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canadians, canadians baseball
Canadian English and Canadian French
Numerous indigenous languages are also recognized

Various other languages Religion Multiple denominations

Canadians French: Canadiens are the people who are identified with the country of Canada This connection may be residential, legal, historical, or cultural For most Canadians, several or all of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian

Canada is a bilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic, religious and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants Following the initial period of French and then the much larger British colonization, different waves or peaks of immigration and settlement of non-aboriginal peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today Elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States

Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew gradually over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867 World War I and World War II in particular gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, and full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982 Canada's nationality law closely mirrored that of the United Kingdom Legislation since the mid 20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development


  • 1 Population
    • 11 Immigration
    • 12 Citizenship and diaspora
    • 13 Ethnic ancestry
  • 2 Culture
    • 21 Religion
    • 22 Languages
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 Sources
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links


See also: Population of Canada

As of 2010, Canadians make up 05% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development Approximately 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, and 20 percent of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent Aboriginal peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 43% of the country's 33,476,688 population


Main article: Immigration to Canada

The French originally settled New France, in present-day Quebec and Ontario; and Acadia, in present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, during the early part of the 17th century

Approximately 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture During the 18th and 19th century; immigration westward to the area known as Rupert's Land was carried out by "Voyageurs"; French settlers working for the North West Company; and by British settlers English and Scottish representing the Hudson's Bay Company, coupled with independent entrepreneurial woodsman called "Coureur des bois" This arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage

The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in the New England over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada where the British made famland abailable to British settlers on easy terms More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when approximately 60,000 United Empire Loyalist fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick After the War of 1812, British including British army regulars, Scottish and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada

Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America, mainly from the British Isles as part of the great migration of Canada These new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848 Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries are often referred to as old stock Canadians

Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush The Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 eventually placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway

Permanent Residents admitted in 2013,
by top 10 source countries
Rank Country Number Percentage
1 China 33,908 131
2 India 30,576 118
3 Philippines 27,292 105
4 Pakistan 11,354 44
5 United States 10,624 41
6 Iran 10,038 39
7 France 7,148 28
8 United Kingdom and Territories 5,935 23
9 South Korea 4,450 17
10 United Arab Emirates 4,093 16
Top 10 Total 145,418 562
Other 113,535 438
Total 258,953 100

The population of Canada has consistently risen, doubling approximately every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867 From the mid- to late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries Some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Germans, Scandinavians, Dutch, Poles, and Ukrainians Legislative restrictions on immigration such as the Continuous journey regulation and Chinese Immigration Act that had favoured British and other European immigrants were amended in the 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of the world While the 1950s had still seen high levels of immigration by Europeans, by the 1970s, immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Jamaican and Haitian During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Canada received many American Vietnam War draft dissenters Throughout the late 1980s and 1990s, Canada's growing Pacific trade brought with it a large influx of South Asians, who tended to settle in British ColumbiaImmigrants of all backgrounds tend to settle in the major urban centres The Canadian public as-well as the major political parties support immigration

The majority of illegal immigrants come from the southern provinces of the People's Republic of China, with Asia as a whole, Eastern Europe, Caribbean, Africa and the Middle East all contributing to the illegal population Estimates of numbers of illegal immigrants range between 35,000 and 120,000 A 2008 report by the Auditor General of Canada Sheila Fraser stated that Canada has lost track of approximately 41,000 illegal immigrants whose visas have expired

Citizenship and diaspora

Main article: Canadian nationality law Members of the first official Canadian Citizenship ceremony held at the Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, January 3, 1947

Canadian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Canada or by birth or adoption abroad when at least one biological parent or adoptive parent is a Canadian citizen who was born in Canada or naturalized in Canada and did not receive citizenship by being born outside of Canada to a Canadian citizen It can also be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years and meets specific requirements Canada established its own nationality law in 1946 with the enactment of the Canadian Citizenship Act which took effect on January 1, 1947 The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, was passed by the Parliament of Canada in 2001 as Bill C-11, which replaced the Immigration Act of 1976 as the primary federal legislation regulating immigration Prior to the conferring of legal status on Canadian citizenship, Canada's naturalization laws consisted of a multitude of Acts beginning with the Immigration Act of 1910

According to Citizenship and Immigration Canada, there are three main classifications for immigrants: Family class persons closely related to Canadian residents, Economic class admitted on the basis of a point system that accounts for age, health and labour-market skills required for cost effectively inducting the immigrants into Canada's labour market and Refugee class those seeking protection by applying to remain in the country by way of the Canadian immigration and refugee law In 2008, there were 65,567 immigrants in the family class, 21,860 refugees, and 149,072 economic immigrants amongst the 247,243 total immigrants to the country Canada resettles over one in 10 of the world's refugees and has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world

As of a 2010 report by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, there were 28 million Canadian citizens abroad This represents about 8% of the total Canadian population Of those living abroad, the United States, Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, China, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Australia have the largest Canadian diaspora Canadians in the United States constitute the greatest single expatriate community at over 1 million in 2009, representing 358% of all Canadians abroad Under current Canadian law, Canada does not restrict dual citizenship but Passport Canada encourages its citizens to travel abroad on their Canadian passport, so they can access Canadian consular services

Ethnic ancestry

Main article: Ethnic origins of people in Canada

Canada has 34 ethnic groups with at least 100,000 members each, of which 11 have over 1 million people and numerous others are represented in smaller amounts According to the 2006 census, the largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" 32%, followed by English 21%, French 158%, Scottish 151%, Irish 139%, German 102%, Italian 46%, Chinese 43%, North American Indian 40%, Ukrainian 39%, and Dutch Netherlands 33% In the 2006 census, over five million Canadians identified themselves as a member of a visible minority Together, they make up 162% of the total population: most numerous among these are South Asian 40%, Black 25%, and Filipino 11% Aboriginal peoples are not considered a visible minority under the Employment Equity Act, and this is the definition that Statistics Canada also uses

Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division of 2006
Ethnic origin  % Population Area of largest proportion
Canadian 3222% 7007100662900000000♠10,066,290 Quebec 662%
English 2103% 7006657001500000000♠6,570,015 Newfoundland and Labrador 432%
1582% 7006494121000000000♠4,941,210 Quebec 289%
Scottish 1511% 7006471985000000000♠4,719,850 Prince Edward Island 405%
Irish 1394% 7006435415500000000♠4,354,155 Prince Edward Island 292%
German 1018% 7006317942500000000♠3,179,425 Saskatchewan 300%
Italian 463% 7006144533500000000♠1,445,335 Ontario 72%
Chinese 431% 7006134651000000000♠1,346,510 British Columbia 106%
North American Indian 401% 7006125361500000000♠1,253,615 Northwest Territories 365%
Ukrainian 387% 7006120908500000000♠1,209,085 Manitoba 148%
Dutch Netherlands 332% 7006103596500000000♠1,035,965 Alberta 53%
Polish 315% 7005984565000000000♠984,565 Manitoba 73%
East Indian 308% 7005962665000000000♠962,665 British Columbia 57%
Russian 160% 7005500600000000000♠500,600 Manitoba 43%
Welsh 141% 7005440965000000000♠440,965 Yukon 31%
Filipino 140% 7005436190000000000♠436,190 Manitoba 35%
Norwegian 138% 7005432515000000000♠432,515 Saskatchewan 72%
Portuguese 132% 7005410850000000000♠410,850 Ontario 24%
Métis 131% 7005409065000000000♠409,065 Northwest Territories 69%
British Canadian
Those not included elsewhere
129% 7005403915000000000♠403,915 Yukon 23%
Swedish 107% 7005334765000000000♠334,765 Saskatchewan 35%
Spanish 104% 7005325730000000000♠325,730 British Columbia 13%
American 101% 7005316350000000000♠316,350 Yukon 20%
Hungarian Magyar 101% 7005315510000000000♠315,510 Saskatchewan 29%
Jewish 101% 7005315120000000000♠315,120 Ontario 15%
For a complete list see: Canadian ethnic groups


Main article: Culture of Canada A 1911 political cartoon on Canada's bicultural identity showing a flag combining symbols of Britain, France and Canada; titled "The next favor 'A flag to suit the minority'"

Canada's culture is a product of its ethnicities, languages, religions, political and legal systems Canada has been shaped by waves of migration that have combined to form a unique blend of art, cuisine, literature, humour and music Today, Canada has a diverse makeup of nationalities and constitutional protection for policies that promote multiculturalism rather than cultural assimilation In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a Quebec culture distinct from English Canadian culture However, as a whole, Canada is a cultural mosaic: a collection of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures

Canadian government policies such as official bilingualism; publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; strict gun control; leniency in regard to drug use, and, most recently, legalizing same-sex marriage are social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide The Government of Canada has also influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions It has created Crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media and has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content

Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli in Toronto; four identical sculptures are located in Buffalo City, Changchun, Sarajevo, and Sydney

Canadian culture has historically been influenced by Aboriginal, French and British cultures and traditions Most of Canada's territory was inhabited and developed later than other European colonies in the Americas, with the result that themes and symbols of pioneers, trappers, and traders were important in the early development of the Canadian identity First Nations played a critical part in the development of European colonies in Canada, particularly for their role in assisting exploration of the continent during the North American fur trade The British conquest of New France in the mid-1700s brought a large Francophone population under British Imperial rule, creating a need for compromise and accommodation The new British rulers left alone much of the religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing through the Quebec Act of 1774 the right of the Canadiens to practise the Catholic faith and to use French civil law now Quebec law

The Constitution Act of 1867 was designed to meet the growing calls of Canadians for autonomy from British rule, while avoiding the overly strong decentralization that contributed to the Civil War in the United States The compromises made by the Fathers of Confederation set Canadians on a path to bilingualism, and this in turn contributed to an acceptance of diversity

The Canadian Forces and overall civilian participation in the First World War and Second World War helped to foster Canadian nationalism, however in 1917 and 1944 conscription crisis' highlighted the considerable rift along ethnic lines between Anglophones and Francophones As a result of the First and Second World Wars, the Government of Canada became more assertive and less deferential to British authority With the gradual loosening of political ties to the United Kingdom and the modernization of Canadian immigration policies, 20th-century immigrants with African, Caribbean and Asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture The multiple-origins immigration pattern continues today with the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from non-British or non-French backgrounds

Multiculturalism in Canada was adopted as the official policy of the government during the premiership of Pierre Elliot Trudeau in the 1970s and 1980s The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration Multiculturalism is administered by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and reflected in the law through the Canadian Multiculturalism Act and section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms


Main article: Religion in Canada

Religion in Canada 2011 National Household Survey

  Catholic 387%   Other Christian 286%   Non-religious 239%   Islam 32%   Hinduism 15%   Sikhism 14%   Buddhism 11%   Judaism 10%   Other religions 06%

Canada as a nation is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of groups, beliefs and customs The preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms references "God", and the monarch carries the title of "Defender of the Faith" However Canada has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism Freedom of religion in Canada is an important part of Canada's political culture With the role of Christianity in decline, having once been central and integral to Canadian culture and daily life; commentators have suggested that Canada has come to enter a post-Christian period in a secular state, with irreligion in Canada on the rise The majority of Canadians consider religion to be unimportant in their daily lives, but still believe in God> The practice of religion is now generally considered a private matter throughout society and within the state

The 2011 Canadian census reported that 673% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this number, Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 387 percent of the population The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada accounting for 61% of Canadians; followed by Anglicans 50%, and Baptists 19% About 239% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, including agnostics, atheists, humanists, and other groups The remaining are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam 32%, followed by Hinduism 15%, Sikhism 14%, Buddhism 11%, and Judaism 10%

Before the arrival of European colonists and explorers, First Nations followed a wide array of mostly animistic religions During the colonial period, the French settled along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, specifically Latin Rite Roman Catholics, including a number of Jesuits dedicated to converting Aboriginals; an effort that eventually proved successful The first large Protestant communities were formed in the Maritimes after the British conquest of New France, followed by American Protestant settlers displaced by the American Revolution The late nineteenth century saw the beginning of a substantive shift in Canadian immigration patterns Large numbers of Irish and Southern Europeans immigrants were creating new Roman Catholic communities in English Canada The settlement of the west brought significant Eastern Orthodox immigrants from Eastern Europe and Mormon and Pentecostal immigrants from the United States

The earliest documentation of Jewish presence in Canada occurs in the 1754 British Army records from the French and Indian War In 1760, General Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst attacked and won Montreal for the British In his regiment there were several Jews, including four among his officer corps, most notably Lieutenant Aaron Hart who is considered the father of Canadian Jewry The Islamic, Jains, Sikh, Hindu and Buddhist communities, although small, are as old as the nation itself The 1871 Canadian Census first "Canadian" national census indicated thirteen Muslims among the populace, with approximately 5000 Sikh by 1908 The first Canadian mosque was constructed in Edmonton, in 1938, when there were approximately 700 Muslims in Canada Buddhism first arrived in Canada when Japanese immigrated during the late 19th century The first Japanese Buddhist temple in Canada was built in Vancouver in 1905 The influx of immigrants in the late 20th century, with Sri Lankan, Japanese, Indian and Southeast Asian customs, has contributed to the recent expansion of the Jain, Sikh, Hindu and Buddhist communities


Main article: Languages of Canada Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak English and/or French   English - 569%   English and French Bilingual - 161%   French - 213%   Sparsely populated area < 04 persons per km2

A multitude of languages are used by 35 million Canadians, with English and French the official languages being the mother tongues of approximately 60% and 20% of Canadians respectively In 2011, nearly 68 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers, Punjabi 430,705, Spanish 410,670, German 409,200, and Italian 407,490 Less than one percent of Canadians just over 250,000 individuals can speak an aboriginal language About half this number 129,865 reported using an aboriginal language on a daily basis Additionally, Canadians speak several sign languages; it is unknown the number of speakers of the most spoken languages, ASL and LSQ, nor of Maritime Sign Language or of Plains Sign Talk There are only 47 speakers of the Inuit language Inuiuuk

English and French are recognized by the Constitution of Canada as official languages Thus all federal government laws are enacted in both English and French with government services available in both languages Two of Canada's territories give official status to indigenous languages In Nunavut, Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun are official languages alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in territorial government In the Northwest Territories, the Official Languages Act declares that there are eleven different languages: Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich'in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey and Tłįchǫ Multicultural media are widely accessible across the county and offer specialty television channels, newspapers and other publications in many minority languages

In Canada, as elsewhere in the world of European colonies, the frontier of European exploration and settlement tended to be a linguistically diverse and fluid place, as cultures using different languages met and interacted The need for a common means of communication between the indigenous inhabitants and new arrivals for the purposes of trade, and in some cases intermarriage, led to the development of Mixed languages Languages like Michif, Chinook Jargon and Bungi creole tended to be highly localized and were often spoken by only a small number of individuals who were frequently capable of speaking another language Reaching across Canada, the United States and into Mexico existed Plains Sign Talk which functioned originally as a trade language used to communicate internationally and across linguistic borders

See also

  • Canada portal
  • Canuck
  • Demographics of Canada
  • List of Canadians
  • Persons of National Historic Significance
  • List of Prime Ministers of Canada
  • Canada – Wikipedia book


  1. ^ a b c Data for ethnic origin were collected by self-declaration, so labels may not necessarily describe the true genetic ancestry of respondents Many respondents also acknowledged multiple ancestries, thus the data reflect both single and multiple responses and may exceed the total population count
    Source: "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada - Data table" Statistics Canada Retrieved January 16, 2011 
    Additional data: "2006 Census release topics" Statistics Canada Retrieved January 16, 2011 
  2. ^ a b c All citizens of Canada are classified as "Canadians" as defined by Canada's nationality laws However since 1996, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry "Canadian" was included as an example on the English questionnaire and "Canadien" as an example on the French questionnaire "The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled Respondents generally are visibly European Anglophones and Francophones, however no-longer self identify with their ethnic ancestral origins This response is attributed to a multitude and/or generational distance from ancestral lineage
    Source 1: Jack Jedwab April 2008 "Our 'Cense' of Self: the 2006 Census saw 16 million 'Canadian'" PDF Association for Canadian Studies Retrieved March 7, 2011 
    Source 2: Don Kerr 2007 The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population Canadian Scholars' Press pp 313–317 ISBN 978-1-55130-322-2 
  3. ^ a b c The category "North American Indian" includes respondents who indicated that their ethnic origins were from a Canadian First Nation, or another non-Canadian North American aboriginal group excluding Inuit and Métis
    Source: "How Statistics Canada Identifies Aboriginal Peoples" Statistics Canada Retrieved January 16, 2011 


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  • Agnew, Vijay 2007 Interrogating Race and Racism Toronto UP ISBN 978-0-8020-9509-1 
  • Armstrong, Robert 2010 Broadcasting Policy in Canada U Toronto P ISBN 978-1-4426-1035-4 
  • Blackwell, John D 2005 "Culture High and Low" International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service Retrieved March 15, 2006 
  • Bloemraad, Irene 2006 Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants And Refugees in the United States And Canada U Cal P ISBN 978-0-520-24898-4 
  • Bloomberg, Jon 2004 The Jewish World In The Modern Age KTAV Publishing ISBN 978-0-88125-844-8 
  • Bodvarsson, Örn Bodvar; Van den Berg, Hendrik 2009 The economics of immigration: theory and policy Springer ISBN 978-3-540-77795-3 
  • Borrows, John 2010 Canada's Indigenous Constitution Toronto UP ISBN 978-1-4426-1038-5 
  • Bowen, Kurt 2005 Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2712-6 
  • Boyle, Kevin; Sheen, Juliet, eds 1997 Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report U Essex – Routledge ISBN 978-0-415-15977-7 
  • Bramadat, Paul; Seljak, David 2009 Religion and Ethnicity in Canada U Toronto P ISBN 978-1-4426-1018-7 
  • Bricker, Darrell; Wright, John 2005 What Canadians Think About Almost Everything Doubleday ISBN 978-0-385-65985-7 
  • Burgess, Ann Carroll 2005 Guide to Western Canada GPP ISBN 978-0-7627-2987-6 
  • Bybee, Rodger W; McCrae, Barry 2009 Pisa Science 2006: Implications for Science Teachers and Teaching NSTA ISBN 978-1-933531-31-1 
  • Cameron, Elspeth, ed 2004 Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader Canadian Scholars' ISBN 978-1-55130-249-2 
  • Campey, Lucille H 2008 Unstoppable Force: The Scottish Exodus to Canada Dundurn ISBN 978-1-55002-811-9 
  • Chase, Steven; Curry, Bill; Galloway, Gloria May 6, 2008 "Thousands of illegal immigrants missing: A-G" Globe and Mail Toronto Archived from the original on September 18, 2016 Retrieved January 19, 2011 
  • Coates, Colin MacMillan, ed 2006 Majesty in Canada: Essays on the Role of Royalty Dundurn Press ISBN 978-1-55002-586-6 
  • Cornelius, Wayne A; Tsuda, Takeyuk; Martin, Philip; Hollifield, James, eds 2004 Controlling immigration: a global perspective Stanford UP ISBN 978-0-8047-4490-4 
  • Coward, Harold G; Hinnells, John Russell; Williams, Raymond Brady 2000 The South Asian religious diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States SUNY Press ISBN 978-0-7914-9302-1 
  • Coward, Harold G; Kawamura, Leslie S 1979 Religion and Ethnicity: Essays Wilfrid Laurier UP ISBN 978-0-88920-064-7 
  • Day, Richard J F 2000 Multiculturalism and the History of Canadian Diversity Toronto UP ISBN 978-0-8020-8075-2 
  • DeRocco, David; Chabot, John F 2008 From Sea to Sea to Sea: A Newcomer's Guide to Canada Full Blast Productions ISBN 978-0-9784738-4-6 
  • DeVoretz, Don J 2011 "Canada's Secret Province: 28 Million Canadians Abroad" PDF Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada Retrieved September 23, 2013 
  • Dufour, Christian 1990 A Canadian Challenge Le Defi Quebecois Oolichan / IRPP ISBN 978-0-88982-105-7 
  • Duncan, James S; Ley, David, eds 1993 Place/culture/representation Routledge ISBN 978-0-415-09451-1 
  • Elliott, Bruce S 2004 Irish Migrants in the Canadas: A New Approach 2nd ed MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2321-0 
  • English, Allan D 2004 Understanding Military Culture: A Canadian Perspective MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2715-7 
  • Feltes, Norman N 1999 This Side of Heaven: Determining the Donnelly Murders, 1880 Toronto UP ISBN 978-0-8020-4486-0 
  • Findling, John E; Thackeray, Frank W, eds 2010 What Happened An Encyclopedia of Events That Changed America Forever ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-1-59884-621-8 
  • Franklin, Daniel; Baun, Michael J 1995 Political Culture and Constitutionalism: A Comparative Approach Routledge ISBN 978-1-56324-416-2 
  • Good, Kristin R 2009 Municipalities and Multiculturalism: The Politics of Immigration in Toronto and Vancouver Toronto UP ISBN 978-1-4426-0993-8 
  • Gordon, Raymond G, ed 2005 Ethnologue: Languages of the world 15 ed SIL International ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6 
  • Gray, Douglas 2010 The Canadian Snowbird Guide: Everything You Need to Know about Living Part-Time in the USA and Mexico Wiley ISBN 978-0-470-73942-6 
  • Gregory, Derek; Johnston, Ron; Pratt, Geraldine; Watts, Michael; Whatmore, Sarah, eds 2009 The Dictionary of Human Geography 5th ed Wiley–Blackwell ISBN 978-1-4051-3288-6 
  • Griffiths, N E S 2005 From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755 MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0 
  • Grimes, Barbara F; Grimes, Joseph Evans, eds 2000 Ethnologue: Languages of the world 14 ed SIL International ISBN 978-1-55671-103-9 
  • Ha, Louisa S; Ganahl, Richard J 2006 Webcasting Worldwide: Business Models of an Emerging Global Medium Routledge ISBN 978-0-8058-5915-7 
  • Hales, Dianne R; Lauzon, Lara 2009 An Invitation to Health Cengage Learning ISBN 978-0-17-650009-2 
  • Hall, Patricia Wong; Hwang, Victor M, eds 2001 Anti-Asian Violence in North America: Asian American and Asian Canadian Reflections on Hate, Healing, and Resistance Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 978-0-7425-0459-2 
  • Harland-Jacobs, Jessica L 2007 Builders of Empire: Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1717–1927 NCUP ISBN 978-0-8078-3088-8 
  • Haskell, David M 2009 Through a Lens Darkly: How the News Media Perceive and Portray Evangelicals Clements Academic ISBN 978-1-894667-92-0 
  • Hobbs, Sandy; MacKechnie, Jim; Lavalette, Michael 1999 Child Labour: A World History Companion ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-0-87436-956-4 
  • Hollifield, James; Martin, Philip; Orrenius, Pia, eds 2014 Controlling Immigration: A Global Perspective third ed Stanford UP ISBN 978-0-8047-8627-0 
  • Huang, Annian 2006 The Silent Spikes - Chinese Laborers and the Construction of North American Railroads Translated by Juguo Zhang China Intercontinental Press | 中信出版社 ISBN 978-7-5085-0988-4 
  • Hudson, John C 2002 Across This Land: A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada JHUP ISBN 978-0-8018-6567-1 
  • Kalman, Bobbie 2009 Canada: The culture Crabtree ISBN 978-0-7787-9284-0 
  • Ksenych, Edward; Liu, David, eds 2001 Conflict, Order and Action : Readings in Sociology Canadian Scholars' ISBN 978-1-55130-192-1 
  • Kusch, Frank 2001 All American Boys: Draft Dodgers in Canada from the Vietnam War Greenwood ISBN 978-0-275-97268-4 
  • Linteau, Paul-André; Durocher, René; Robert, Jean-Claude 1983 Quebec: A History 1867–1929 Translated by Robert Chodos Lorimer ISBN 978-0-88862-604-2 
  • MacLeod, Roderick; Poutanen, Mary Anne 2004 Meeting of the People: School Boards and Protestant Communities in Quebec, 1801–1998 MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2742-3 
  • Magocsi, Paul R 1999 Multicultural History Society of Ontario, ed Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples U Toronto P ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6 
  • Magocsi, Paul R 2002 Aboriginal Peoples of Canada: A Short Introduction U Toronto P ISBN 978-0-8020-8469-9 
  • Martens, Klaus, ed 2004 The Canadian Alternative Volume 28 of Saarbrücker Beiträge zur vergleichenden Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft in German Königshausen & Neumann ISBN 978-3-8260-2636-2 
  • Martynowych, Orest T 1991 Ukrainians in Canada: The Formative Period, 1891–1924 CIUS Press, U Alberta ISBN 978-0-920862-76-6 
  • McGowan, Mark G ed "Irish Catholics: Migration, Arrival, and Settlement before the Great Famine" The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples Multicultural Canada 
  • McGowan, Mark 2009 Death or Canada: the Irish Famine Migration to Toronto 1847 Novalis ISBN 978-2-89646-129-5 
  • Melton, J Gordon; Baumann, Martin, eds 2010 Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6 
  • Miedema, Gary 2005 For Canada's Sake: Public Religion, Centennial Celebrations, and the Re-making of Canada in the 1960s MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-2877-2 
  • Murrin, John M; Johnson, Paul E; McPherson, James M; Fahs, Alice; Gerstle, Gary; Rosenberg, Emily S; Rosenberg, Norman L 2007 Liberty, Equality, Power, A History of the American People: To 1877 5th ed Wadsworth Cengage Learning ISBN 978-0-495-11606-6 
  • Naik, C D 2003 Thoughts and Philosophy of Doctor B R Ambedkar Sarup ISBN 978-81-7625-418-2 
  • Nersessian, Mary April 9, 2007 "Vimy battle marks birth of Canadian nationalism" CTV Television Network Archived from the original on September 18, 2016 Retrieved January 16, 2011 
  • Pfau, Roland; Steinbach, Markus; Woll, Bencie, eds 2012 Sign Language: An International Handbook de Gruyter / Mouton ISBN 978-3-11-026132-5 
  • Powell, John 2005 Encyclopedia of North American immigration InfoBase ISBN 978-0-8160-4658-4 
  • Prato, Giuliana B, ed 2009 Beyond multiculturalism: Views from Anthropology Ashgate ISBN 978-0-7546-7173-2 
  • Schneider, Stephen 2009 Iced: The Story of Organized Crime in Canada Wiley ISBN 978-0-470-83500-5 
  • Schuit, Joke; Baker, Anne; Pfau, Roland 2011 "Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology" pdf Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication Working Papers ACLC U Amsterdam 4 1: 1–31 
  • Standford, Frances Development of Western Canada Gr 7-8 On The Mark Press ISBN 978-1-77072-743-4 
  • Tooker, Elisabeth 1980 Native North American spirituality of the eastern woodlands: sacred myths, dreams, visions, speeches, healing formulas, rituals, and ceremonials Paulist Press ISBN 978-0-8091-2256-1 
  • Vaillancourt, François; Coche, Olivier 2009 Official Language Policies at the Federal Level in Canada: Costs and Benefits in 2006 PDF Fraser Institute 
  • Waugh, Earle Howard; Abu-Laban, Sharon McIrvin; Qureshi, Regula 1991 Muslim families in North America U Alberta ISBN 978-0-88864-225-7 
  • Wayland, Shara V 1997 "Immigration, Multiculturalism and National Identity in Canada" International Journal on Minority and Group Rights Dept of Political Science, U Toronto 5 1: 33–58 doi:101163/15718119720907408 
  • White, Richard; Findlay, John M, eds 1999 Power and Place in the North American West UWP ISBN 978-0-295-97773-7 
  • Wilkinson, Paul F 1980 In celebration of play: an integrated approach to play and child development Macmillan ISBN 978-0-312-41078-0 
  • Winford, Donald 2003 An Introduction to Contact Linguistics Wiley ISBN 978-0-631-21250-8 
  • Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Muhlhausler, Peter; Tyron, Darrell T, eds 1996 Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas de Gruyter / Mouton ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9 
  • Yamagishi, N Rochelle 2010 Japanese Canadian Journey: The Nakagama Story Trafford Publishing ISBN 978-1-4269-8148-7 
  • Zimmerman, Karla 2008 Canada tenth ed Lonely Planet ISBN 978-1-74104-571-0 

Further reading

Main article: Bibliography of Canada
  • Beaty, Bart; Briton, Derek; Filax, Gloria 2010 How Canadians Communicate III: Contexts of Canadian Popular Culture Athabasca University Press ISBN 978-1-897425-59-6 
  • Bumsted, J M 2003 Canada's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-1-57607-672-9 
  • Carment, David; Bercuson, David 2008 The World in Canada: Diaspora, Demography, and Domestic Politics McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP ISBN 978-0-7735-7455-7 
  • Cohen, Andrew 2008 The Unfinished Canadian: The People We Are McClelland & Stewart ISBN 978-0-7710-2286-9 
  • Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre 2002 CBC, ed Canada: A People's History 1 McClelland & Stewart ISBN 978-0-7710-3324-7 
  • Gillmor, Don; Turgeon, Pierre; Michaud, Achille 2002 CBC, ed Canada: A People's History 2 McClelland & Stewart ISBN 978-0-7710-3336-0 
  • Kearney, Mark; Ray, Randy 2009 The Big Book of Canadian Trivia Dundurn ISBN 978-1-77070-614-9 
  • Kelley, Ninette; Trebilcock, M J 2010 The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy University of Toronto Press ISBN 978-0-8020-9536-7 
  • Resnick, Philip 2005 The European Roots Of Canadian Identity University of Toronto Press ISBN 978-1-55111-705-8 
  • Richard, Madeline A 1992 Ethnic Groups and Marital Choices: Ethnic History and Marital Assimilation in Canada, 1871 and 1971 UBC Press ISBN 978-0-7748-0431-8 
  • Simpson, Jeffrey 2000 Star-Spangled Canadians: Canadians Living the American Dream Harper-Collins ISBN 978-0-00-255767-2 
  • Studin, Irvin 2006 What Is a Canadian: Forty-Three Thought-Provoking Responses McClelland & Stewart ISBN 978-0-7710-8321-1 

External links

  • Canada Year Book 2010 - Statistics Canada
  • Canada: A People's History - Teacher Resources - Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
  • Persons of National Historic Significance in Canada - Parks Canada
  • Multicultural Canada - Department of Canadian Heritage
  • The Canadian Immigrant Experience - Library and Archives Canada
  • The Dictionary of Canadian Biography – Library and Archives Canada
  • Canadiana: The National Bibliography of Canada – Library and Archives Canada
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