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Calvin S. Hall

calvin s. hall jr dreams, calvin s. hall
Calvin Springer Hall, Jr January 18, 1909 – April 4, 19851, commonly known as Calvin S Hall, was an American psychologist who studied in the field of dream interpretation and analysis He began his systematic research on dreams in the 1940s, and from there he wrote many books, A Primer of Freudian Psychology and A Primer of Jungian Psychology being the best known, and developed the Quantitative Coding System2 Hall's work on temperament and behavior genetics is now only a historical footnote,3 but was an aid to scientific studies and theories of today


  • 1 College
  • 2 Career
  • 3 Accomplishments
  • 4 Quantitative coding system
  • 5 Theory
    • 51 Concept of Self
    • 52 Concept of Others
    • 53 Concept of the World
    • 54 Concept of Impulses, Prohibitions, and Penalties
    • 55 Concept of Problems and Conflicts
  • 6 Written works
  • 7 Retirement
  • 8 References


Hall was born in Seattle, Washington He first studied psychology at the University of Washington as an undergraduate, working with a well-known behaviorist, Edwin Guthrie He transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, his senior year because of his opposition of the ROTC course required at Washington At Berkeley he studied with a purposive behaviorist, Edward Tolman, and received his BA in 1930, continuing on there as a graduate student with Tolman and Robert Tryon, earning his PhD in 19333


After receiving his PhD, Hall then taught for three years at the University of Oregon as an assistant professor Because of his growing research reputation, he was appointed departmental chair and professor in psychology in 1937 at Western Reserve University He held these positions for the next 20 years During this time he began the process of switching his research emphasis to dream content, the area for which he is best known Other universities he taught at were Syracuse University 1957–59, the University of Miami 1959–60, and Catholic University in Nigmegen, Netherlands as a Fulbright scholar in 1960-61 From 1961 to 1965, Hall studied at his Institute of Dream Research in Miami and established the similarity in dream content throughout the night by studying dreams collected in the dream laboratory He and Robert Van de Castle, during this time, developed a comprehensive coding system that revolutionized the objective study of dream content3 In his empirical work, he showed that dreams between people across the world are more similar than they are different3


From 1935 to 1975, Hall was "one of the most creative and visible psychologists in the United States"3 He worked on the "inheritance of emotionality in rats and his discovery that a single dominant gene led to acoustical traumas in one inbred strain of mice"3 With this work, he made major contributions, early in is career, to the study of temperament and behavior genetics His chapter in the "Handbook of Experimental Psychology" 1951 is considered "one of the founding statements of modern behavior genetics"3

Quantitative coding systemedit

In the 1940s, Hall began three decades of systematic work on dreams that led to many theoretical, methodological, and empirical contributions This work extended his mentor Tryon's earlier rat demonstration that they could be bred to do well or poorly in learning a maze Hall's early work on dreams was based on reports written anonymously by college students However, Hall soon was collecting reports from a plethora of types of children, older adults, people in other parts of the world, and those who kept dream diaries He had over 50,000 dream reports when he died He began his work with thematic analyses of 15 to 25 dreams from each person, looking for obvious patterns, but soon developed a quantitative coding system that divided dream content into categories such as settings, objects, characters, interactions, emotions, misfortunes, and several others "Hall's empirical work shows the dreams of groups of people from all over the world are more similar than they are different, although there are variations in terms of cultural differences At the same time, he found large individual differences in the frequency of dream elements; these differences correspond with waking concerns, emotional preoccupations, and interests, suggesting what Hall called 'continuity' between dream content and waking thought"3 His work with dream diaries showed a consistency in dream content, although there were some changes consistent with changes in the dreamers' waking lives4


In 1953, Hall developed a cognitive theory of dreams This theory states "dreams express 'conceptions' of self, family members, friends, and social environment They reveal such conceptions as 'weak,' 'assertive,' 'unloved,' 'domineering,' and 'hostile'"3 Hall also developed a metaphoric theory of dream symbolism He developed this theory through metaphoric expressions appearing in slang and poetry, with an emphasis on metaphors by George Lakoff and other cognitive linguists3 Hall believed and argued that "a dream was simply a thought or sequence of thoughts that occurred during sleep, and that dream images are visual representations of personal conceptions" In other words, "dreams reflect the dreamer's unconscious self-conception which often does not at all resemble our trumped up and distorted self-portraits' by which we fool ourselves in waking life; dreams mirror the self"5 For example, if one has a dream of being attacked by friends, this may be a manifestation of fear of friendship6 This is only true of latent dream content the underlying meaning of the dream,7 not manifest dream content the actual literal subject-matter of the dream7 "The manifest dream content is not a true reflection of the self but is a distortion of oneself and one's wishes"5 One may only infer what a dream means because there is more than one way to do something, or in other words, more than one meaning of a dream6 Hall gathered all this information from studying several thousand dreams of 'normal' people from which he did a careful comparative statistical study5

Calvin Hall’s cognitive theory was based on his belief that dreams were a conceptualization of life experiences, including the environment in which the dreamer lives in and the way the dreamer perceives himself Hall developed the following:

Concept of Selfedit

Concept of self refers to the way the dreamer sees himself and the role he plays in his life For example, money signifies power The more money there is, the more powerful the dreamer is The less money there is, the weaker the dreamer is In a dream, the dreamer may be rich However, in that same dream, the money could be taken away, or stolen This signifies that although the dreamer is powerful, he has weaknesses that are hindering his power He goes from having a lot of money, so a lot of power, to having little money, or less power8

Concept of Othersedit

Concept of others refers to the way the dreamer perceives others If the dreamer perceives his mother to be nurturing, then in the dreamer’s dreams, his mother will be portrayed as nurturing Likewise, if the dreamer perceives a friend to be selfish, then in the dream that friend will behave in a selfish manner

Concept of the Worldedit

Concept of the world refers to the dreamer’s view on the world This concept is also constantly changing, because it is dependent on the dreamer’s current life situation It varies depending on his mood If the dreamer believes the world is filled with nothing but stress, problems, and agitation, then the dream will portray hostile environments These hostile environments can include thunderstorms and traffic jams9 Furthermore, if the dreamer is thinking about the winter season, then he may dream about snow, ice, and cold weather10

Concept of Impulses, Prohibitions, and Penaltiesedit

Concept of impulses, prohibitions, and penalties refers to what the dreamer believes mankind is allowed to do, as well as what mankind is prohibited from doing11 The dreamer will have a dream with some type of problematic situation, or obstacle Within the dream, he will have impulses, or urges, to do something The manner in which the dreamer overcomes that obstacle in order to fulfill his urge reveals what the dreamer believes is allowed and what is prohibited If he believes something is okay to do, then the dreamer will do whatever that is in order to fix the problem and fulfill his urge However, if the dreamer wants to do something that will overcome the obstacle, but believes it to be prohibited, then the dreamer will not do that action9

Concept of Problems and Conflictsedit

Concept of problems and conflicts refers to the real-life problems and struggles the dreamer is experiencing These dreams may give hints to the dreamer, telling him how to solve the struggle he is undergoing12

Written worksedit

Year Title Subject
1938 "The Inheritance of Emotionality," Sigma Xi Quarterly, 26, 17-27 animal temperament
1947 "Genetic Differences in Fatal Audiogenetic Seizures between Two Inbred Strains of House Mice," Journal of Heredity, 38, 2-6 genetic basis of audiogenetic seizures in mice
1949 "The Genetics of Audiogenetic Seizures in the House Mouse," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 42, 58-63 genetic basis of audiogenetic seizures in mice
1951 "The Genetics of Behavior," The Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by S S Stevens temperament and genetics
1947 "Diagnosing Personality by the Analysis of Dreams," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 42, 68-79 first important article on dreams
1951 "What People Dream About," Scientific American, 184, 60-63 first report of quantitative findings
1951 Handbook of Experimental Psychology Hall was the author of one chapter
1953 "A Cognitive Theory of Dreams," Journal of General Psychology, 49, 273-282 highly original theoretical article on dreams
1953 The Meaning of Dreams
1953 "A Cognitive Theory of Dream Symbols," Journal of General Psychology, 48, 169-186 metaphoric theory of dream symbols
1954 A Primer of Freudian Psychology
1957 Theories of Personality
1966 The Content Analysis of Dreams coding system co-authored with Robert Van de Castle
1970 Dreams, Life, and Literature Kafka
1971 Personality of a Child Molester the child molester
1972 The Individual and His Dreams
1973 A Primer of Jungian Psychology
1994 Our Dreaming Mind, by Robert Van de Castle overview of Hall's work by his collaborator
1996 Finding Meaning in Dreams: A Quantitative Approach all reliable findings with the Hall/Van de Castle coding system by G William Domhoff
1987 "Calvin Springer Hall 1909-1985," American Psychologist, 42, 185 appreciation of Hall and his work by long-time friend and co-author, Gardner Lindzey



According to colleagues at the University of California in Santa Cruz, Hall went into semi-retirement in 1966, and "he indulged his love of great literature, classical music, and opera, took daily walks and bike rides along the ocean, and tended his flower garden"3 His wife, Irene Hannah Sanborn, from whom he had separated, died before him He died in Santa Cruz County, California in 1985 at the age of 76 of cancer1 His only child, Dovre Hall Busch, survived him3


  1. ^ a b http://lindsaygenealogytripodcom/6130htm, accessed January 10, 2015; cites as sources the following: 1 Ancestrycom, California Death Index, 1940-1997 database on-line Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc, 2000, Calvin Springer Hall Birth information as provided on record of death Original data: State of California California Death Index, 1940-1997 Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics 2 Ancestrycom, Washington Births, 1907-1919 database on-line Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc, 2002 Original data: Washington State Department of Health Washington State Births 1907-1919 Washington, USA: Department of Health 3 Ancestrycom, California Death Index, 1940-1997 database on-line Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc, 2000, Calvin Springer Hall Original data: State of California California Death Index, 1940-1997 Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics 4Mrs Charles S Sanborn obituary, Lewiston Daily Sun Lewiston, Maine, July 27, 1950, p 2 5 Mrs PH Caldwell obituary, Boston Herald Boston, Mass October 14, 1952, p 21
  2. ^ Calvin S Hall meaning | Dream Dictionary Dreams-dictionaryorg Retrieved on 25 October 2011
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Adam Schneider and G William Domhoff "Calvin Hall" dreamresearchnet Retrieved 25 October 2011
  4. ^ a b Hall, C S 1953 "A cognitive theory of dream symbols" The Journal of General Psychology 48: 169–186 doi:101080/0022130919539920189 Retrieved from dreamresearchnet 25 October 2011
  5. ^ a b c The Meaning of Dreams: By Calvin S Hall New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953 244 pp PEP Web Retrieved on 25 October 2011
  6. ^ a b Hall, C S 1953 "A cognitive theory of dreams" The Journal of General Psychology 49: 273-282 doi:101080/0022130919539710091 Abridged version in M F DeMartino Ed 1959 Dreams and Personality Dynamics pp 123-134 Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Retrieved from dreamresearchnet 30 December 2012
  7. ^ a b Latent Content - What Is Latent Content Psychologyaboutcom 17 June 2010 Retrieved on 25 October 2011
  8. ^ "Cognitive Theory | The History of Dream Analysis" dreamsumwblogsorg Retrieved 2016-04-26 
  9. ^ a b "Hall: A Cognitive Theory of Dreams" www2ucscedu Retrieved 2016-04-26 
  10. ^ Malory, Marcia "Hall and the Interpretation of Dreams | Interpreting Dreams - meaningofdreamsorg" wwwmeaningofdreamsorg Retrieved 2016-04-26 
  11. ^ "The Cognitive Theory of Dreams | dream studies portal" Retrieved 2016-04-26 
  12. ^ "Calvin S Hall and Edgar Cayce on Dreaming – The Gold Scales" oaksnvgorg Retrieved 2016-04-26 

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