat la gata
plural els gats les gates
Adjective with 4 forms:
verd "green"
masculine feminine
singular verd verda
plural verds verdes
Adjective with 3 forms:
feliç "happy"
masculine feminine
singular feliç
plural feliços felices
Adjective with 2 forms:
indiferent "indifferent"
masculine feminine
singular indiferent
plural indiferents

In gender inflection, the most notable feature is compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, the loss of the typical masculine suffix -o Thus, the alternance of -o/-a, has been replaced by ø/-a There are only a few exceptions, like minso/minsa "scarce" Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as:

  • Affrication: boig/boja "insane" vs lleig/lletja "ugly"
  • Loss of n: pla/plana "flat" vs segon/segona "second"
  • Final obstruent devoicing: sentit/sentida "felt" vs dit/dita "said"

Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French Thus, Catalan has noi/noia "boy"/"girl" and gall/gallina "cock"/"hen", whereas French has garçon/fille and coq/poule

There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favour of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French Thus, one can find bullent/bullenta "boiling" in contrast with traditional bullent/bullent

As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix -s, which may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely The most important one is the addition of -o- before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms: el pols/els polsos "the pulse"/"the pulses" vs la pols/les pols "the dust"/"the dusts"

Determiners

Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain In Plaça de la vila literally "square of the town", since the noun vila "town" is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, la "the"
Definite article in Standard Catalan
elided forms in brackets
masculine feminine
singular el l' la l'
plural els les
Contractions of the definite article
preposition
a de per
article el al a l' del de l' pel per l'
els als dels pels
Indefinite article
masculine feminine
singular un una
plural uns unes

The inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than Spanish, like dels "of + the ", but not as many as Italian which has sul, col, nel, etc

Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives mon, etc in favour of constructions of article + stressed forms el meu, etc, a feature shared with Italian

Personal pronouns

Catalan stressed pronouns
  singular plural
1st person jo, mi nosaltres
2nd person informal tu vosaltres
formal vostè vostès
respectful vós
3rd person masculine ell ells
feminine ella elles
Main article: Catalan personal pronouns

The morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous 13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian Features include the gender-neutral ho and the great degree of freedom when combining different unstressed pronouns 65 combinations

Catalan pronouns exhibit T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages and most European languages, but not Modern English This feature implies the use of a different set of second person pronouns for formality

This flexibility allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or Spanish Thus, Catalan can have m'hi recomanaren "they recommended me to him", whereas in French one must say ils m'ont recommandé à lui, and Spanish me recomendaron a él This allows the placement of almost any nominal term as a sentence topic, without having to use so often the passive voice as in French or English, or identifying the direct object with a preposition as in Spanish

Verbs

Simple forms of a regular verb of the first conjugation: portar "to bring"
Non-finite Form
Infinitive portar
Gerund portant
Past participle portat portat, portada, portats, portades
Indicative jo tu ell / ella
nosaltres vosaltres
ells / elles
Present porto portes porta portem porteu porten
Imperfect portava portaves portava portàvem portàveu portaven
Preterite archaic portí portares portà portàrem portàreu portaren
Future portaré portaràs portarà portarem portareu portaran
Conditional portaria portaries portaria portaríem portaríeu portarien
Subjunctive jo tu ell / ella
nosaltres vosaltres
ells / elles
Present porti portis porti portem porteu portin
Imperfect portés portéssis portés portéssim portéssiu portessin
Imperative jo tu ell / ella
nosaltres vosaltres
ells / elles
porta porti portem porteu portin

Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal Suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphological alternations play a secondary role Vowel alternances are active, as well as infixation and suppletion However, these are not as productive as in Spanish, and are mostly restricted to irregular verbs

The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all Western Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative perfect with a periphrastic form of anar "to go" + infinitive

Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes -a-, -e-, -i-, the last two being split into two subtypes However, this division is mostly theoretical Only the first conjugation is nowadays productive with about 3500 common verbs, whereas the third the subtype of servir, with about 700 common verbs is semiproductive The verbs of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create new ones, except by compounding

Syntax

The grammar of Catalan follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages The primary word order is SVO subject–verb–object

Catalan names

Main article: Catalan names

In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the father's first surname and the other is the mother's first surname The law contemplates the possibility of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i "and"

Sample text

Selected text from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel Un amor fora ciutat "A love affair outside the city"

Original Word-for-word translation Free translation
Tenia prop de divuit anys quan vaig conèxier I was having close to eighteen years, when I go know =I met I was about eighteen years old when I met
en Raül, a l'estació de Manresa the Raül, at the station of =in Manresa Raül, at Manresa railway station
El meu pare havia mort, inesperadament i encara jove, The my father had died, unexpectedly and still young, My father had died, unexpectedly and still young,
un parell d'anys abans, i d'aquells temps a couple of years before, and of those times a couple of years before; and from that time
conservo un record de punyent solitud I keep a memory of acute loneliness I still harbour memories of great loneliness
Les meves relacions amb la mare The my relations with the mother My relationship with my mother
no havien pas millorat, tot el contrari, not had at all improved, all the contrary, had not improved; quite the contrary,
potser fins i tot empitjoraven perhaps even they were worsening and arguably it was getting even worse
a mesura que em feia gran at step that =in proportion as myself I was making big =I was growing up as I grew up
No existia, no existí mai entre nosaltres, Not it was existing, not it existed never between us, There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us
una comunitat d'interessos, d'afeccions a community of interests, of affections shared interests or affection
Cal creure que cercava una persona It is necessary to believe that I was seeking a person I guess I was seeking a person
en qui centrar la meva vida afectiva in whom to center the my life affective in whom I could center my emotional life

Loanwords in Catalan and English

English word Catalan word Catalan meaning Notes
aubergine albergínia "eggplant" Eng < Fr < Cat
barracks barraca "mud hut" Eng < Fr baraques < Cat/Sp barracas
barracoon barracó or barracot "improvised hut" Eng < Spanish barracón < barraca Sp > Cat
surge sorgir "to arise" Eng < Middle French sourgir < Old Catalan surgir
paella paella "small cooking pot" Eng < Cat < Old French paelle mod poêle ‘skillet’ < Latin patella ‘small pan’ > Sp padilla
cul-de-sac cul-de-sac "with no exit" Cat < French > English, Occitan
capicua cap i cua "ends like it starts"
cucumber cogombre "fruit used in salads" Eng < Old French / Occitan cocombre

See also

  • Catalan-speaking countries portal
  • Spain portal
  • Andorra portal
  • France portal
  • Italy portal
  • Language portal
Organizations
  • Institut d'Estudis Catalans Catalan Studies Institute
  • Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua Valencian Academy of the Language
  • Òmnium Cultural
  • Plataforma per la Llengua
Varieties
  • Western Catalan
  • Eastern Catalan
  • Central Catalan
  • Balearic
  • Valencian
  • Northern Catalan
  • Alguerese
Other
  • Languages of Catalonia
    • Linguistic features of Spanish as spoken by Catalan speakers
  • Languages of France
  • Languages of Italy
  • Languages of Spain
  • Normes de Castelló
  • Pompeu Fabra
Scholars
  • Marina Abràmova

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Catalan Language at Ethnologue 18th ed, 2015
  2. ^ a b Some Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Catalan as Iberian Romance/East Iberian
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds 2016 "Standard Catalan" Glottolog 27 Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History 
  4. ^ a b Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also /kætəˈlæn/ or /ˈkætələn/
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wheeler 2010, p 191
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Wheeler 2005, p 1
  7. ^ http://wwwidescatcat/economia/inectc=3&id=da01&dt=2008&lang=en
  8. ^ Datos lingüísticos en Cataluña
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Costa Carreras & Yates, pp 6–7
  10. ^ a b c d e Wheeler 2010, p 190–191
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Wheeler 2003, p 207
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Moll 1958, p 47
  13. ^ a b c d Enciclopèdia Catalana, pp 634–635
  14. ^ a b Costa Carreras & Yates 2009, p 5
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Feldhausen 2010, p 5
  16. ^ "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià" Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian
  17. ^ a b Marc Howard Ross, Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict, page 139 Cambridge University Press, 2007
  18. ^ a b c Jud 1925
  19. ^ a b c Colón 1993, pp 33–35
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Enciclopèdia Catalana, p 632
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Feldhausen 2010, p 4
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Schlösser 2005, p 60f
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p 630
  24. ^ García Venero 2006
  25. ^ Burke 1900, p 154
  26. ^ Lledó 2011, p 334–337
  27. ^ a b "Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià" Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian
  28. ^ Veny 1997, pp 9–18
  29. ^ a b c Moran 2004, pp 37–38
  30. ^ Riquer 1964
  31. ^ a b c d Wheeler 2010, p 190
  32. ^ Trobes en llaors de la Verge Maria "Poems of praise of the Virgin Mary" 1474
  33. ^ "L'interdiction de la langue catalane en Roussillon par Louis XIV" PDF "CRDP, Académie de Montpellier 
  34. ^ Marfany 2002
  35. ^ "Charte en faveur du Catalan"  "La catalanitat a la Catalunya Nord" 
  36. ^ Costa Carreras 2007, pp 10–11
  37. ^ "Cataluña ordena incumplir las sentencias sobre el castellano en las escuelas" in Spanish Retrieved 10 September 2013 
  38. ^ Koryakov 2001
  39. ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have estiagem and estiaje, respectively, for drought, dry season or low water levels
  40. ^ a b Portuguese and Spanish have véspera and víspera, respectively, for eve, or the day before
  41. ^ Spanish also has trozo, and it is actually a borrowing from Catalan tros Colón 1993, p 39 Portuguese has troço, but aside from also being a loanword, it has a very different meaning: "thing", "gadget", "tool", "paraphernalia"
  42. ^ Modern Spanish also has gris, but it is a modern borrowing from Occitan The original word was pardo, which stands for "reddish, yellow-orange, medium-dark and of moderate to weak saturation It also can mean ochre, pale ochre, dark ohre, brownish, tan, greyish, grey, desaturated, dirty, dark, or opaque" Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos 2001 Diccionario Akal del color in Spanish Akal ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8 
  43. ^ Colón 1993, p 55
  44. ^ Bruguera 2008, p 3046
  45. ^ "Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas Tables Official data about the sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas: Catalonia 2003, Andorra 2004, the Balearic Islands 2004, Aragonese Border 2004, Northern Catalonia 2004, Alghero 2004 and Valencia 2004" Generalitat of Catalonia 7 August 2008 Retrieved 13 March 2012 
  46. ^ "Catalan, language of Europe" PDF Generalitat of Catalonia Retrieved 13 March 2012 
  47. ^ Población según lengua habitual Datos comparados 2003-2008 Cataluña Año 2008, Encuesta de Usos Lingüísticos de la población 2003 y 2008, Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña
  48. ^ a b Sources:
    • Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya
    • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana
    • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Valencià d'Estadística, Generalitat Valenciana
    • Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from Institut Balear d'Estadística, Govern de les Illes Balears
    • Northern Catalonia: Media Pluriel Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998
    • Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999
    • Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic
    • Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic
    • Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the Federació d'Entitats Catalanes outside the Catalan Countries
  49. ^ Red Cruscat del Instituto de Estudios Catalanes
  50. ^ "Tv3 - Telediario: La salud del catalán - YouTube" Archived from the original on 16 May 2015 
  51. ^ "wwwnoticiescat" Archived from the original on 24 November 2007 
  52. ^ Wheeler 2005 takes the same approach
  53. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1999, p 62
  54. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp 37,53–54
  55. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p 37
  56. ^ a b c d e f g Wheeler 2005, p 38
  57. ^ a b c Wheeler 2005, p 54
  58. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp 53–55
  59. ^ Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1999 "Catalan" Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp 61–65 ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  60. ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p 20
  61. ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p 3
  62. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri 1992, p 53
  63. ^ Veny 2007, p 51
  64. ^ Wheeler, Max W 2005 The Phonology Of Catalan Oxford: Oxford University Press p 13 ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7 
  65. ^ Lloret 2003, p 278
  66. ^ Wheeler, Max W 2005 The Phonology Of Catalan Oxford: Oxford University Press p 10 ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7 
  67. ^ Hualde, José 1992 Catalan Routledge p 368 ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0 
  68. ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2005, p 1
  69. ^ a b Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1992, "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 1–2: 53, doi:101017/S0025100300004618 
  70. ^ Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors 1995 "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German" Journal of Phonetics 23 1: 288 doi:101016/S0095-44709580031-X 
  71. ^ Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina 2007 "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 2: 145 doi:101017/S0025100306002829 
  72. ^ Recasens, Daniel 1993, "Fonètica i Fonologia", Enciclopèdia Catalana  Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as "laminoalveolars palatalitzades"
  73. ^ Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors 2001 De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català Barcelona: Editorial Ariel ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3  Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar"
  74. ^ Recasens & Espinosa 2007, pp 145
  75. ^ Padgett 2003, p 2
  76. ^ Wheeler, Max W 1979, Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-11621-9
  77. ^ See Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan 1997 "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics" In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages Georgetown University Press ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0  for more information
  78. ^ Feldhausen 2010, p 6
  79. ^ Wheeler 2005, p 2
  80. ^ Costa Carreras 2009, p 4
  81. ^ a b Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian 1989 R Hall, Jr, cited in Ethnologue
  82. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, pp 2–3
  83. ^ Wheeler 2005, pp 53–54
  84. ^ a b c Wheeler 2005, p 53
  85. ^ Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1999 "Catalan" Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp 54–55 ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0 
  86. ^ Recasens 1996, pp 75–76,128–129
  87. ^ Melchor & Branchadell 2002, p 71
  88. ^ a b Wheeler 2003, p 170
  89. ^ Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 2005
  90. ^ Original full text of Dictamen 1: D’acord amb les aportacions més solvents de la romanística acumulades des del segle XIX fins a l’actualitat estudis de gramàtica històrica, de dialectologia, de sintaxi, de lexicografia…, la llengua pròpia i històrica dels valencians, des del punt de vista de la filologia, és també la que compartixen les comunitats autònomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears i el Principat d’Andorra Així mateix és la llengua històrica i pròpia d’altres territoris de l’antiga Corona d’Aragó la franja oriental aragonesa, la ciutat sarda de l’Alguer i el departament francés dels Pirineus Orientals Els diferents parlars de tots estos territoris constituïxen una llengua, és a dir, un mateix «sistema lingüístic», segons la terminologia del primer estructuralisme annex 1 represa en el Dictamen del Consell Valencià de Cultura, que figura com a preàmbul de la Llei de Creació de l’AVL Dins d’eixe conjunt de parlars, el valencià té la mateixa jerarquia i dignitat que qualsevol altra modalitat territorial del sistema lingüístic, i presenta unes característiques pròpies que l’AVL preservarà i potenciarà d’acord amb la tradició lexicogràfica i literària pròpia, la realitat lingüística valenciana i la normativització consolidada a partir de les Normes de Castelló
  91. ^ Casi el 65% de los valencianos opina que su lengua es distinta al catalán, según una encuesta del CIS
  92. ^ List of RACV academics
  93. ^ Isabel I Vilar, Ferran "Traducció única de la Constitució europea" I-Zefir 30 Oct 2004 29 Apr 2009
  94. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Enciclopèdia Catalana, p 631
  95. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p 6
  96. ^ a b c d Wheeler 2005, p 7
  97. ^ a b c d e f Swan 2001, pp 97–98
  98. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana, p 630–631
  99. ^ Fabra 1926, pp 29–30
  100. ^ Fabra 1926, p 42
  101. ^ Archaic in most dialects
  102. ^ Fabra 1926, pp 70–71
  103. ^ The World Atlas of Language Structures walsinfo
  104. ^ a b Wheeler 2005, p 8
  105. ^ article 191 of Law 1/1998 stipulates that "the citizens of Catalonia have the right to use the proper regulation of their Catalan names and surnames and to introduce the conjunction between surnames"
  106. ^ a b Swan 2001, p 112
  107. ^ a b c d e Philip Babcock Gove, ed 1993 Webster's Third New International Dictionary Merriam-Webster, inc ISBN 3-8290-5292-8 
  108. ^ a b Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Publishers 1991 ISBN 0-00-433286-5 

Bibliography

  • Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 9 February 2005, Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià in Catalan 
  • Bonet, Eulàlia; Mascaró, Joan 1997 "On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics" In Martínez-Gil, Fernando; Morales-Front, Alfonso Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages Georgetown University Press ISBN 978-0-87840-647-0 
  • Britton, A Scott 2011 Catalan Dictionary & Phrasebook New York: Hippocrene Books ISBN 978-0781812580 
  • Bruguera, Jordi 2008 "Historia interna del catalán: léxico, formación de palabras y fraseología" In Ernst, Gerhard Romanische Sprachgeschichte 3 Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter pp 3045–3055 
  • Burke, Ulrik Ralph 1900 A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic Longmans, Green, and co p 154 
  • Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1992 "Catalan" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 1–2: 53 doi:101017/S0025100300004618 
  • Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1999 "Catalan" Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp 54–55 ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0 
  • Carbonell, Joan F; Llisterri, Joaquim 1999 "Catalan" Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet Cambridge: Cambridge University Press pp 61–65 ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Collins English Dictionary HarperCollins Publishers 1991 ISBN 0-00-433286-5 
  • Colón, Germà 1993 El lèxic català dins la Romània Biblioteca Lingüística Catalana Valencia: Universitat de València ISBN 84-370-1327-5 
  • Costa Carreras, Joan; Yates, Alan 2009 The Architect of Modern Catalan: Selected Writings/Pompeu Fabra 1868–1948 Instutut d'Estudis Catalans & Universitat Pompeu Fabra & Jonh Benjamins BV pp 6–7 ISBN 978 90 272 3264 9 
  • Fabra, Pompeu 1926 Gramàtica Catalana in Catalan 4th ed Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans 
  • Feldhausen, Ingo 2010 Sentential Form and Prosodic Structure of Catalan John Benjamins BV ISBN 978 90 272 5551 8 
  • Ferrater; et al 1973 "Català" Enciclopèdia Catalana Volum 4 in Catalan 1977, corrected ed Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana pp 628–639 ISBN 84-85-194-04-7 
  • Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos 2001 Diccionario Akal del color in Spanish Akal ISBN 978-84-460-1083-8 
  • García Venero, Maximiano 2006-07-07 Historia del nacionalismo catalán: 2a edición Ed Nacional Retrieved 2010-04-25 
  • Gove, Philip Babcock, ed 1993 Webster's Third New International Dictionary Merriam-Webster, inc ISBN 3-8290-5292-8 
  • Guinot, Enric 1999 Els fundadors del Regne de València: replobament, antroponímia i llengua a la València medieval Valencia: Tres i Quatre ISBN 8475025919 
  • Hualde, José 1992 Catalan Routledge p 368 ISBN 978-0-415-05498-0 
  • Jud, Jakob 1925 Problèmes de géographie linguistique romane in French Paris: Revue de Linguistique Romane pp 181–182 
  • Koryakov, Yuri 2001 Atlas of Romance languages Moscow 
  • Lledó, Miquel Àngel 2011 "26 The Independent Standardization of Valencia: From Official Use to Underground Resistance" Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity : The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts Volume 2 New York: Oxford University Press pp 336–348 ISBN 978-0-19-539245-6 
  • Lloret, Maria-Rosa April 2003 Written at Amsterdam & Philadelphia Auger, Julie; Clements, J Clancy; Vance, Barbara, eds "Contemporary Approaches to Romance Linguistics: Selected Papers from the 33rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages" Language Bloomington, Indiana: John Benjamins 83 2: 278 doi:101353/lan20070098  |chapter= ignored help
  • Marfany, Marta 2002 Els menorquins d'Algèria in Catalan Barcelona: Abadia de Montserrat ISBN 84-8415-366-5 
  • Melchor, Vicent de; Branchadell, Albert 2002 El catalán: una lengua de Europa para compartir in Spanish Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona p 71 ISBN 84-490-2299-1 
  • Moll, Francesc de B 2006 Gramàtica Històrica Catalana in Catalan Catalan ed Universitat de València p 47 ISBN 978-84-370-6412-3 
  • Moran, Josep 1994 Treballs de lingüística històrica catalana in Catalan Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Monsterrat pp 55–93 ISBN 84-7826-568-6 
  • Moran, Josep 2004 Estudis d'història de la llengua catalana in Catalan Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat pp 37–38 ISBN 84-8415-672-9 
  • Padgett, Jaye 2003 Systemic Contrast and Catalan Rhotics University of California, Santa Cruzp=2 
  • Recasens, Daniel 1993 "Fonètica i Fonologia" Enciclopèdia Catalana 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, Jordi; Pallarès, Maria Dolors 1995 "Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German" Journal of Phonetics 23 1: 288 doi:101016/S0095-44709580031-X 
  • Recasens, Daniel 1996 Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX 2nd ed Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans pp 75–76,128–129 ISBN 9788472833128 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Pallarès, Maria Dolors 2001 De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català Barcelona: Editorial Ariel ISBN 978-84-344-2884-3 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina 2005 "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 1: 1, 20 doi:101017/S0025100305001878 
  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina 2007 "An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects" Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 2: 145 doi:101017/S0025100306002829 
  • Riquer, Martí de 1964 "Vol1" Història de la Literatura Catalana in Catalan Barcelona: Ariel 
  • Schlösser, Rainer 2005 Die romanischen Sprachen Munich: CH Beck 
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  • Thomas, Earl W 1962 "The Resurgence of Catalan" Hispania 45 1: 43–8 doi:102307/337523 JSTOR 337523 
  • Wheeler, Max; Yates, Alan; Dols, Nicolau 1999 Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar London: Routledge 
  • Wheeler, Max 2003 "5 Catalan" The Romance Languages London: Routledge pp 170–208 ISBN 0-415-16417-6 
  • Wheeler, Max 2005 The Phonology Of Catalan Oxford: Oxford University Press p 54 ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7 
  • Wheeler, Max 2006 Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics 
  • Wheeler, Max 2010 "Catalan" Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World Oxford: Elsevier pp 188–192 ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7 
  • Veny, Joan 1997 "greuges de Guitard isarn, Senyor de Caboet 1080–1095" Homenatge a Arthur Terry Barcelona: Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat pp 9–18 ISBN 84-7826-894-4 
  • Veny, Joan 2007 Petit Atles lingüístic del domini català 1 & 2 Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans p 51 ISBN 978-84-7283-942-7 

External links

Institutions

  • Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística
  • Institut d'Estudis Catalans
  • Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua
  • Secretaria de Política Lingüística de la Generalitat de Catalunya

About the Catalan language

  • Gramàtica de la Llengua Catalana Catalan grammar
  • verbscat Catalan verb conjugations with online trainers
  • Catalan and its dialects

Monolingual dictionaries

  • Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, from the Institut d'Estudis Catalans
  • Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, from Enciclopèdia Catalana
  • Diccionari Català-Valencià-Balear d'Alcover i Moll
  • Diccionari Valencià online
  • Diccionari Invers de la Llengua Catalana dictionary of Catalan words spelled backwards

Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries

  • Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana Multilingüe from Enciclopèdia Catalana Catalan ↔ English, French, German and Spanish
  • DACCO open source, collaborative dictionary Catalan–English
  • Webster's Online Dictionary, The Rosetta Edition Catalan–English
  • Optimot: Catalan language consults, dictionary and thesaurus of Generalitat of Catalonia

Automated translation systems

  • Traductor automated, online translations of text and web pages Catalan ↔ English, French and Spanish
  • SisHiTra automated, online translations of text and web pages Catalan–Spanish
  • apertiumorg Apertium free software translates text, documents or web pages, online or offline, between Catalan and Aranese, English, Esperanto, French, Occitan, Portuguese and Spanish
  • translategooglecom online translations Catalan <> English and other languages

Phrasebooks

  • Catalan phrasebook on Wikivoyage
  • Basic Catalan phrases with audio
  • Catalan language with audio

Learning resources

  • Catalan Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words, from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix
  • Interc@t, set of electronic resources for learning the Catalan language and culture
  • Learn Catalan!, an introduction for the Catalonia-bound traveler
  • On-line Catalan resources

Catalan-language online encyclopedia

  • Enciclopèdia Catalana

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