Cass Lake, Minnesota


Cass Lake is a city in Cass County, Minnesota, United States, located within the boundaries of the Leech Lake Indian Reservation It is surrounded by Pike Bay Township Cass Lake had a population of 770 in the 2010 census5 It is notable as the headquarters location of Minnesota Chippewa Tribe and Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, as well as the Chippewa National Forest

The city is located on the shore of its namesake Cass Lake, which was named in honor of Michigan Governor Lewis Cass6

Cass Lake is part of the Brainerd Micropolitan Statistical Area It reached its peak of population of over 2,100 in 1920 Since 1950, the combination of decline of small town retailers, suburbanization, and decreased employment in forest industries have resulted in steadily decreasing population

Contents

  • 1 Economy
  • 2 Education
  • 3 History
  • 4 Geography and climate
  • 5 Demographics
    • 51 2010 census
    • 52 2000 census
  • 6 Infrastructure
    • 61 Major highways
  • 7 Notable people
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Economyedit

Forest products have historically been an important part of the local economy The Glenmont Lumber Company opened a sawmill in the autumn of 1898, followed by Scanlon-Gipson Lumber Company opening a planing mill in the summer of 1899 Both operated until the sawmill burnt in 1902 The Julius Neils Lumber Company opened a 30 mft sawmill, planing mill, and 8 mft lath mill in May 1900, operating until 1923 The Northern Pine Crating Co opened a wooden box factory in the autumn of 1907, operating until the mill burned c1950

Wheeler Lumber Bridge and Supply Co opened a post-peeling plant in 1949, followed by a wood-treating plant in 1951 This facility was expanded in 1959 and 1971 Wheeler was purchased by St Regis Paper Company in 1968; St Regis later purchased a sawmill as well Frank's Mill opened 1939 After the purchase of St Regis by Champion International in 1985, the corporation closed the facility The sawmill was purchased by Cass Forest Products and continues to operate as of 2010

Tourism has been an increasingly important component of the local economy since the earliest days of the community Numerous resorts and campgrounds in the area cater to sport fishing, hunting, camping, and watersports Due to the cold winters, tourism is highly seasonal

The Federal Government has been an important local employer since 1902, when the Minnesota Forest Reserve was established Cass Lake was selected as the location of the Forest Supervisor's Office Following passage of the Emergency Conservation Work Act of 1933 and establishment of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Cass Lake was the headquarters for the Chippewa Sub-District, responsible for management of over a dozen camps Among the CCC projects completed in Cass Lake were the monumental log-construction Forest Supervisor's Office 1936 and establishment of the Lydick Nursery 1934, which produced millions of seedlings for reforestation work

In 1922, the Bureau of Indian Affairs established the Consolidated Chippewa Agency to serve all the Ojibwe tribes in Minnesota, with the exception of Red Lake It selected Cass Lake as its headquarters Later, the Indian Health Service opened a hospital and clinic 1937 to serve the Leech Lake Indian Reservation

Following passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and establishment of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, tribal headquarters were located in Cass Lake Cass Lake is also location of the headquarters of the Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, which operates the Palace Bingo and Casino

Educationedit

Cass Lake is located in Independent School District 115 Cass Lake-Bena School District Cass Lake–Bena Elementary School is located within the city limits, while Cass Lake–Bena High School and Middle School are located approximately 1 mile south of town Elementary school classes began in 1899 and the high school opened in 1904

Students also attend the Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School in nearby Bena, a Bureau of Indian Affairs-funded elementary and secondary school established in 1975

Leech Lake Tribal College, a two-year tribal college, is located approximately 3 miles northwest of town

Historyedit

The area was inhabited for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples In historic times, the Ojibwe/Chippewa moved west and south from the Great Lakes region, settling across present-day Minnesota

The village was established in 1898 with the construction of the Great North Railway The post office was originally established as 'Tuller' in December 1898, named after the brother-in-law of the first postmaster When this was known, residents quickly lodged protests with the Postmaster General and by the end of March 1899, it was renamed 'Cass Lake'

The forest industry has historically supplied many jobs, but has been susceptible to boom-and-bust cycle Between 1898 and 1923, the city was dependent on lumber mills utilizing pine from the surrounding forests Depletion of the pine resource was followed by utilization of lower value species at a box factory which operated until 1950, and a wood treatment plant operated by Wheeler Lumber between 1949 and 1985 From 1983 until 2009, Potlatch Corporation and its successor Ainsworth operated an oriented strand board plant in nearby Farden Township, which provided employment to many residents Cass Forest Products, an employee-owned company, operates a sawmill that has been in operation since 1939, and is one of the largest forest product producers in Minnesota The former wood-treating plant operated by Wheeler Lumber within the city limits has been designated a Federal Superfund site, due to soil and groundwater contamination by the wood treating compounds creosote, pentachlorophenol, and ammoniacal copper arsenate

In 2003, Elaine Fleming was the first Native American to be elected as mayor of the town7

Geography and climateedit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 114 square miles 295 km2, all of it land1

Cass Lake has a Humid continental climate Köppen Climate Classification Dfb, with warm summers and long, cold winters

Climate data for Cass Lake, Minnesota 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F °C 56
13
60
16
74
23
96
36
95
35
98
37
104
40
101
38
98
37
92
33
74
23
53
12
104
40
Average high °F °C 180
−78
241
−44
363
24
524
113
654
186
742
234
790
261
771
251
668
193
524
113
354
19
218
−57
502
101
Average low °F °C −55
−208
−06
−181
143
−98
288
−18
413
52
516
109
565
136
548
127
455
75
327
04
182
−77
24
−164
283
−21
Record low °F °C −45
−43
−44
−42
−37
−38
−13
−25
10
−12
25
−4
33
1
26
−3
17
−8
2
−17
−31
−35
−46
−43
−46
−43
Average precipitation inches mm 067
17
067
17
132
335
184
467
295
749
391
993
411
1044
308
782
296
752
290
737
116
295
085
216
2687
6825
Average snowfall inches cm 84
213
71
18
74
188
39
99
01
03
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
28
66
168
93
236
461
1171
Average precipitation days ≥ 001 in 8 7 8 8 12 13 11 10 11 10 7 8 115
Average snowy days ≥ 01 in 8 6 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 7 33
Source: NOAA extremes 1957–present8

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1900 546
1910 2,011 2683%
1920 2,109 49%
1930 1,409 −332%
1940 1,904 351%
1950 1,936 17%
1960 1,586 −181%
1970 1,317 −170%
1980 1,001 −240%
1990 923 −78%
2000 860 −68%
2010 770 −105%
Est 2016 749 −27%
US Decennial Census9
2013 Estimate10

2010 censusedit

As of the census2 of 2010, there were 770 people, 305 households, and 164 families residing in the city The population density was 6754 inhabitants per square mile 2608/km2 There were 371 housing units at an average density of 3254 per square mile 1256/km2 The racial makeup of the city was 243% White, 03% African American, 679% Native American, 08% Asian, 01% from other races, and 66% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22% of the population

There were 305 households of which 348% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 170% were married couples living together, 259% had a female householder with no husband present, 108% had a male householder with no wife present, and 462% were non-families 403% of all households were made up of individuals and 184% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 252 and the average family size was 329

The median age in the city was 318 years 309% of residents were under the age of 18; 101% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 233% were from 25 to 44; 219% were from 45 to 64; and 138% were 65 years of age or older The gender makeup of the city was 486% male and 514% female

2000 censusedit

As of the census of 2000, there were 860 people, 331 households, and 192 families residing in the city The population density was 7532 people per square mile 2913/km² There were 384 housing units at an average density of 3363 per square mile 1301/km² The racial makeup of the city was 3012% White, 6442% Native American, 023% from other races, and 523% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 174% of the population

There were 331 households out of which 320% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 242% were married couples living together, 272% had a female householder with no husband present, and 417% were non-families 381% of all households were made up of individuals and 199% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 259 and the average family size was 340

In the city, the population was spread out with 362% under the age of 18, 99% from 18 to 24, 231% from 25 to 44, 165% from 45 to 64, and 143% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 28 years For every 100 females there were 857 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 765 males

The median income for a household in the city was $20,583, and the median income for a family was $23,977 Males had a median income of $22,614 versus $20,066 for females The per capita income for the city was $9,569 About 254% of families and 290% of the population were below the poverty line, including 320% of those under age 18 and 294% of those age 65 or over

Infrastructureedit

Major highwaysedit

The following routes are located within Cass Lake

  • US Highway 2
  • Minnesota State Highway 371

Notable peopleedit

  • Roland H Hartley 1864–1952, Governor of Washington, 1925-1933
  • Charlie Munger 1924-, lawyer, investor, philanthropist, and Vice-Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Corporation summer resident
  • Henry J Neils 1896-1988, President of Flour City Ornamental Iron Works Company and founder of Alumacraft Boat Company, a pioneer in the post-WWII development of aluminum small boats
  • Alfred O C Nier 1911–1994, physicist summer resident
  • Joe Polo 1982-, Olympic medalist in curling
  • Dick Siebert 1912-1978, professional baseball player and head baseball coach at the University of Minnesota
  • John Smith 1785-1922, centenarian
  • James Tanner 1805–1870, Métis missionary

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on 2012-07-14 Retrieved 2012-11-13 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2012-11-13 
  3. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names" United States Geological Survey 2007-10-25 Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  5. ^ "2010 Census Redistricting Data Public Law 94-171 Summary File" American FactFinder US Census Bureau, 2010 Census Archived from the original on 21 July 2011 Retrieved 23 April 2011 
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry 1905 The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States Govt Print Off p 71 
  7. ^ —, "Progressive City Leaders", The Nation, June 18, 2005, pp 18-19
  8. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data" National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved May 29, 2016 
  9. ^ United States Census Bureau "Census of Population and Housing" Archived from the original on April 22, 2013 Retrieved July 14, 2014 
  10. ^ "Population Estimates" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on 2014-05-22 Retrieved 2014-07-14 

External linksedit

  • City of Cass Lake
  • Leech Lake Tribal College
  • Cass Lake Chamber of Commerce
  • Cass Lake Times Newspaper
  • Cass Lake Photo Gallery

Coordinates: 47°22′46″N 94°36′15″W / 4737944°N 9460417°W / 4737944; -9460417



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